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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1078, 2021 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597508

RESUMO

Breast cancer (BC) risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers varies by genetic and familial factors. About 50 common variants have been shown to modify BC risk for mutation carriers. All but three, were identified in general population studies. Other mutation carrier-specific susceptibility variants may exist but studies of mutation carriers have so far been underpowered. We conduct a novel case-only genome-wide association study comparing genotype frequencies between 60,212 general population BC cases and 13,007 cases with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. We identify robust novel associations for 2 variants with BC for BRCA1 and 3 for BRCA2 mutation carriers, P < 10-8, at 5 loci, which are not associated with risk in the general population. They include rs60882887 at 11p11.2 where MADD, SP11 and EIF1, genes previously implicated in BC biology, are predicted as potential targets. These findings will contribute towards customising BC polygenic risk scores for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

2.
Br J Cancer ; 124(4): 842-854, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies provide strong evidence for a role of endogenous sex hormones in the aetiology of breast cancer. The aim of this analysis was to identify genetic variants that are associated with urinary sex-hormone levels and breast cancer risk. METHODS: We carried out a genome-wide association study of urinary oestrone-3-glucuronide and pregnanediol-3-glucuronide levels in 560 premenopausal women, with additional analysis of progesterone levels in 298 premenopausal women. To test for the association with breast cancer risk, we carried out follow-up genotyping in 90,916 cases and 89,893 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. All women were of European ancestry. RESULTS: For pregnanediol-3-glucuronide, there were no genome-wide significant associations; for oestrone-3-glucuronide, we identified a single peak mapping to the CYP3A locus, annotated by rs45446698. The minor rs45446698-C allele was associated with lower oestrone-3-glucuronide (-49.2%, 95% CI -56.1% to -41.1%, P = 3.1 × 10-18); in follow-up analyses, rs45446698-C was also associated with lower progesterone (-26.7%, 95% CI -39.4% to -11.6%, P = 0.001) and reduced risk of oestrogen and progesterone receptor-positive breast cancer (OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.82-0.91, P = 6.9 × 10-8). CONCLUSIONS: The CYP3A7*1C allele is associated with reduced risk of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer possibly mediated via an effect on the metabolism of endogenous sex hormones in premenopausal women.

3.
N Engl J Med ; 384(5): 428-439, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic testing for breast cancer susceptibility is widely used, but for many genes, evidence of an association with breast cancer is weak, underlying risk estimates are imprecise, and reliable subtype-specific risk estimates are lacking. METHODS: We used a panel of 34 putative susceptibility genes to perform sequencing on samples from 60,466 women with breast cancer and 53,461 controls. In separate analyses for protein-truncating variants and rare missense variants in these genes, we estimated odds ratios for breast cancer overall and tumor subtypes. We evaluated missense-variant associations according to domain and classification of pathogenicity. RESULTS: Protein-truncating variants in 5 genes (ATM, BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, and PALB2) were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall with a P value of less than 0.0001. Protein-truncating variants in 4 other genes (BARD1, RAD51C, RAD51D, and TP53) were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall with a P value of less than 0.05 and a Bayesian false-discovery probability of less than 0.05. For protein-truncating variants in 19 of the remaining 25 genes, the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval of the odds ratio for breast cancer overall was less than 2.0. For protein-truncating variants in ATM and CHEK2, odds ratios were higher for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease than for ER-negative disease; for protein-truncating variants in BARD1, BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, RAD51C, and RAD51D, odds ratios were higher for ER-negative disease than for ER-positive disease. Rare missense variants (in aggregate) in ATM, CHEK2, and TP53 were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall with a P value of less than 0.001. For BRCA1, BRCA2, and TP53, missense variants (in aggregate) that would be classified as pathogenic according to standard criteria were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall, with the risk being similar to that of protein-truncating variants. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study define the genes that are most clinically useful for inclusion on panels for the prediction of breast cancer risk, as well as provide estimates of the risks associated with protein-truncating variants, to guide genetic counseling. (Funded by European Union Horizon 2020 programs and others.).


