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1.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 52, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33451361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With visceral leishmaniasis (VL) incidence at its lowest level since the 1960s, increasing attention has turned to early detection and investigation of outbreaks. METHODS: Outbreak investigations were triggered by recognition of case clusters in the VL surveillance system established for the elimination program. Investigations included ascertainment of all VL cases by date of fever onset, household mapping and structured collection of risk factor data. RESULTS: VL outbreaks were investigated in 13 villages in 10 blocks of 7 districts. Data were collected for 20,670 individuals, of whom 272 were diagnosed with VL between 2012 and 2019. Risk was significantly higher among 10-19 year-olds and adults 35 or older compared to children younger than 10 years. Outbreak confirmation triggered vector control activities and heightened surveillance. VL cases strongly clustered in tolas (hamlets within villages) in which > 66% of residents self-identified as scheduled caste or scheduled tribe (SC/ST); 79.8% of VL cases occurred in SC/ST tolas whereas only 24.2% of the population resided in them. Other significant risk factors included being an unskilled non-agricultural laborer, migration for work in a brick kiln, living in a kuccha (mud brick) house, household crowding, habitually sleeping outside or on the ground, and open defecation. CONCLUSIONS: Our data highlight the importance of sensitive surveillance with triggers for case cluster detection and rapid, careful outbreak investigations to better respond to ongoing and new transmission. The strong association with SC/ST tolas suggests that efforts should focus on enhanced surveillance in these disadvantaged communities.

2.
Am J Clin Pathol ; 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399201

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Serologic testing for antibodies to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in potential donors of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescent plasma (CCP) may not be performed until after blood donation. A hospital-based recruitment program for CCP may be an efficient way to identify potential donors prospectively. METHODS: Patients who recovered from known or suspected COVID-19 were identified and recruited through medical record searches and public appeals in March and April 2020. Participants were screened with a modified donor history questionnaire and, if eligible, were asked for consent and tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (IgG and IgM). Participants positive for SARS-CoV-2 IgG were referred for CCP collection. RESULTS: Of 179 patients screened, 128 completed serologic testing and 89 were referred for CCP donation. IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 were detected in 23 of 51 participants with suspected COVID-19 and 66 of 77 participants with self-reported COVID-19 confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG level met the US Food and Drug Administration criteria for "high-titer" CCP in 39% of participants confirmed by PCR, as measured by the Ortho VITROS IgG assay. A wide range of SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels were observed. CONCLUSIONS: A hospital-based CCP donor recruitment program can prospectively identify potential CCP donors. Variability in SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels has implications for the selection of CCP units for transfusion.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(2): 301-308, 2021 01 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33501951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection can be detected indirectly by measuring the host immune response. For some viruses, antibody concentrations correlate with host protection and viral neutralization, but in rare cases, antiviral antibodies can promote disease progression. Elucidation of the kinetics and magnitude of the SARS-CoV-2 antibody response is essential to understand the pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and identify potential therapeutic targets. METHODS: Sera (n = 533) from patients with real-time polymerase chain reaction-confirmed COVID-19 (n = 94 with acute infections and n = 59 convalescent patients) were tested using a high-throughput quantitative immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) assay that detects antibodies to the spike protein receptor binding domain and nucleocapsid protein. Individual and serial samples covered the time of initial diagnosis, during the disease course, and following recovery. We evaluated antibody kinetics and correlation between magnitude of the response and disease severity. RESULTS: Patterns of SARS-CoV-2 antibody production varied considerably. Among 52 patients with 3 or more serial specimens, 44 (84.6%) and 42 (80.8%) had observed IgM and IgG seroconversion at a median of 8 and 10 days, respectively. Compared to those with milder disease, peak measurements were significantly higher for patients admitted to the intensive care unit for all time intervals between 6 and 20 days for IgM, and all intervals after 5 days for IgG. CONCLUSIONS: High-sensitivity assays with a robust dynamic range provide a comprehensive picture of host antibody response to SARS-CoV-2. IgM and IgG responses were significantly higher in patients with severe than mild disease. These differences may affect strategies for seroprevalence studies, therapeutics, and vaccine development.


