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1.
Cancer Gene Ther ; 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680118

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to analyse the of expression levels of microRNA-200 family members in patients with metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Analysis of microRNA expression was performed on 23 paired DNA samples extracted from kidney tumour tissue and the surrounding normal renal parenchyma. MicroRna-200c was found to have significantly lower expression (in kidney tumour tissue compared to normal renal parenchyma. No other microRna-200 family members showed statistically significant differences in expression levels between tumour and normal kidney tissue. Recent data suggest that the role of microRNA-200c in tumour pathogenesis is rather contradictory, and the underlying mechanisms by which microRNA-200c affects the carcinogenic potential of malignant cells remains unclear and requires further investigation at the molecular level.

2.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12524, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467304

RESUMO

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder with 22 disease-causing genes reported to date. In some FA genes, monoallelic mutations have been found to be associated with breast cancer risk, while the risk associations of others remain unknown. The gene for FA type C, FANCC, has been proposed as a breast cancer susceptibility gene based on epidemiological and sequencing studies. We used the Oncoarray project to genotype two truncating FANCC variants (p.R185X and p.R548X) in 64,760 breast cancer cases and 49,793 controls of European descent. FANCC mutations were observed in 25 cases (14 with p.R185X, 11 with p.R548X) and 26 controls (18 with p.R185X, 8 with p.R548X). There was no evidence of an association with the risk of breast cancer, neither overall (odds ratio 0.77, 95%CI 0.44-1.33, p = 0.4) nor by histology, hormone receptor status, age or family history. We conclude that the breast cancer risk association of these two FANCC variants, if any, is much smaller than for BRCA1, BRCA2 or PALB2 mutations. If this applies to all truncating variants in FANCC it would suggest there are differences between FA genes in their roles on breast cancer risk and demonstrates the merit of large consortia for clarifying risk associations of rare variants.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1741, 2019 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30988301

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 170 breast cancer susceptibility loci. Here we hypothesize that some risk-associated variants might act in non-breast tissues, specifically adipose tissue and immune cells from blood and spleen. Using expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) reported in these tissues, we identify 26 previously unreported, likely target genes of overall breast cancer risk variants, and 17 for estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer, several with a known immune function. We determine the directional effect of gene expression on disease risk measured based on single and multiple eQTL. In addition, using a gene-based test of association that considers eQTL from multiple tissues, we identify seven (and four) regions with variants associated with overall (and ER-negative) breast cancer risk, which were not reported in previous GWAS. Further investigation of the function of the implicated genes in breast and immune cells may provide insights into the etiology of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Locos de Características Quantitativas
4.
Br J Cancer ; 120(6): 647-657, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30787463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We examined the associations between germline variants and breast cancer mortality using a large meta-analysis of women of European ancestry. METHODS: Meta-analyses included summary estimates based on Cox models of twelve datasets using ~10.4 million variants for 96,661 women with breast cancer and 7697 events (breast cancer-specific deaths). Oestrogen receptor (ER)-specific analyses were based on 64,171 ER-positive (4116) and 16,172 ER-negative (2125) patients. We evaluated the probability of a signal to be a true positive using the Bayesian false discovery probability (BFDP). RESULTS: We did not find any variant associated with breast cancer-specific mortality at P < 5 × 10-8. For ER-positive disease, the most significantly associated variant was chr7:rs4717568 (BFDP = 7%, P = 1.28 × 10-7, hazard ratio [HR] = 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.84-0.92); the closest gene is AUTS2. For ER-negative disease, the most significant variant was chr7:rs67918676 (BFDP = 11%, P = 1.38 × 10-7, HR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.16-1.39); located within a long intergenic non-coding RNA gene (AC004009.3), close to the HOXA gene cluster. CONCLUSIONS: We uncovered germline variants on chromosome 7 at BFDP < 15% close to genes for which there is biological evidence related to breast cancer outcome. However, the paucity of variants associated with mortality at genome-wide significance underpins the challenge in providing genetic-based individualised prognostic information for breast cancer patients.

