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1.
Nano Lett ; 20(6): 4594-4602, 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401528

RESUMO

Bioresorbable metals are quickly advancing in the field of regenerative medicine for their promises of tissue restoration without adverse consequences from their lifelong presence. Zn has recently risen to the top of bioresorbable metals with great potential as a medical implant. However, cell adhesion and colonization on the Zn substrate surface remains challenging, which could damper interfacial tissue-implant integration. Inspired by the fact that surface topography can regulate cell function and fate, we hypothesize that topography on bioresorbable Zn can dictate material biocompatibility, cell differentiation, and immunomodulation. To verify this, surface-engineered Zn plates with nano-, submicro-, and microtopographies were systematically investigated. The microscale topography exhibited increased adhesion, pronounced self-renewal, and enhanced osteogenic differentiation of bone cells as well as less macrophage inflammatory polarization, reduced platelet adhesion, and better hemocompatibility. Thus, surface topography could be a viable strategy to enhance bioresorbable Zn's biocompatibility and integration with surrounding tissues while reducing inflammation.

2.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(46): 43500-43508, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657539

RESUMO

The artificial joints, for example, knee and hip implants, are widely used for the treatment of degenerative joint diseases and trauma. The current most common material choice for clinically used implants is the combination of polymer-on-metal structures. Unfortunately, these joints often suffer from high friction and wear, leading to associated inflammation and infection and ultimate failure of the artificial joints. Here, we propose an alternative solution to this tribologically induced failure of the joint materials. We demonstrate that the friction and wear behavior of ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and titanium tribopair, used to mimic the artificial joint interface, can be improved by introducing nanodiamond (ND) particles in the sliding contact. Characterization of the wear track using energy-dispersive spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy revealed that the tribofilm formed from embedded NDs during sliding significantly suppressed the wear of the UHMWPE surface. In addition to the improved lubrication characteristics, NDs exhibit high biocompatibility with the bone cells and promising antibacterial properties against Staphylococcus aureus, the most common strain associated with artificial joint infection. These results indicate that NDs can be used as a promising nontoxic human-body lubricant with antiwear and antibacterial features, thus demonstrating their great potential to treat artificial joint complications through intra-articular injection.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Lubrificantes , Nanodiamantes , Polietilenos , Próteses e Implantes , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Titânio , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Lubrificantes/química , Lubrificantes/farmacologia , Camundongos , Nanodiamantes/química , Nanodiamantes/uso terapêutico , Polietilenos/química , Polietilenos/farmacologia , Propriedades de Superfície , Titânio/química , Titânio/farmacologia
3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11711, 2019 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406215

RESUMO

Design of environmentally friendly lubricants derived from renewable resources is highly desirable for many practical applications. Here, Orychophragmus violaceus (Ov) seed oil is found to have superior lubrication properties, and this is based on the unusual structural features of the major lipid species-triacylglycerol (TAG) estolides. Ov TAG estolides contain two non-hydroxylated, glycerol-bound fatty acids (FAs) and one dihydroxylated FA with an estolide branch. Estolide branch chains vary in composition and length, leading to their thermal stability and functional properties. Using this concept, nature-guided estolides of castor oil were synthesized. As predicted, they showed improved lubrication properties similar to Ov seed oil. Our results demonstrate a structure-based design of novel lubricants inspired by natural materials.

4.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(33): 30154-30162, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353888

RESUMO

Here, we propose a simple approach for the design of highly porous multicomponent heterostructures by infiltration of block-co-polymer templates with inorganic precursors in swelling solvents followed by gas-phase sequential infiltration synthesis and thermal annealing. This approach can prepare conformal coatings, free-standing membranes, and powders consisting of uniformly sized metal or metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) well dispersed in a porous oxide matrix. We employed this new, versatile synthetic concept to synthesize catalytically active heterostructures of uniformly dispersed ∼4.3 nm PdO nanoparticles accessible through three-dimensional pore networks of the alumina support. Importantly, such materials reveal high resistance against sintering at 800 °C, even at relatively high loadings of NPs (∼10 wt %). At the same time, such heterostructures enable high mass transport due to highly interconnected nature of the pores. The surface of synthesized nanoparticles in the porous matrix is highly accessible, which enables their good catalytic performance in methane and carbon monoxide oxidation. In addition, we demonstrate that this approach can be utilized to synthesize heterostructures consisting of different types of NPs on a highly porous support. Our results show that swelling-based infiltration provides a promising route toward the robust and scalable synthesis of multicomponent structures.