Assuntos
Formação de Anticorpos , Anticorpos Antivirais , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M , Cinética , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(Supplement_3): S205-S213, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33258932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Typhoid fever is endemic in the urban Kathmandu Valley of Nepal; however, there have been no population-based studies of typhoid outside of this community in the past 3 decades. Whether typhoid immunization should be prioritized in periurban and rural communities has been unclear. METHODS: We performed population-based surveillance for enteric fever in 1 urban catchment (Kathmandu) and 1 periurban and rural catchment (Kavrepalanchok) as part of the Surveillance for Enteric Fever in Asia Project (SEAP). We recruited individuals presenting to outpatient and emergency departments at 2 study hospitals with suspected enteric fever and performed blood cultures. Additionally, we conducted a household survey in each catchment area to characterize care seeking for febrile illness. We evaluated spatial heterogeneity in febrile illness, care seeking, and enteric fever incidence. RESULTS: Between September 2016 and September 2019, we enrolled 5736 participants with suspected enteric fever at 2 study hospitals. Among these, 304 (5.3%) were culture positive for Salmonella Typhi (249 [81.9%]) or Paratyphi A (55 [18.1%]). Adjusted typhoid incidence in Kathmandu was 484 per 100 000 person-years and in Kavrepalanchok was 615 per 100 000 person-years. While all geographic areas for which estimates could be made had incidence >200 per 100 000 person-years, we observed spatial heterogeneity with up to 10-fold variation in incidence between communities. CONCLUSIONS: In urban, periurban, and rural communities in and around Kathmandu, we measured a high but heterogenous incidence of typhoid. These findings provide some support for the introduction of conjugate vaccines in Nepal, including outside urban areas, alongside other measures to prevent enteric fever.

5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(Supplement_3): S239-S247, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33258933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Implementation of population-based surveys is resource intensive and logistically demanding, especially in areas with rapidly changing demographics and incomplete or no enumeration of the underlying population and their residences. To remove the need for pre-enumeration and to simplify field logistics for the population healthcare utilization survey used for the Surveillance for Enteric Fever in Asia Project in Nepal, we incorporated a geographic information system-based geosurvey and field mapping system into a single-stage cluster sampling approach. METHODS: A survey was administered to ascertain healthcare-seeking behavior in individuals with recent suspected enteric fever. Catchment areas were based on residential addresses of enteric fever patients using study facilities; clusters were randomly selected from digitally created grids using available satellite images and all households within clusters were offered enrollment. A tablet-compatible geosurvey and mapping system that allowed for data-syncing and use in areas without cellular data was created using the ArcGIS suite of software. RESULTS: Between January 2017 and November 2018, we surveyed 25 521 households in Nepal (16 769 in urban Kathmandu and 8752 in periurban Kavrepalanchok), representing 84 202 individuals. Overall, the survey participation rate was 90.9%, with geographic heterogeneity in participation rates within each catchment area. Areas with higher average household wealth had lower participation rates. CONCLUSION: A geographic information system-based geosurvey and field mapping system allowed creation of a virtual household map at the same time as survey administration, enabling a single-stage cluster sampling method to assess healthcare utilization in Nepal for the Surveillance for Enteric Fever in Asia Project . This system removed the need for pre-enumeration of households in sampling areas, simplified logistics and could be replicated in future community surveys.