5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(1): 21-34, 2019 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30554720

RESUMO

Stratification of women according to their risk of breast cancer based on polygenic risk scores (PRSs) could improve screening and prevention strategies. Our aim was to develop PRSs, optimized for prediction of estrogen receptor (ER)-specific disease, from the largest available genome-wide association dataset and to empirically validate the PRSs in prospective studies. The development dataset comprised 94,075 case subjects and 75,017 control subjects of European ancestry from 69 studies, divided into training and validation sets. Samples were genotyped using genome-wide arrays, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected by stepwise regression or lasso penalized regression. The best performing PRSs were validated in an independent test set comprising 11,428 case subjects and 18,323 control subjects from 10 prospective studies and 190,040 women from UK Biobank (3,215 incident breast cancers). For the best PRSs (313 SNPs), the odds ratio for overall disease per 1 standard deviation in ten prospective studies was 1.61 (95%CI: 1.57-1.65) with area under receiver-operator curve (AUC) = 0.630 (95%CI: 0.628-0.651). The lifetime risk of overall breast cancer in the top centile of the PRSs was 32.6%. Compared with women in the middle quintile, those in the highest 1% of risk had 4.37- and 2.78-fold risks, and those in the lowest 1% of risk had 0.16- and 0.27-fold risks, of developing ER-positive and ER-negative disease, respectively. Goodness-of-fit tests indicated that this PRS was well calibrated and predicts disease risk accurately in the tails of the distribution. This PRS is a powerful and reliable predictor of breast cancer risk that may improve breast cancer prevention programs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/classificação , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Anamnese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco
6.
Genome Biol ; 19(1): 139, 2018 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30241495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The genetic origins of Uralic speakers from across a vast territory in the temperate zone of North Eurasia have remained elusive. Previous studies have shown contrasting proportions of Eastern and Western Eurasian ancestry in their mitochondrial and Y chromosomal gene pools. While the maternal lineages reflect by and large the geographic background of a given Uralic-speaking population, the frequency of Y chromosomes of Eastern Eurasian origin is distinctively high among European Uralic speakers. The autosomal variation of Uralic speakers, however, has not yet been studied comprehensively. RESULTS: Here, we present a genome-wide analysis of 15 Uralic-speaking populations which cover all main groups of the linguistic family. We show that contemporary Uralic speakers are genetically very similar to their local geographical neighbours. However, when studying relationships among geographically distant populations, we find that most of the Uralic speakers and some of their neighbours share a genetic component of possibly Siberian origin. Additionally, we show that most Uralic speakers share significantly more genomic segments identity-by-descent with each other than with geographically equidistant speakers of other languages. We find that correlated genome-wide genetic and lexical distances among Uralic speakers suggest co-dispersion of genes and languages. Yet, we do not find long-range genetic ties between Estonians and Hungarians with their linguistic sisters that would distinguish them from their non-Uralic-speaking neighbours. CONCLUSIONS: We show that most Uralic speakers share a distinct ancestry component of likely Siberian origin, which suggests that the spread of Uralic languages involved at least some demic component.

7.
Nat Genet ; 50(7): 968-978, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29915430

RESUMO

The breast cancer risk variants identified in genome-wide association studies explain only a small fraction of the familial relative risk, and the genes responsible for these associations remain largely unknown. To identify novel risk loci and likely causal genes, we performed a transcriptome-wide association study evaluating associations of genetically predicted gene expression with breast cancer risk in 122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European ancestry. We used data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression Project to establish genetic models to predict gene expression in breast tissue and evaluated model performance using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Of the 8,597 genes evaluated, significant associations were identified for 48 at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P < 5.82 × 10-6, including 14 genes at loci not yet reported for breast cancer. We silenced 13 genes and showed an effect for 11 on cell proliferation and/or colony-forming efficiency. Our study provides new insights into breast cancer genetics and biology.

8.
Nat Genet ; 49(12): 1767-1778, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29058716

RESUMO

Most common breast cancer susceptibility variants have been identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of predominantly estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease. We conducted a GWAS using 21,468 ER-negative cases and 100,594 controls combined with 18,908 BRCA1 mutation carriers (9,414 with breast cancer), all of European origin. We identified independent associations at P < 5 × 10-8 with ten variants at nine new loci. At P < 0.05, we replicated associations with 10 of 11 variants previously reported in ER-negative disease or BRCA1 mutation carrier GWAS and observed consistent associations with ER-negative disease for 105 susceptibility variants identified by other studies. These 125 variants explain approximately 16% of the familial risk of this breast cancer subtype. There was high genetic correlation (0.72) between risk of ER-negative breast cancer and breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers. These findings may lead to improved risk prediction and inform further fine-mapping and functional work to better understand the biological basis of ER-negative breast cancer.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/etnologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
9.
Nature ; 551(7678): 92-94, 2017 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29059683