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Risco , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests a relationship between endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer. Independent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer have identified 16 and 27 risk regions, respectively, four of which overlap between the two cancers. We aimed to identify joint endometrial and ovarian cancer risk loci by performing a meta-analysis of GWAS summary statistics from these two cancers. METHODS: Using LDScore regression, we explored the genetic correlation between endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer. To identify loci associated with the risk of both cancers, we implemented a pipeline of statistical genetic analyses (i.e. inverse-variance meta-analysis, co-localization, and M-values), and performed analyses stratified by subtype. Candidate target genes were then prioritized using functional genomic data. RESULTS: Genetic correlation analysis revealed significant genetic correlation between the two cancers (rG = 0.43, P = 2.66 × 10-5). We found seven loci associated with risk for both cancers (PBonferroni < 2.4 × 10-9). In addition, four novel sub-genome wide regions at 7p22.2, 7q22.1, 9p12 and 11q13.3 were identified (P < 5 × 10-7). Promoter-associated HiChIP chromatin loops from immortalized endometrium and ovarian cell lines, and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) data highlighted candidate target genes for further investigation. CONCLUSION: Using cross-cancer GWAS meta-analysis, we have identified several joint endometrial and ovarian cancer risk loci and candidate target genes for future functional analysis. IMPACT: Our research highlights the shared genetic relationship between endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer. Further studies in larger sample sets are required to confirm our findings.

5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(5): 837-848, 2020 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022221

RESUMO

Previous research has shown that polygenic risk scores (PRSs) can be used to stratify women according to their risk of developing primary invasive breast cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the association between a recently validated PRS of 313 germline variants (PRS313) and contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk. We included 56,068 women of European ancestry diagnosed with first invasive breast cancer from 1990 onward with follow-up from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Metachronous CBC risk (N = 1,027) according to the distribution of PRS313 was quantified using Cox regression analyses. We assessed PRS313 interaction with age at first diagnosis, family history, morphology, ER status, PR status, and HER2 status, and (neo)adjuvant therapy. In studies of Asian women, with limited follow-up, CBC risk associated with PRS313 was assessed using logistic regression for 340 women with CBC compared with 12,133 women with unilateral breast cancer. Higher PRS313 was associated with increased CBC risk: hazard ratio per standard deviation (SD) = 1.25 (95%CI = 1.18-1.33) for Europeans, and an OR per SD = 1.15 (95%CI = 1.02-1.29) for Asians. The absolute lifetime risks of CBC, accounting for death as competing risk, were 12.4% for European women at the 10th percentile and 20.5% at the 90th percentile of PRS313. We found no evidence of confounding by or interaction with individual characteristics, characteristics of the primary tumor, or treatment. The C-index for the PRS313 alone was 0.563 (95%CI = 0.547-0.586). In conclusion, PRS313 is an independent factor associated with CBC risk and can be incorporated into CBC risk prediction models to help improve stratification and optimize surveillance and treatment strategies.

6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 9688, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546843

RESUMO

In breast cancer, high levels of homeobox protein Hox-B13 (HOXB13) have been associated with disease progression of ER-positive breast cancer patients and resistance to tamoxifen treatment. Since HOXB13 p.G84E is a prostate cancer risk allele, we evaluated the association between HOXB13 germline mutations and breast cancer risk in a previous study consisting of 3,270 familial non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer cases and 2,327 controls from the Netherlands. Although both recurrent HOXB13 mutations p.G84E and p.R217C were not associated with breast cancer risk, the risk estimation for p.R217C was not very precise. To provide more conclusive evidence regarding the role of HOXB13 in breast cancer susceptibility, we here evaluated the association between HOXB13 mutations and increased breast cancer risk within 81 studies of the international Breast Cancer Association Consortium containing 68,521 invasive breast cancer patients and 54,865 controls. Both HOXB13 p.G84E and p.R217C did not associate with the development of breast cancer in European women, neither in the overall analysis (OR = 1.035, 95% CI = 0.859-1.246, P = 0.718 and OR = 0.798, 95% CI = 0.482-1.322, P = 0.381 respectively), nor in specific high-risk subgroups or breast cancer subtypes. Thus, although involved in breast cancer progression, HOXB13 is not a material breast cancer susceptibility gene.