6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(10): e0008774, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079934

RESUMO

Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) due to Leishmania donovani is a neglected protozoan parasitic disease in humans, which is usually fatal if untreated. Phlebotomus orientalis, the predominant VL vector in East Africa, is a highly exophilic/exophagic species that poses a major challenge to current Integrated Vector Management (IVM). Here we report results of pilot studies conducted in rural villages in Gedarif state, Sudan, to evaluate outdoor residual spraying of 20mg active ingredient (a.i.) /m2 deltamethrin insecticide applied to the characteristic household compound boundary reed fence and to the outside of household buildings (Outdoor Residual Insecticide Spraying, ODRS), and as an alternative, spraying restricted to the boundary fence only (Restricted Outdoor Residual Insecticide Spraying, RODRS). Four to six clusters of 20 households were assigned to insecticide treatments or control in three experiments. Changes in sand fly numbers were monitored over 2,033 trap-nights over 43-76 days follow-up in four sentinel houses per cluster relative to unsprayed control clusters. Sand fly numbers were monitored by sticky traps placed on the ground on the inside ("outdoor") and the outside ("peridomestic") of the boundary fence, and by CDC light traps suspended outdoors in the household compound. The effects of ODRS on sand fly numbers inside sleeping huts were monitored by insecticide knockdown. After a single application, ODRS reduced P. orientalis abundance by 83%-99% in outdoor and peridomestic trap locations. ODRS also reduced numbers of P. orientalis found resting inside sleeping huts. RODRS reduced outdoor and peridomestic P. orientalis by 60%-88%. By direct comparison, RODRS was 58%-100% as effective as ODRS depending on the trapping method. These impacts were immediate on intervention and persisted during follow-up, representing a large fraction of the P. orientalis activity season. Relative costs of ODRS and RODRS delivery were $5.76 and $3.48 per household, respectively. The study demonstrates the feasibility and high entomological efficacy of ODRS and RODRS, and the expected low costs relative to current IVM practises. These methods represent novel sand fly vector control tools against predominantly exophilic/exophagic sand fly vectors, aimed to lower VL burdens in Sudan, with potential application in other endemic regions in East Africa.

7.
EClinicalMedicine ; 27: 100561, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043286

RESUMO

Background: Norovirus (NV) causes acute gastroenteritis in infants. Humoral and fecal immunoglobulin A (IgA) responses have been correlated with protection against NV; however, the role of breast milk IgA against NV infection and associated diarrhea is still unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the protective role of NV-specific IgA (NV-IgA) in breast milk. Methods: Ninety-five breast milk samples collected from mothers enrolled in a 2016-2017 Peruvian birth cohort study were tested for total IgA and NV-IgA by ELISA using GII·4 variants and non-GII·4 genotype virus-like particles (VLPs). Breast milk samples were grouped according to the NV infection and diarrheal status of infants: NV positive with diarrhea (NV+D+, n=18); NV positive without diarrhea (NV+D-, n=37); and NV negative without diarrhea (NV-D-, n=40). The percent positivity and titer of NV-IgA were compared among groups. The cross-reactivity was estimated based on the correlation of ratio between NV-IgA against GII·4 variants and non-GII·4 genotype VLPs. Findings: NV-IgA had high positivity rates against different VLPs, especially against GII (89-100%). The NV+D- group had higher percent positivity (89% vs. 61%, p=0·03) and median titer (1:100 vs 1:50, p=0·03) of NV-IgA than the NV+D+ group against GI·1 VLPs. A relatively high correlation between different GII·4 variants (0·87) and low correlation between genogroups (0·23-0·37) were observed. Interpretation: Mothers with high positivity rates and titers of NV-IgA in breast milk had NV infected infants with reduced diarrheal symptoms. Antigenic relatedness to the genetic diversity of human norovirus was suggested.Funding National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Health: 1R01AI108695-01A1 and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (Fostering Joint International Research B):19KK0241.