RESUMO

Breast cancer risk is influenced by rare coding variants in susceptibility genes, such as BRCA1, and many common, mostly non-coding variants. However, much of the genetic contribution to breast cancer risk remains unknown. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study of breast cancer in 122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European ancestry and 14,068 cases and 13,104 controls of East Asian ancestry. We identified 65 new loci that are associated with overall breast cancer risk at P < 5 × 10-8. The majority of credible risk single-nucleotide polymorphisms in these loci fall in distal regulatory elements, and by integrating in silico data to predict target genes in breast cells at each locus, we demonstrate a strong overlap between candidate target genes and somatic driver genes in breast tumours. We also find that heritability of breast cancer due to all single-nucleotide polymorphisms in regulatory features was 2-5-fold enriched relative to the genome-wide average, with strong enrichment for particular transcription factor binding sites. These results provide further insight into genetic susceptibility to breast cancer and will improve the use of genetic risk scores for individualized screening and prevention.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Ásia/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Simulação por Computador , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
10.
Sci Rep ; 7: 46044, 2017 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28387361

RESUMO

Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup U is among the initial maternal founders in Southwest Asia and Europe and one that best indicates matrilineal genetic continuity between late Pleistocene hunter-gatherer groups and present-day populations of Europe. While most haplogroup U subclades are older than 30 thousand years, the comparatively recent coalescence time of the extant variation of haplogroup U7 (~16-19 thousand years ago) suggests that its current distribution is the consequence of more recent dispersal events, despite its wide geographical range across Europe, the Near East and South Asia. Here we report 267 new U7 mitogenomes that - analysed alongside 100 published ones - enable us to discern at least two distinct temporal phases of dispersal, both of which most likely emanated from the Near East. The earlier one began prior to the Holocene (~11.5 thousand years ago) towards South Asia, while the later dispersal took place more recently towards Mediterranean Europe during the Neolithic (~8 thousand years ago). These findings imply that the carriers of haplogroup U7 spread to South Asia and Europe before the suggested Bronze Age expansion of Indo-European languages from the Pontic-Caspian Steppe region.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Evolução Molecular , Haplótipos/genética , Teorema de Bayes , Geografia , Humanos , Mutação/genética , Filogenia
11.
Nat Genet ; 49(5): 680-691, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28346442

RESUMO

To identify common alleles associated with different histotypes of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), we pooled data from multiple genome-wide genotyping projects totaling 25,509 EOC cases and 40,941 controls. We identified nine new susceptibility loci for different EOC histotypes: six for serous EOC histotypes (3q28, 4q32.3, 8q21.11, 10q24.33, 18q11.2 and 22q12.1), two for mucinous EOC (3q22.3 and 9q31.1) and one for endometrioid EOC (5q12.3). We then performed meta-analysis on the results for high-grade serous ovarian cancer with the results from analysis of 31,448 BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, including 3,887 mutation carriers with EOC. This identified three additional susceptibility loci at 2q13, 8q24.1 and 12q24.31. Integrated analyses of genes and regulatory biofeatures at each locus predicted candidate susceptibility genes, including OBFC1, a new candidate susceptibility gene for low-grade and borderline serous EOC.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Alelos , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Mutação , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Proteínas de Ligação a Telômeros/genética
12.
Genet Med ; 19(5): 599-603, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27711073