5.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(32): 28699-28719, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339695

RESUMO

A rapid increase in the number of antibiotic-resistant bacteria urgently requires the development of new more effective yet safe materials to fight infection. Herein, we uncovered the contribution of different metal nanoparticles (NPs) (Pt, Fe, and their combination) homogeneously distributed over the surface of nanostructured TiCaPCON films in the total antibacterial activity toward eight types of clinically isolated bacterial strains (Escherichia coli K261, Klebsiella pneumoniae B1079k/17-3, Acinetobacter baumannii B1280A/17, Staphylococcus aureus no. 839, Staphylococcus epidermidis i5189-1, Enterococcus faecium Ya-235: VanA, E. faecium I-237: VanA, and E. coli U20) taking into account various factors that can affect bacterial mechanisms: surface chemistry and phase composition, wettability, ion release, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), potential difference and polarity change between NPs and the surrounding matrix, formation of microgalvanic couples on the sample surfaces, and contribution of a passive oxide layer, formed on the surface of films, to general kinetics of the NP dissolution. The results indicated that metal ion implantation and subsequent annealing significantly changed the chemistry of the TiCaPCON film surface. This, in turn, greatly affected the shedding of ions, ROS formation, potential difference between film components, and antibacterial activity. The presence of NPs was critical for ROS generation under UV or daylight irradiation. By eliminating the potential contribution of ions and ROS, we have shown that bacteria can be killed using direct microgalvanic interactions. The possibility of charge redistribution at the interfaces between Pt NPs and TiO2 (anatase and rutile), TiC, TiN, and TiCN components was demonstrated using density functional theory calculations. The TiCaPCON-supported Pt and Fe NPs were not toxic for lymphocytes and had no effect on the ability of lymphocytes to activate in response to a mitogen. This study provides new insights into understanding and designing of antibacterial yet biologically safe surfaces.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ferro , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Platina , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Humanos , Ferro/química , Ferro/farmacologia , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Teste de Materiais , Platina/química , Platina/farmacologia
6.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(27): 24349-24359, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141336

RESUMO

Fullerene (C60) and multilayer graphene hybrid devices were fabricated using electrophoretic deposition, where the C60 clusters are electrically charged upon the application of an external bias in a polar solvent, acetonitrile, mixed with toluene, which facilitates their deposition on the graphene membranes. Raman spectroscopy unveiled the unique vibrational fingerprints associated with the A2g mode of the C60 molecules at ∼1453 cm-1, while blue shifts of ∼6 and ∼17 cm-1 were also attributed to the G- and 2D-bands of the hybrids relative to bare graphene, suggestive of p-doped graphene. The intensity ratio of the G- and the 2D-bands I2D/IG (hybrid) dropped to ∼0.18 from ∼0.3 (bare graphene), and this reduction in I2D/IG is also a signature of hole-doped graphene, consistent with the relatively strong electron accepting nature of C60. The electronic conductance of the two-terminal hybrid devices increased relative to bare graphene at room temperature which was attributed to the increased carrier density, and temperature-dependent electronic transport measurements were also conducted from ambient down to ∼5.8 K. Additionally, a low energy shift in the Fermi level, EF ≈ 140 meV, was calculated for the hybrids. When the hybrid devices were irradiated with a broadband white light source and a tunable laser source (with a wavelength λ ranging from ∼400-1100 nm), a strong photoresponse was evident, in contrast to the bare graphene devices which appeared unresponsive. The responsivity R of the hybrids was measured to be ∼109 A/W at λ ≈ 400 nm and ∼298 K, while the detectivity and external quantum efficiency were also exceptional, ∼1015 jones and ∼109%, respectively, at ∼1 V and a light power density of ∼3 mW/cm2. The R values are ∼10 times higher compared to other hybrid devices derived from graphene reported previously, such as quantum dot-graphene and few-layer MoS2-graphene heterostructures. The strong photoresponse of the C60-graphene hybrids reported here is attributed to the doping enhancement arising in graphene upon the adsorption of C60. This work demonstrates the exceptional potential of such hybrid nanocarbon-based structures for optoelectronics.

7.
Langmuir ; 35(3): 796-803, 2019 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30614710

RESUMO

Infiltration of the polymer templates with inorganic precursors using the selective vapor-phase infiltration approach, or sequential infiltration synthesis (SIS), allows the design of materials with advanced properties. Swelling of the block co-polymer (BCP) templates enables the additional control of the structure, porosity, and thickness of the composite or inorganic materials. Here, we use the highly precise quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) technique to investigate quantitatively the effect of the micelle opening by swelling and inorganic precursor infiltrating on the evolution of porosity in amphiphilic BCPs. We show that swelling of the polystyrene- block-poly-4-vinyl pyridine (PS- b-P4VP) BCP in ethanol at 75 °C occurs rapidly and results in a stable polymer structure in 30 min. By using an alumina model system, we found that swelling enables access to all available polar domains of the PS- b-P4VP film leading to an increase in the SIS-infiltrated alumina mass as compared to the nonswelled BCP layer. Our results demonstrate that swelling of the 110 nm thick BCP template results in the formation of 192 nm thick alumina films with 2 times larger alumina mass and 4 times larger effective pore volume than in case of the nonswelled sample. In the case of the thicker polymer template, the difference due to swelling becomes even more substantial because the fraction of accessible polymer is increased much more than in thin films. Our findings provide important insights into the mechanism of the infiltration of the inorganic precursors into swelled and nonswelled, spin-coated BCP templates enabling the design of highly porous thick ceramic films by SIS.