7.
Nat Genet ; 52(6): 572-581, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424353

RESUMO

Breast cancer susceptibility variants frequently show heterogeneity in associations by tumor subtype1-3. To identify novel loci, we performed a genome-wide association study including 133,384 breast cancer cases and 113,789 controls, plus 18,908 BRCA1 mutation carriers (9,414 with breast cancer) of European ancestry, using both standard and novel methodologies that account for underlying tumor heterogeneity by estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status and tumor grade. We identified 32 novel susceptibility loci (P < 5.0 × 10-8), 15 of which showed evidence for associations with at least one tumor feature (false discovery rate < 0.05). Five loci showed associations (P < 0.05) in opposite directions between luminal and non-luminal subtypes. In silico analyses showed that these five loci contained cell-specific enhancers that differed between normal luminal and basal mammary cells. The genetic correlations between five intrinsic-like subtypes ranged from 0.35 to 0.80. The proportion of genome-wide chip heritability explained by all known susceptibility loci was 54.2% for luminal A-like disease and 37.6% for triple-negative disease. The odds ratios of polygenic risk scores, which included 330 variants, for the highest 1% of quantiles compared with middle quantiles were 5.63 and 3.02 for luminal A-like and triple-negative disease, respectively. These findings provide an improved understanding of genetic predisposition to breast cancer subtypes and will inform the development of subtype-specific polygenic risk scores.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Mutação , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
8.
Genet Epidemiol ; 44(5): 442-468, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115800

RESUMO

Previous transcriptome-wide association studies (TWAS) have identified breast cancer risk genes by integrating data from expression quantitative loci and genome-wide association studies (GWAS), but analyses of breast cancer subtype-specific associations have been limited. In this study, we conducted a TWAS using gene expression data from GTEx and summary statistics from the hitherto largest GWAS meta-analysis conducted for breast cancer overall, and by estrogen receptor subtypes (ER+ and ER-). We further compared associations with ER+ and ER- subtypes, using a case-only TWAS approach. We also conducted multigene conditional analyses in regions with multiple TWAS associations. Two genes, STXBP4 and HIST2H2BA, were specifically associated with ER+ but not with ER- breast cancer. We further identified 30 TWAS-significant genes associated with overall breast cancer risk, including four that were not identified in previous studies. Conditional analyses identified single independent breast-cancer gene in three of six regions harboring multiple TWAS-significant genes. Our study provides new information on breast cancer genetics and biology, particularly about genomic differences between ER+ and ER- breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genômica , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Transcriptoma , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/genética
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 312, 2020 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31949161

RESUMO

Identifying the underlying genetic drivers of the heritability of breast cancer prognosis remains elusive. We adapt a network-based approach to handle underpowered complex datasets to provide new insights into the potential function of germline variants in breast cancer prognosis. This network-based analysis studies ~7.3 million variants in 84,457 breast cancer patients in relation to breast cancer survival and confirms the results on 12,381 independent patients. Aggregating the prognostic effects of genetic variants across multiple genes, we identify four gene modules associated with survival in estrogen receptor (ER)-negative and one in ER-positive disease. The modules show biological enrichment for cancer-related processes such as G-alpha signaling, circadian clock, angiogenesis, and Rho-GTPases in apoptosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Células Germinativas , Apoptose , Relógios Circadianos , Biologia Computacional , Feminino , Subunidades alfa de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Subunidades alfa Gq-G11 de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Genótipo , Humanos , Prognóstico , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Transdução de Sinais
10.
Nat Genet ; 52(1): 56-73, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911677

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have identified breast cancer risk variants in over 150 genomic regions, but the mechanisms underlying risk remain largely unknown. These regions were explored by combining association analysis with in silico genomic feature annotations. We defined 205 independent risk-associated signals with the set of credible causal variants in each one. In parallel, we used a Bayesian approach (PAINTOR) that combines genetic association, linkage disequilibrium and enriched genomic features to determine variants with high posterior probabilities of being causal. Potentially causal variants were significantly over-represented in active gene regulatory regions and transcription factor binding sites. We applied our INQUSIT pipeline for prioritizing genes as targets of those potentially causal variants, using gene expression (expression quantitative trait loci), chromatin interaction and functional annotations. Known cancer drivers, transcription factors and genes in the developmental, apoptosis, immune system and DNA integrity checkpoint gene ontology pathways were over-represented among the highest-confidence target genes.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico , Fatores de Risco
11.
Cancer Gene Ther ; 27(10-11): 768-772, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680118

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to analyse the of expression levels of microRNA-200 family members in patients with metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Analysis of microRNA expression was performed on 23 paired DNA samples extracted from kidney tumour tissue and the surrounding normal renal parenchyma. MicroRna-200c was found to have significantly lower expression (in kidney tumour tissue compared to normal renal parenchyma. No other microRna-200 family members showed statistically significant differences in expression levels between tumour and normal kidney tissue. Recent data suggest that the role of microRNA-200c in tumour pathogenesis is rather contradictory, and the underlying mechanisms by which microRNA-200c affects the carcinogenic potential of malignant cells remains unclear and requires further investigation at the molecular level.