RESUMO

PURPOSE: CHEK2*1100delC is a founder variant in European populations that confers a two- to threefold increased risk of breast cancer (BC). Epidemiologic and family studies have suggested that the risk associated with CHEK2*1100delC is modified by other genetic factors in a multiplicative fashion. We have investigated this empirically using data from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). METHODS: Using genotype data from 39,139 (624 1100delC carriers) BC patients and 40,063 (224) healthy controls from 32 BCAC studies, we analyzed the combined risk effects of CHEK2*1100delC and 77 common variants in terms of a polygenic risk score (PRS) and pairwise interaction. RESULTS: The PRS conferred odds ratios (OR) of 1.59 (95% CI: 1.21-2.09) per standard deviation for BC for CHEK2*1100delC carriers and 1.58 (1.55-1.62) for noncarriers. No evidence of deviation from the multiplicative model was found. The OR for the highest quintile of the PRS was 2.03 (0.86-4.78) for CHEK2*1100delC carriers, placing them in the high risk category according to UK NICE guidelines. The OR for the lowest quintile was 0.52 (0.16-1.74), indicating a lifetime risk close to the population average. CONCLUSION: Our results confirm the multiplicative nature of risk effects conferred by CHEK2*1100delC and the common susceptibility variants. Furthermore, the PRS could identify carriers at a high lifetime risk for clinical actions.Genet Med advance online publication 06 October 2016.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Deleção de Sequência , Feminino , Genes Modificadores , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Penetrância
13.
Breast Cancer Res ; 18(1): 64, 2016 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27459855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs10771399, at 12p11 that is associated with breast cancer risk. METHOD: We performed a fine-scale mapping study of a 700 kb region including 441 genotyped and more than 1300 imputed genetic variants in 48,155 cases and 43,612 controls of European descent, 6269 cases and 6624 controls of East Asian descent and 1116 cases and 932 controls of African descent in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC; http://bcac.ccge.medschl.cam.ac.uk/ ), and in 15,252 BRCA1 mutation carriers in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). Stepwise regression analyses were performed to identify independent association signals. Data from the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements project (ENCODE) and the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were used for functional annotation. RESULTS: Analysis of data from European descendants found evidence for four independent association signals at 12p11, represented by rs7297051 (odds ratio (OR) = 1.09, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.06-1.12; P = 3 × 10(-9)), rs805510 (OR = 1.08, 95 % CI = 1.04-1.12, P = 2 × 10(-5)), and rs1871152 (OR = 1.04, 95 % CI = 1.02-1.06; P = 2 × 10(-4)) identified in the general populations, and rs113824616 (P = 7 × 10(-5)) identified in the meta-analysis of BCAC ER-negative cases and BRCA1 mutation carriers. SNPs rs7297051, rs805510 and rs113824616 were also associated with breast cancer risk at P < 0.05 in East Asians, but none of the associations were statistically significant in African descendants. Multiple candidate functional variants are located in putative enhancer sequences. Chromatin interaction data suggested that PTHLH was the likely target gene of these enhancers. Of the six variants with the strongest evidence of potential functionality, rs11049453 was statistically significantly associated with the expression of PTHLH and its nearby gene CCDC91 at P < 0.05. CONCLUSION: This study identified four independent association signals at 12p11 and revealed potentially functional variants, providing additional insights into the underlying biological mechanism(s) for the association observed between variants at 12p11 and breast cancer risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos Humanos Par 12 , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Alelos , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Epigênese Genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Mutação , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Vigilância da População , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Risco
14.
J Clin Oncol ; 34(23): 2750-60, 2016 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27269948

RESUMO

PURPOSE: CHEK2*1100delC is a well-established breast cancer risk variant that is most prevalent in European populations; however, there are limited data on risk of breast cancer by age and tumor subtype, which limits its usefulness in breast cancer risk prediction. We aimed to generate tumor subtype- and age-specific risk estimates by using data from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium, including 44,777 patients with breast cancer and 42,997 controls from 33 studies genotyped for CHEK2*1100delC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: CHEK2*1100delC genotyping was mostly done by a custom Taqman assay. Breast cancer odds ratios (ORs) for CHEK2*1100delC carriers versus noncarriers were estimated by using logistic regression and adjusted for study (categorical) and age. Main analyses included patients with invasive breast cancer from population- and hospital-based studies. RESULTS: Proportions of heterozygous CHEK2*1100delC carriers in controls, in patients with breast cancer from population- and hospital-based studies, and in patients with breast cancer from familial- and clinical genetics center-based studies were 0.5%, 1.3%, and 3.0%, respectively. The estimated OR for invasive breast cancer was 2.26 (95%CI, 1.90 to 2.69; P = 2.3 × 10(-20)). The OR was higher for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease (2.55 [95%CI, 2.10 to 3.10; P = 4.9 × 10(-21)]) than it was for ER-negative disease (1.32 [95%CI, 0.93 to 1.88; P = .12]; P interaction = 9.9 × 10(-4)). The OR significantly declined with attained age for breast cancer overall (P = .001) and for ER-positive tumors (P = .001). Estimated cumulative risks for development of ER-positive and ER-negative tumors by age 80 in CHEK2*1100delC carriers were 20% and 3%, respectively, compared with 9% and 2%, respectively, in the general population of the United Kingdom. CONCLUSION: These CHEK2*1100delC breast cancer risk estimates provide a basis for incorporating CHEK2*1100delC into breast cancer risk prediction models and into guidelines for intensified screening and follow-up.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/química , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Receptores Estrogênicos/análise , Receptores de Progesterona/análise , Medição de Risco , Deleção de Sequência
15.
Fam Cancer ; 14(1): 145-9, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25182961