8.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 9(4)2018 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30424102

RESUMO

Recent advances in graphene and other two-dimensional (2D) material synthesis and characterization have led to their use in emerging technologies, including flexible electronics. However, a major challenge is electrical contact stability, especially under mechanical straining or dynamic loading, which can be important for 2D material use in microelectromechanical systems. In this letter, we investigate the stability of dynamic electrical contacts at a graphene/metal interface using atomic force microscopy (AFM), under static conditions with variable normal loads and under sliding conditions with variable speeds. Our results demonstrate that contact resistance depends on the nature of the graphene support, specifically whether the graphene is free-standing or supported by a substrate, as well as on the contact load and sliding velocity. The results of the dynamic AFM experiments are corroborated by simulations, which show that the presence of a stiff substrate, increased load, and reduced sliding velocity lead to a more stable low-resistance contact.

9.
Nanotechnology ; 29(49): 495703, 2018 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30211698

RESUMO

Inorganic nanoporous materials with highly accessible pores are of great interest for the design of efficient catalytic, purification and detection systems. Limited access to the pores is a common problem associated with traditional approaches for the synthesis of porous materials, affecting the functionality of the low-density structure. Recently, infiltration of a nanoporous polymer template with inorganic precursors followed by oxidative annealing was proposed as a new and efficient approach to creating porous inorganic structures with controlled thickness, composition and pore sizes. Here, we report an ultra-high accessibility of the pores in porous films prepared via polymer-swelling-assisted sequential infiltration synthesis (SIS). Using a quartz crystal microbalance technique, we show the increased solvent adsorbing capabilities of highly porous alumina films as a result of high interconnectivity of the pores in such structures. The directionality and highly interconnected nature of the pores are demonstrated in experiments with the partial blocking of pore access by the deposition of a single-layer graphene that is not transparent to solvent. 60% of the pores remain accessible when only 20% of the surface is exposed to solvent. Using humidity detection as an example, we also show that highly porous alumina produced by polymer-swelling-assisted SIS is a promising candidate for sensing applications.

10.
Nat Plants ; 4(9): 711-720, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30150614

RESUMO

The biosynthesis of 'unusual' fatty acids with structures that deviate from the common C16 and C18 fatty acids has evolved numerous times in the plant kingdom. Characterization of unusual fatty acid biosynthesis has enabled increased understanding of enzyme substrate properties, metabolic plasticity and oil functionality. Here, we report the identification of a novel pathway for hydroxy fatty acid biosynthesis based on the serendipitous discovery of two C24 fatty acids containing hydroxyl groups at the 7 and 18 carbon atoms as major components of the seed oil of Orychophragmus violaceus, a China-native Brassicaceae. Biochemical and genetic evidence are presented for premature or 'discontinuous' elongation of a 3-OH intermediate by a divergent 3-ketoacyl-CoA (coenzyme A) synthase during a chain extension cycle as the origin of the 7-OH group of the dihydroxy fatty acids. Tribology studies revealed superior high-temperature lubricant properties for O. violaceus seed oil compared to castor oil, a high-performance vegetable oil lubricant. These findings provide a direct pathway for designing a new class of environmentally friendly lubricants and unveil the potential of O. violaceus as a new industrial oilseed crop.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Hidroxilação , Redes e Vias Metabólicas
11.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 1164, 2018 03 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29563513

RESUMO

Stress-induced reactions at the sliding interface during relative movement are known to cause structural or chemical modifications in contacting materials. The nature of these modifications at the atomic level and formation of byproducts in an oil-free environment, however, remain poorly understood and pose uncertainties in predicting the tribological performance of the complete tribosystem. Here, we demonstrate that tribochemical reactions occur even in dry conditions when hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (H-DLC) surface is slid against two-dimensional (2D) molybdenum disulfide along with nanodiamonds in dry nitrogen atmosphere. Detailed experimental studies coupled with reactive molecular dynamics simulations reveal that at high contact pressures, diffusion of sulfur from the dissociated molybdenum disulfide led to amorphization of nanodiamond and subsequent transformation to onion-like carbon structures (OLCs). The in situ formation of OLCs at the sliding interface provide reduced contact area as well as incommensurate contact with respect to the H-DLC surface, thus enabling successful demonstration of superlubricity.