12.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 179(3): 731-742, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754952

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Germline variants in known breast cancer (BC) predisposing genes explain less than half of hereditary BC cases. This study aimed to identify missing genetic determinants of BC. METHODS: Whole exome sequencing (WES) of lymphocyte DNA was performed for 49 Russian patients with clinical signs of genetic BC predisposition, who lacked Slavic founder mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, and NBS1 genes. RESULTS: Bioinformatic analysis of WES data was allowed to compile a list of 229 candidate mutations. 79 of these mutations were subjected to a three-stage case-control analysis. The initial two stages, which involved up to 797 high-risk BC patients, 1504 consecutive BC cases, and 1081 healthy women, indicated a potentially BC-predisposing role for 6 candidates, i.e., USP39 c.*208G > C, PZP p.Arg680Ter, LEPREL1 p.Pro636Ser, SLIT3 p.Arg154Cys, CREB3 p.Lys157Glu, and ING1 p.Pro319Leu. USP39 c.*208G > C was strongly associated with triple-negative breast tumors (p = 0.0001). In the third replication stage, we genotyped the truncating variant of PZP (rs145240281) and the potential splice variant of USP39 (rs112653307) in three independent cohorts of Russian, Byelorussian, and German ancestry, comprising a total of 3216 cases and 2525 controls. The data obtained for USP39 rs112653307 supported the association identified in the initial stages (the combined OR 1.72, p = 0.035). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests the role of a rare splicing variant in BC susceptibility. USP39 encodes an ubiquitin-specific peptidase that regulates cancer-relevant tumor suppressors including CHEK2. Further epidemiological and functional studies involving these gene variants are warranted.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteases Específicas de Ubiquitina/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Alelos , Processamento Alternativo , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Biologia Computacional , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Federação Russa
13.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 5: 38, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31700994

RESUMO

Breast cancer is a common disease partially caused by genetic risk factors. Germline pathogenic variants in DNA repair genes BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, ATM, and CHEK2 are associated with breast cancer risk. FANCM, which encodes for a DNA translocase, has been proposed as a breast cancer predisposition gene, with greater effects for the ER-negative and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtypes. We tested the three recurrent protein-truncating variants FANCM:p.Arg658*, p.Gln1701*, and p.Arg1931* for association with breast cancer risk in 67,112 cases, 53,766 controls, and 26,662 carriers of pathogenic variants of BRCA1 or BRCA2. These three variants were also studied functionally by measuring survival and chromosome fragility in FANCM -/- patient-derived immortalized fibroblasts treated with diepoxybutane or olaparib. We observed that FANCM:p.Arg658* was associated with increased risk of ER-negative disease and TNBC (OR = 2.44, P = 0.034 and OR = 3.79; P = 0.009, respectively). In a country-restricted analysis, we confirmed the associations detected for FANCM:p.Arg658* and found that also FANCM:p.Arg1931* was associated with ER-negative breast cancer risk (OR = 1.96; P = 0.006). The functional results indicated that all three variants were deleterious affecting cell survival and chromosome stability with FANCM:p.Arg658* causing more severe phenotypes. In conclusion, we confirmed that the two rare FANCM deleterious variants p.Arg658* and p.Arg1931* are risk factors for ER-negative and TNBC subtypes. Overall our data suggest that the effect of truncating variants on breast cancer risk may depend on their position in the gene. Cell sensitivity to olaparib exposure, identifies a possible therapeutic option to treat FANCM-associated tumors.