8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(41): 25742-25750, 2020 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32973088

RESUMO

Understanding of spatiotemporal transmission of infectious diseases has improved significantly in recent years. Advances in Bayesian inference methods for individual-level geo-located epidemiological data have enabled reconstruction of transmission trees and quantification of disease spread in space and time, while accounting for uncertainty in missing data. However, these methods have rarely been applied to endemic diseases or ones in which asymptomatic infection plays a role, for which additional estimation methods are required. Here, we develop such methods to analyze longitudinal incidence data on visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and its sequela, post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL), in a highly endemic community in Bangladesh. Incorporating recent data on VL and PKDL infectiousness, we show that while VL cases drive transmission when incidence is high, the contribution of PKDL increases significantly as VL incidence declines (reaching 55% in this setting). Transmission is highly focal: 85% of mean distances from inferred infectors to their secondary VL cases were <300 m, and estimated average times from infector onset to secondary case infection were <4 mo for 88% of VL infectors, but up to 2.9 y for PKDL infectors. Estimated numbers of secondary cases per VL and PKDL case varied from 0 to 6 and were strongly correlated with the infector's duration of symptoms. Counterfactual simulations suggest that prevention of PKDL could have reduced overall VL incidence by up to 25%. These results highlight the need for prompt detection and treatment of PKDL to achieve VL elimination in the Indian subcontinent and provide quantitative estimates to guide spatiotemporally targeted interventions against VL.

9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32766826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The diversity of individuals at risk for Trypanosoma cruzi infection in the U.S. poses challenges for diagnosis. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of FDA-cleared tests in the Washington Metropolitan area (WMA). METHODS: 1514 individuals living were evaluated (1078 from Mexico, Central and northern South America [TcI-predominant areas], and 436 from southern South America [TcII/V/VI-predominant areas]). OD values from the Hemagen EIA and Chagatest v.3 Wiener, and categorical results of the IgG-TESA-blot (Western Blot with Trypomastigote Excretory-Secretory Antigen), and the Chagas Detect Plus (CDP), as well as information of area of origin were used to determine T. cruzi serostatus using Latent Class Analysis. RESULTS: We detected two latent class (LC) of seropositives with low (LC1) and high (LC2) antibody levels. A significantly lower number of seropositives were detected by the Wiener, IgG-TESA-blot, and CDP in LC1 (60.6%, p<0.001, 93.1%, p=0.014, and 84.9%, p=0.002, respectively) as compared to LC2 (100%, 100%, and 98.2%, respectively). LC1 was the main type of seropositives in TcI-predominant areas, representing 65.0% of all seropositives as opposed to 22.8% in TcII/V/VI-predominant areas. The highest sensitivity was observed for the Hemagen (100%, 95% CI: 96.2-100.0), but this test has a low specificity (90.4%, 95% CI: 88.7-91.9). The best balance between positive (90.9%, 95% CI: 83.5-95.1), and negative (99.9%, 95% CI: 99.4-99.9) predictive values was obtained with the Wiener. CONCLUSION: Deficiencies in current FDA-cleared assays were observed. Low antibody levels are the main type of seropositives in individuals from TcI-predominant areas, the most frequent immigrant group in the U.S.

10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0008429, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few prospective data exist on incidence of post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) relapse after different treatment regimens. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A Phase IV trial included 1761 VL patients treated between 2012-2014 with single dose AmBisome (SDA; N = 891), miltefosine-paromomycin (Milt-PM; n = 512), or AmBisome-miltefosine (AmB-Milt; n = 358). Follow-up for PKDL and VL relapse was scheduled for 6, 12 and 24 months after treatment, lasting until 2017. Patients with lesions consistent with PKDL were tested by rK39 rapid test, and if positive, underwent skin-snip sampling, smear microscopy and PCR. Probable PKDL was defined by consistent lesions and positive rK39; confirmed PKDL required additional positive microscopy or PCR. PKDL and relapse incidence density were calculated by VL treatment and risk factors evaluated in Cox proportional hazards models. Among 1,750 patients who completed treatment, 79 had relapse and 104 PKDL. Relapse incidence density was 1.58, 2.08 and 0.40 per 1000 person-months for SDA, AmB-Milt and Milt-PM, respectively. PKDL incidence density was 1.29, 1.45 and 2.65 per 1000 person-months for SDA, AmB-Milt and Milt-PM. In multivariable models, patients treated with Milt-PM had lower relapse but higher PKDL incidence than those treated with SDA; AmB-Milt rates were not significantly different from those for SDA. Children <12 years were at higher risk for both outcomes; females had a higher risk of PKDL but not relapse. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Active surveillance for PKDL and relapse, followed by timely treatment, is essential to sustain the achievements of VL elimination programs in the Indian sub-continent.