12.
ACS Nano ; 12(3): 2122-2137, 2018 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29522673

RESUMO

Controlling friction and reducing wear of moving mechanical systems is important in many applications, from nanoscale electromechanical systems to large-scale car engines and wind turbines. Accordingly, multiple efforts are dedicated to design materials and surfaces for efficient friction and wear manipulation. Recent advances in two-dimensional (2D) materials, such as graphene, hexagonal boron nitride, molybdenum disulfide, and other 2D materials opened an era for conformal, atomically thin solid lubricants. However, the process of effectively incorporating 2D films requires a fundamental understanding of the atomistic origins of friction. In this review, we outline basic mechanisms for frictional energy dissipation during sliding of two surfaces against each other, and the procedures for manipulating friction and wear by introducing 2D materials at the tribological interface. Finally, we highlight recent progress in implementing 2D materials for friction reduction to near-zero values-superlubricity-across scales from nano- up to macroscale contacts.

13.
ACS Nano ; 11(3): 2521-2530, 2017 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28139905

RESUMO

Control over refractive index and thickness of surface coatings is central to the design of low refraction films used in applications ranging from optical computing to antireflective coatings. Here, we introduce gas-phase sequential infiltration synthesis (SIS) as a robust, powerful, and efficient approach to deposit conformal coatings with very low refractive indices. We demonstrate that the refractive indices of inorganic coatings can be efficiently tuned by the number of cycles used in the SIS process, composition, and selective swelling of the of the polymer template. We show that the refractive index of Al2O3 can be lowered from 1.76 down to 1.1 using this method. The thickness of the Al2O3 coating can be efficiently controlled by the swelling of the block copolymer template in ethanol at elevated temperature, thereby enabling deposition of both single-layer and graded-index broadband antireflective coatings. Using this technique, Fresnel reflections of glass can be reduced to as low as 0.1% under normal illumination over a broad spectral range.

14.
ACS Omega ; 2(11): 7812-7819, 2017 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31457338

RESUMO

Nanoporous conformal coating is an important class of materials for electrocatalysis, water purification, antireflective coatings, etc. Common synthesis methods of porous films often require harsh conditions (high temperature and high plasma power) or specific substrate materials. Here, we report a plasma-enhanced sequential infiltration synthesis (PE SIS) as a new platform toward deposition of nanoporous inorganic films. PE SIS is based on oxygen-plasma-induced rapid conversion of metal precursors selectively adsorbed in a block-copolymer template. Porosity and thickness of resulting materials can be easily controlled by characteristics of the template. PE SIS is conducted under gentle conditions, and can be applied to a broad range of substrates, including water-sensitive surfaces. PE SIS offers adventurous rapid infiltration with improved ability to obtain highly interconnected porous alumina films with thicknesses up to 5 µm. We show that full infiltration of the polar domain of the polymer template can be achieved upon initial exposure to TMA, followed by its oxygen-plasma-induced conversion into a functional material. Since different types of plasma (such as oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, etc.) induce conversion of a broad range of metal precursors, PE SIS opens a new approach for synthesis of highly porous materials with various elemental compositions and stoichiometries.

15.
Nat Commun ; 7: 12099, 2016 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27373740

RESUMO

The degradation of intrinsic properties of graphene during the transfer process constitutes a major challenge in graphene device fabrication, stimulating the need for direct growth of graphene on dielectric substrates. Previous attempts of metal-induced transformation of diamond and silicon carbide into graphene suffers from metal contamination and inability to scale graphene growth over large area. Here, we introduce a direct approach to transform polycrystalline diamond into high-quality graphene layers on wafer scale (4 inch in diameter) using a rapid thermal annealing process facilitated by a nickel, Ni thin film catalyst on top. We show that the process can be tuned to grow single or multilayer graphene with good electronic properties. Molecular dynamics simulations elucidate the mechanism of graphene growth on polycrystalline diamond. In addition, we demonstrate the lateral growth of free-standing graphene over micron-sized pre-fabricated holes, opening exciting opportunities for future graphene/diamond-based electronics.

16.
Science ; 348(6239): 1118-22, 2015 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25977372

RESUMO

Friction and wear remain as the primary modes of mechanical energy dissipation in moving mechanical assemblies; thus, it is desirable to minimize friction in a number of applications. We demonstrate that superlubricity can be realized at engineering scale when graphene is used in combination with nanodiamond particles and diamondlike carbon (DLC). Macroscopic superlubricity originates because graphene patches at a sliding interface wrap around nanodiamonds to form nanoscrolls with reduced contact area that slide against the DLC surface, achieving an incommensurate contact and substantially reduced coefficient of friction (~0.004). Atomistic simulations elucidate the overall mechanism and mesoscopic link bridging the nanoscale mechanics and macroscopic experimental observations.

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