14.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12524, 2019 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467304

RESUMO

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder with 22 disease-causing genes reported to date. In some FA genes, monoallelic mutations have been found to be associated with breast cancer risk, while the risk associations of others remain unknown. The gene for FA type C, FANCC, has been proposed as a breast cancer susceptibility gene based on epidemiological and sequencing studies. We used the Oncoarray project to genotype two truncating FANCC variants (p.R185X and p.R548X) in 64,760 breast cancer cases and 49,793 controls of European descent. FANCC mutations were observed in 25 cases (14 with p.R185X, 11 with p.R548X) and 26 controls (18 with p.R185X, 8 with p.R548X). There was no evidence of an association with the risk of breast cancer, neither overall (odds ratio 0.77, 95%CI 0.44-1.33, p = 0.4) nor by histology, hormone receptor status, age or family history. We conclude that the breast cancer risk association of these two FANCC variants, if any, is much smaller than for BRCA1, BRCA2 or PALB2 mutations. If this applies to all truncating variants in FANCC it would suggest there are differences between FA genes in their roles on breast cancer risk and demonstrates the merit of large consortia for clarifying risk associations of rare variants.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação C da Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Deleção de Sequência , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação C da Anemia de Fanconi/metabolismo , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Humanos
15.
Front Oncol ; 9: 493, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31259151

RESUMO

CDK12 is a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase family that acts as regulator of DNA damage response gene expression. A c.1047-2A>G splice site variant of the CDK12 gene was recently reported to strongly associate with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer in patients of Tatar ethnic origin. To gain more insight into the potential risk and the population spread of the c.1047-2A>G variant, we have genotyped three breast cancer case-control series of Tatar, Bashkir and Kazakh ethnicity. We identified c.1047-2A>G in 6/155 cases and 12/362 controls of Tatar ancestry, 0/96 cases and 9/189 controls of Bashkir ancestry, and 1/131 cases and 0/154 controls of Kazakh ancestry (Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio 0.72, 95% CI 0.30-1.70, p = 0.45). Consistent with the absence of a large effect, bioinformatic analyses predicted that c.1047-2A>G modulates alternative splicing of a NAGNAG sequence rather than constituting a loss-of-function allele, and RT-PCR analyses of c.1047-2A>G heterozygous lymphocytes verified the usage of the predicted alternative acceptor site. Our study confirms a high prevalence of CDK12*c.1047-2A>G in the Tatar and Bashkir population but excludes a role as a clinically actionable high-risk breast cancer mutation.

16.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1741, 2019 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30988301

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 170 breast cancer susceptibility loci. Here we hypothesize that some risk-associated variants might act in non-breast tissues, specifically adipose tissue and immune cells from blood and spleen. Using expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) reported in these tissues, we identify 26 previously unreported, likely target genes of overall breast cancer risk variants, and 17 for estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer, several with a known immune function. We determine the directional effect of gene expression on disease risk measured based on single and multiple eQTL. In addition, using a gene-based test of association that considers eQTL from multiple tissues, we identify seven (and four) regions with variants associated with overall (and ER-negative) breast cancer risk, which were not reported in previous GWAS. Further investigation of the function of the implicated genes in breast and immune cells may provide insights into the etiology of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Locos de Características Quantitativas
17.
Br J Cancer ; 120(6): 647-657, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30787463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We examined the associations between germline variants and breast cancer mortality using a large meta-analysis of women of European ancestry. METHODS: Meta-analyses included summary estimates based on Cox models of twelve datasets using ~10.4 million variants for 96,661 women with breast cancer and 7697 events (breast cancer-specific deaths). Oestrogen receptor (ER)-specific analyses were based on 64,171 ER-positive (4116) and 16,172 ER-negative (2125) patients. We evaluated the probability of a signal to be a true positive using the Bayesian false discovery probability (BFDP). RESULTS: We did not find any variant associated with breast cancer-specific mortality at P < 5 × 10-8. For ER-positive disease, the most significantly associated variant was chr7:rs4717568 (BFDP = 7%, P = 1.28 × 10-7, hazard ratio [HR] = 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.84-0.92); the closest gene is AUTS2. For ER-negative disease, the most significant variant was chr7:rs67918676 (BFDP = 11%, P = 1.38 × 10-7, HR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.16-1.39); located within a long intergenic non-coding RNA gene (AC004009.3), close to the HOXA gene cluster. CONCLUSIONS: We uncovered germline variants on chromosome 7 at BFDP < 15% close to genes for which there is biological evidence related to breast cancer outcome. However, the paucity of variants associated with mortality at genome-wide significance underpins the challenge in providing genetic-based individualised prognostic information for breast cancer patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Teorema de Bayes , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Cromossomos Humanos Par 7 , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo
18.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(1): 21-34, 2019 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30554720