Assuntos
Anfotericina B/administração & dosagem , Antiprotozoários/administração & dosagem , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Índia/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/patologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Adulto Jovem
11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of congenital Chagas disease (CChD) in most endemic areas is based on low-sensitive microscopy at birth and 9-month IgG, which has poor adherence. We aim to evaluate the accuracy of the IgM-Shed Acute Phase Antigen (IgM-SAPA) test in the diagnosis of CChD at birth. METHODS: Two cohort studies (training and validation cohorts) were conducted in three hospitals in the department of Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Pregnant women were screened for Chagas disease, and all infants born to seropositive mothers were followed for up to nine months to diagnose CChD. A composite reference standard was used to determine congenital infection and was based on the parallel use of microscopy, qPCR, and IgM-TESA-blot (Trypomastigote Excreted-Secreted Antigens) at birth and/or 1-month, and/or the detection of anti-Trypanosomacruzi IgG at 6- or 9- months. The diagnostic accuracy of the IgM-SAPA-test was calculated at birth against the composite reference standard. RESULTS: Adherence to the 6- or 9-month follow-up ranged from 43.8% to 59.7%. Most cases of CChD (training and validation cohort: 76.5% and 83.7%, respectively) were detected during the first month of life using the combination of microscopy, qPCR and/or IgM-TESA-blot. Results from the validation cohort showed that when only one infant sample obtained at birth was evaluated, the qPCR and the IgM-SAPA-test have similar accuracy (sensitivity: range 79.1% to 97.1%, and 76.7% to 94.3%, respectively, and specificity: 99.5%, and 92.6%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The IgM-SAPA-test has the potential to be implemented as an early diagnostic tool in areas that currently rely only on microscopy.

12.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infection can be detected indirectly by measuring the host immune response. For some viruses, antibody concentrations correlate with host protection and viral neutralization, but in rare cases, anti-viral antibodies can promote disease progression. Elucidation of the kinetics and magnitude of the SARS-CoV-2 antibody response is essential to understand the pathogenesis of COVID-19 and identify potential therapeutic targets. METHODS: Sera (n=533) from patients with RT-PCR confirmed COVID-19 (n=94 with acute infections and n=59 convalescent patients) were tested using a high-throughput quantitative IgM and IgG assay that detects antibodies to the spike protein receptor binding domain and nucleocapsid protein. Individual and serial samples covered the time of initial diagnosis, during the disease course, and following recovery. We evaluated antibody kinetics and correlation between magnitude of the response and disease severity. RESULTS: Patterns of SARS-CoV-2 antibody production varied considerably. Among 52 patients with 3 or more serial specimens, 44 (84.6%) and 42 (80.8%) had observed IgM and IgG seroconversion at a median of 8 and 10 days, respectively. Compared to those with milder disease, peak measurements were significantly higher for patients admitted to the intensive care unit for all time intervals between 6 and 20 days for IgM, and all intervals after 5 days for IgG. CONCLUSIONS: High sensitivity assays with a robust dynamic range provide a comprehensive picture of host antibody response to SARS-CoV-2. IgM and IgG responses were significantly higher in patients with severe than mild disease. These differences may affect strategies for seroprevalence studies, therapeutics and vaccine development.