RESUMO

A nonsense mutation, p.Q548X, in the BLM gene has recently been associated with an increased risk for breast cancer. In the present work, we investigated the prevalence of this Slavic founder mutation in 2,561 ovarian cancer cases from Russia, Belarus, Poland, Lithuania or Germany and compared its frequency with 6,205 ethnically matched healthy female controls. The p.Q548X allele was present in nine ovarian cancer patients of Slavic ancestry (0.5 %; including one case with concurrent BRCA1 mutation). The mutation was not significantly more frequent in cases than in controls (Mantel-Haenszel OR 1.14, 95 % CI 0.49; 2.67). Ovarian tumours in p.Q548X carriers were mainly of the serous subtype, and there was little evidence for an early age at diagnosis or pronounced family history of cancer. These findings indicate that the BLM p.Q548X mutation is not a strong risk factor for ovarian cancer.


Assuntos
Códon sem Sentido , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , RecQ Helicases/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Efeito Fundador , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
16.
PLoS One ; 9(1): e85334, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24465539

RESUMO

The ERCC4 protein forms a structure-specific endonuclease involved in the DNA damage response. Different cancer syndromes such as a subtype of Xeroderma pigmentosum, XPF, and recently a subtype of Fanconi Anemia, FA-Q, have been attributed to biallelic ERCC4 gene mutations. To investigate whether monoallelic ERCC4 gene defects play some role in the inherited component of breast cancer susceptibility, we sequenced the whole ERCC4 coding region and flanking untranslated portions in a series of 101 Byelorussian and German breast cancer patients selected for familial disease (set 1, n = 63) or for the presence of the rs1800067 risk haplotype (set 2, n = 38). This study confirmed six known and one novel exonic variants, including four missense substitutions but no truncating mutation. Missense substitution p.R415Q (rs1800067), a previously postulated breast cancer susceptibility allele, was subsequently screened for in a total of 3,698 breast cancer cases and 2,868 controls from Germany, Belarus or Russia. The Gln415 allele appeared protective against breast cancer in the German series, with the strongest effect for ductal histology (OR 0.67; 95%CI 0.49; 0.92; p = 0.003), but this association was not confirmed in the other two series, with the combined analysis yielding an overall Mantel-Haenszel OR of 0.94 (95% CI 0.81; 1.08). There was no significant effect of p.R415Q on breast cancer survival in the German patient series. The other three detected ERCC4 missense mutations included two known rare variants as well as a novel substitution, p.E17V, that we identified on a p.R415Q haplotype background. The p.E17V mutation is predicted to be probably damaging but was present in just one heterozygous patient. We conclude that the contribution of ERCC4/FANCQ coding mutations to hereditary breast cancer in Central and Eastern Europe is likely to be small.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/congênito , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação , Adulto , Alelos , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Europa Oriental , Éxons , Feminino , Alemanha , Haplótipos , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
17.
Fam Cancer ; 13(2): 137-42, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24061862

RESUMO

Inherited mutations in PALB2 are known to be associated with increased breast cancer risk. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and risk association of a recurrent PALB2 mutation, c.509_510delGA, among 3,924 unselected breast cancer patients from Belarus, Russia or Germany. High-resolution melting analyses and direct sequencing identified the c.509_510delGA allele in 3/1,008 (0.3 %) German breast cancer patients, 2/994 (0.2 %) Russian breast cancer patients and 5/1,922 (0.3 %) Byelorussian breast cancer patients. Breast tumours were mainly estrogen receptor positive and included both ductal and lobular histology. Only one of the ten patients had a first-degree family history of breast cancer. The mutation was not detected in 2,827 healthy females from the same populations, confirming the association of PALB2*c.509_510delGA with breast cancer risk (p = 0.007). These data indicate that the PALB2*c.509_510delGA mutation is prevalent in about 1 in 400 breast cancer patients from Central and Eastern Europe, and the low occurrence of familial clustering is consistent with a moderate penetrance of this mutation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/genética , Carcinoma Lobular/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Deleção de Sequência , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Sequência de Bases , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação N da Anemia de Fanconi , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Alemanha , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Penetrância , República de Belarus , Federação Russa
18.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 137(2): 533-9, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23225144