RESUMO

Stratification of women according to their risk of breast cancer based on polygenic risk scores (PRSs) could improve screening and prevention strategies. Our aim was to develop PRSs, optimized for prediction of estrogen receptor (ER)-specific disease, from the largest available genome-wide association dataset and to empirically validate the PRSs in prospective studies. The development dataset comprised 94,075 case subjects and 75,017 control subjects of European ancestry from 69 studies, divided into training and validation sets. Samples were genotyped using genome-wide arrays, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected by stepwise regression or lasso penalized regression. The best performing PRSs were validated in an independent test set comprising 11,428 case subjects and 18,323 control subjects from 10 prospective studies and 190,040 women from UK Biobank (3,215 incident breast cancers). For the best PRSs (313 SNPs), the odds ratio for overall disease per 1 standard deviation in ten prospective studies was 1.61 (95%CI: 1.57-1.65) with area under receiver-operator curve (AUC) = 0.630 (95%CI: 0.628-0.651). The lifetime risk of overall breast cancer in the top centile of the PRSs was 32.6%. Compared with women in the middle quintile, those in the highest 1% of risk had 4.37- and 2.78-fold risks, and those in the lowest 1% of risk had 0.16- and 0.27-fold risks, of developing ER-positive and ER-negative disease, respectively. Goodness-of-fit tests indicated that this PRS was well calibrated and predicts disease risk accurately in the tails of the distribution. This PRS is a powerful and reliable predictor of breast cancer risk that may improve breast cancer prevention programs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/classificação , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Anamnese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco
19.
Genome Biol ; 19(1): 139, 2018 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30241495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The genetic origins of Uralic speakers from across a vast territory in the temperate zone of North Eurasia have remained elusive. Previous studies have shown contrasting proportions of Eastern and Western Eurasian ancestry in their mitochondrial and Y chromosomal gene pools. While the maternal lineages reflect by and large the geographic background of a given Uralic-speaking population, the frequency of Y chromosomes of Eastern Eurasian origin is distinctively high among European Uralic speakers. The autosomal variation of Uralic speakers, however, has not yet been studied comprehensively. RESULTS: Here, we present a genome-wide analysis of 15 Uralic-speaking populations which cover all main groups of the linguistic family. We show that contemporary Uralic speakers are genetically very similar to their local geographical neighbours. However, when studying relationships among geographically distant populations, we find that most of the Uralic speakers and some of their neighbours share a genetic component of possibly Siberian origin. Additionally, we show that most Uralic speakers share significantly more genomic segments identity-by-descent with each other than with geographically equidistant speakers of other languages. We find that correlated genome-wide genetic and lexical distances among Uralic speakers suggest co-dispersion of genes and languages. Yet, we do not find long-range genetic ties between Estonians and Hungarians with their linguistic sisters that would distinguish them from their non-Uralic-speaking neighbours. CONCLUSIONS: We show that most Uralic speakers share a distinct ancestry component of likely Siberian origin, which suggests that the spread of Uralic languages involved at least some demic component.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Demografia , Genes , Variação Genética , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Linguística , Dinâmica Populacional
20.
Nat Genet ; 50(7): 968-978, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29915430

RESUMO

The breast cancer risk variants identified in genome-wide association studies explain only a small fraction of the familial relative risk, and the genes responsible for these associations remain largely unknown. To identify novel risk loci and likely causal genes, we performed a transcriptome-wide association study evaluating associations of genetically predicted gene expression with breast cancer risk in 122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European ancestry. We used data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression Project to establish genetic models to predict gene expression in breast tissue and evaluated model performance using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Of the 8,597 genes evaluated, significant associations were identified for 48 at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P < 5.82 × 10-6, including 14 genes at loci not yet reported for breast cancer. We silenced 13 genes and showed an effect for 11 on cell proliferation and/or colony-forming efficiency. Our study provides new insights into breast cancer genetics and biology.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Risco , Transcriptoma
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