13.
Transfusion ; 60(6): 1149-1153, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blood products appropriately stored for research protocols provide an invaluable resource for amassing large numbers of specimens for clinical research, especially for low-prevalence diseases, such as Chagas disease. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We evaluated serologic results of 500 blood donation plasma component (PC) specimens confirmed as Trypanosoma cruzi seropositive by Food and Drug Administration-recommended algorithms. Subsets were retested using the T. cruzi enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA; Ortho Clinical Diagnostics) and PRISM Chagas assay (Abbott Laboratories). Initial results for vacutainer-derived venous serum (VS) and PC specimens with matching results were also compared. RESULTS: On initial testing, matrix effects between VS and PC were observed with ELISA demonstrating a mean change in the PC of -0.39 signal/cutoff ratio (S/CO) (p < 0.0001) and PRISM of +0.35 S/CO (p = 0.008). In matched PC specimens between current (retest) versus initial test results, both ELISA and PRISM had a decrease in mean S/COs of -0.76 (p < 0.0001) and - 0.90 (p < 0.0001), respectively. When the change in S/CO for matched PC specimens was analyzed as a function of time, PRISM showed no significant S/CO decrease (Y = -0.002941*X - 0.6250; p = 0.20; R2 = 0.005), whereas the ELISA showed a significant S/CO decrease in more recently collected specimens (Y = 0.007183*X-1.516; p < 0.0001; R2 = 0.06). CONCLUSION: While T. cruzi serology results showed minor but significant differences in matrix effects between initial VS and PC testing values, and minor changes in PC test values over time, our data validate the use of PC specimens for head-to-head test performance comparison studies with the caveat that these limitations are assessed for appropriate study design.