RESUMO

Bloom's syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive chromosomal instability disorder with a high incidence of various types of neoplasia, including breast cancer. Whether monoallelic BLM mutations predispose to breast cancer has been a long-standing question. A nonsense mutation, p.Q548X, has recently been associated with an increased risk for breast cancer in a Russian case-control study. In the present work, we have investigated the prevalence of this Slavic BLM founder mutation in a total of 3,188 breast cancer cases and 2,458 controls from Bashkortostan, Belarus, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan. The p.Q548X allele was most frequent in Russian patients (0.8 %) but was also prevalent in Byelorussian and Ukrainian patients (0.5 and 0.6 %, respectively), whereas it was absent in Altaic or other non-European subpopulations. In a combined analysis of our four case-control series, the p.Q548X mutation was significantly associated with breast cancer (Mantel-Haenszel OR 5.1, 95 % CI 1.2; 21.9, p = 0.03). A meta-analysis with the previous study from the St. Petersburg area corroborates the association (OR 5.7, 95 % CI 2.0; 15.9, p = 3.7 × 10(-4)). A meta-analysis for all published truncating mutations further supports the association of BLM with breast cancer, with an estimated two- to five-fold increase in risk (OR 3.3, 95 %CI 1.9; 5.6, p = 1.9 × 10(-5)). Altogether, these data indicate that BLM is not only a gene for Bloom's syndrome but also might represent a breast cancer susceptibility gene.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Códon sem Sentido , RecQ Helicases/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bashkiria , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Cazaquistão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República de Belarus , Ucrânia
19.
Nat Genet ; 41(5): 585-90, 2009 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19330027

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified seven breast cancer susceptibility loci, but these explain only a small fraction of the familial risk of the disease. Five of these loci were identified through a two-stage GWAS involving 390 familial cases and 364 controls in the first stage, and 3,990 cases and 3,916 controls in the second stage. To identify additional loci, we tested over 800 promising associations from this GWAS in a further two stages involving 37,012 cases and 40,069 controls from 33 studies in the CGEMS collaboration and Breast Cancer Association Consortium. We found strong evidence for additional susceptibility loci on 3p (rs4973768: per-allele OR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.08-1.13, P = 4.1 x 10(-23)) and 17q (rs6504950: per-allele OR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.92-0.97, P = 1.4 x 10(-8)). Potential causative genes include SLC4A7 and NEK10 on 3p and COX11 on 17q.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 3/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/metabolismo , Feminino , Genoma Humano , Genótipo , Humanos
20.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 118(1): 207-11, 2009 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18807267

RESUMO

Blood relatives of patients with ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) have an increased risk to develop breast cancer. Allelic heterogeneity has made it difficult to confirm the role of ATM, the gene mutated in A-T, for breast cancer susceptibility in the general population. We now report that a nonsense mutation, p.E1978X (c.5932G>T), is both a classical A-T mutation and a breast cancer susceptibility allele in Eastern European populations. In a case-control study from Belarus, the E1978X mutation was identified in 10/1,891 Byelorussian breast cancer cases (0.5%) compared with 1/1,019 population controls [odds ratio (OR): 5.4; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.7-42.4, P = 0.1]. A second case-control study from Russia identified the E1978X mutation in two Russian and one Ukrainian cases out of 611 breast cancer patients but not in any Russian or Ukrainian controls (P = 0.1). In a third case-control study from Poland, E1978X was observed in 7/3,910 Polish breast cancer cases (0.2%) compared with 1/2,010 cancer-free population controls (OR: 3.6; 95% CI: 0.4-29.3, P = 0.4). In the combined analysis, E1978X was significantly associated with breast cancer (Mantel-Haenszel OR: 5.6, 95% CI: 1.3-21.4, P = 0.01). Taken together, this study provides first evidence for the association of a common A-T causing mutation with breast cancer in Eastern European founder populations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/genética , Carcinoma Lobular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Códon sem Sentido , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Mutação Puntual , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adulto , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/etnologia , Carcinoma Lobular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Lobular/etnologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/fisiologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/fisiologia , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Efeito Fundador , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Polônia/epidemiologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/fisiologia , República de Belarus/epidemiologia , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/fisiologia , Ucrânia/epidemiologia , Ucrânia/etnologia
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