14.
Clin Microbiol Rev ; 33(1)2019 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776135

RESUMO

Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiological agent of Chagas disease, usually transmitted by triatomine vectors. An estimated 20 to 30% of infected individuals develop potentially lethal cardiac or gastrointestinal disease. Sylvatic transmission cycles exist in the southern United States, involving 11 triatomine vector species and infected mammals such as rodents, opossums, and dogs. Nevertheless, imported chronic T. cruzi infections in migrants from Latin America vastly outnumber locally acquired human cases. Benznidazole is now FDA approved, and clinical and public health efforts are under way by researchers and health departments in a number of states. Making progress will require efforts to improve awareness among providers and patients, data on diagnostic test performance and expanded availability of confirmatory testing, and evidence-based strategies to improve access to appropriate management of Chagas disease in the United States.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Trypanosoma cruzi , Doença de Chagas/diagnóstico , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Gerenciamento Clínico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Humanos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Epidemiologia Molecular , Fenótipo , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Trypanosoma cruzi/classificação , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(9): e0007726, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An earlier open label, prospective, non-randomized, non-comparative, multi-centric study conducted within public health facilities in Bihar, India (CTRI/2012/08/002891) measured the field effectiveness of three new treatment regimens for visceral leishmaniasis (VL): single dose AmBisome (SDA), and combination therapies of AmBisome and miltefosine (AmB+Milt) and miltefosine and paromomycin (Milt+PM) up to 6 months follow-up. The National Vector Borne Disease Control Program (NVBDCP) recommended an extended follow up at 12 months post-treatment of the original study cohort to quantify late relapses. METHODS: The 1,761 patients enrolled in the original study with the three new regimens were contacted and traced between 10 and 36 months following completion of treatment to determine their health status and any occurrence of VL relapse. RESULTS: Of 1,761 patients enrolled in the original study, 1,368 were traced at the extended follow-up visit: 711 (80.5%), 295 (83.2%) and 362 (71.5%) patients treated with SDA, AmB+Milt and Milt+PM respectively. Of those traced, a total of 75 patients were reported to have relapsed by the extended follow-up; 45 (6.3%) in the SDA, 25 (8.5%) in the AmB+Milt and 5 (1.4%) in the Milt+PM arms. Of the 75 relapse cases, 55 had already been identified in the 6-months follow-up and 20 were identified as new cases of relapse at extended follow-up; 7 in the SDA, 10 in the AmB+Milt and 3 in the Milt+PM arms. CONCLUSION: Extending follow-up beyond the standard 6 months identified additional relapses, suggesting that 12-month sentinel follow-up may be useful as a programmatic tool to better identify and quantify relapses. With limited drug options, there remains an urgent need to develop effective new chemical entities (NCEs) for VL.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Leishmaniose Visceral/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Paromomicina/uso terapêutico , Fosforilcolina/análogos & derivados , Fosforilcolina/uso terapêutico , Recidiva , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(9): e0007724, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a parasitic disease, transmitted by the sand fly species Phlebotomus argentipes in the Indian sub-continent. Effective vector control is highly desirable to reduce vector density and human and vector contact in the endemic communities with the aim to curtail disease transmission. We evaluated the effect of long lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLIN) and bed nets impregnated with slow-release insecticide tablet K-O TAB 1-2-3 (jointly insecticide-treated nets or ITN) on VL incidence in a highly endemic sub-district (upazila) in Bangladesh. METHODS: Several distributions of LLIN or K-O TAB 1-2-3 for self-impregnation of bed nets at home took place in Fulbaria upazila, Mymensigh district from 2004 to 2008 under three research projects, respectively funded by CDC, Atlanta, USA (2004) and WHO-TDR, Geneva, Switzerland (2006 & 2008). We included all households (n = 8142) in the 20 villages that had benefited in the past from one of these interventions (1295 donated LLIN and 11,918 local bed nets impregnated with K-O TAB 1-2-3) in the "exposed cohort". We recruited a "non-exposed cohort" in villages with contemporaneously similar incidence rates who had not received such vector control interventions (7729 HHs from nine villages). In both cohorts, we visited all families house to house and ascertained any VL cases for the 3 year period before and after the intervention. We evaluated the incidence rate (IR) of VL in both cohorts as primary endpoint, applying the difference-in-differences method. RESULTS: The study identified 1011 VL cases (IR 140.47/10,000 per year [py]) before the intervention, of which 534 and 477 cases in the intervention and control areas respectively. The IR was 144.13/10,000 py (534/37050) and 136.59/10,000 py (477/34923) in the intervention and control areas respectively, with no significant difference (p = 0.3901) before the intervention. After the intervention, a total of 555 cases (IR 77.11/10,000 py) were identified of which 178 (IR 48.04/10,000 py) in the intervention and 377 (107.95/10,000 py) in the control area. The intervention area had a significant lower IR than the control area during follow up, rate difference = -59.91, p<0.0001. The IR during follow up was significantly reduced by 96.09/10,000 py in the intervention area (p<0.0001) and 28.63/10,000 py in control area (p<0.0001) compared to baseline. There was a strong and significant overall effect of the ITN intervention, δ = -67.45, p <0.0001. Sex (OR = 1.36, p<0.0001) and age (OR = 0.99, p<0.0001) also had a significant effect on VL incidence. Male had a higher risk of VL than female and one year increase in age decreased the likelihood of VL by about 0.92%. Two third of the VL incidence occurred in the age range 2 to 30 years (median age of VL patients was 17 years). CONCLUSION: VL incidence rate was significantly lower in the ITN intervention cohort compared to control in Bangladesh. Some bias due to more intense screen-and-treat activities or other interventions in the intervention area cannot be ruled out. Nonetheless, given their feasibility and sustainability, ITNs should be considered for integrated vector control during the maintenance phase of the VL elimination programme.


Assuntos
Controle de Insetos/métodos , Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida , Leishmaniose Visceral/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Insetos Vetores , Inseticidas , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nitrilos , Phlebotomus , Piretrinas , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
J Clin Microbiol ; 57(12)2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511333

RESUMO

Chagas disease affects an estimated 300,000 individuals in the United States. Diagnosis in the chronic phase requires positive results from two different IgG serological tests. Three enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) (Hemagen, Ortho, and Wiener) and one rapid test (InBios) are FDA cleared, but comparative data in U.S. populations are sparse. We evaluated 500 seropositive and 300 seronegative blood donor plasma samples. Country of birth was known for 255 seropositive specimens, which were grouped into regions as follows: Mexico (n = 94), Central America (n = 88), and South America (n = 73). Specimens were tested by the four FDA-cleared IgG serological assays. Test performance was evaluated by two comparators and latent class analysis. InBios had the highest sensitivity (97.4% to 99.3%) but the lowest specificity (87.5% to 92.3%). Hemagen had the lowest sensitivity (88.0% to 92.0%) but high specificity (99.0% to 100.0%). The level of sensitivity was intermediate for Ortho (92.4% to 96.5%) and Wiener (94.0% to 97.1%); both had high specificity (98.8% to 100.0% and 96.7% to 99.3%, respectively). The levels of antibody reactivity and clinical sensitivity were lowest in donors from Mexico, intermediate in those from Central America, and highest in those from South America. Our findings provide an initial evidence base to improve laboratory diagnosis of Chagas disease in the United States. The best current testing algorithm would employ a high-sensitivity screening test followed by a high-specificity confirmatory test.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doadores de Sangue , Doença de Chagas/diagnóstico , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , América Central , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , América do Sul
18.
Int J Infect Dis ; 86: 175-177, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Screening for Trypanosoma cruzi infection was performed amongst children in a rural community in the Bolivian Chaco, an area known for high prevalence. The force of infection (FOI) was estimated. METHODS: A total of 423 children attending the local school were screened using the Chagas Detect Plus (CDP) rapid test (InBios International, Inc.). CDP-positive specimens were further tested by indirect haemagglutination assay (IHA) and Wiener Recombinante v3.0 ELISA. A catalytic model was used to estimate FOI. RESULTS: Confirmed seroprevalence was 0.22, rising steeply with age. The mean age of seropositive individuals was 13 years. The calculated specificity of the rapid test was 91.9%. The annual incidence estimated from the FOI was 0.021. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates persistent transmission and continuing high levels of T. cruzi infection in the Bolivian Chaco, and highlights the practicality of school-based screening.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Adolescente , Bolívia/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/diagnóstico , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Criança , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Testes de Hemaglutinação , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Prevalência , População Rural , Instituições Acadêmicas , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Testes Sorológicos , Trypanosoma cruzi , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(5): e0007383, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059501

RESUMO

Triatomine vectors transmit Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease in humans. Transmission to humans typically occurs when contaminated triatomine feces come in contact with the bite site or mucosal membranes. In the Southern Cone of South America, where the highest burden of disease exists, Triatoma infestans is the principal vector for T. cruzi. Recent studies of other vector-borne illnesses have shown that arthropod microbiota influences the ability of infectious agents to colonize the insect vector and transmit to the human host. This has garnered attention as a potential control strategy against T. cruzi, as vector control is the main tool of Chagas disease prevention. Here we characterized the microbiota in T. infestans feces of both wild-caught and laboratory-reared insects and examined the relationship between microbial composition and T. cruzi infection using highly sensitive high-throughput sequencing technology to sequence the V3-V4 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene on the MiSeq Illumina platform. We collected 59 wild (9 with T. cruzi infection) and 10 lab-reared T. infestans (4 with T. cruzi infection) from the endemic area of Arequipa, Perú. Wild T. infestans had greater hindgut bacterial diversity than laboratory-reared bugs. Microbiota of lab insects comprised a subset of those identified in their wild counterparts, with 96 of the total 124 genera also observed in laboratory-reared insects. Among wild insects, variation in bacterial composition was observed, but time and location of collection and development stage did not explain this variation. T. cruzi infection in lab insects did not affect α- or ß-diversity; however, we did find that the ß-diversity of wild insects differed if they were infected with T. cruzi and identified 10 specific taxa that had significantly different relative abundances in infected vs. uninfected wild T. infestans (Bosea, Mesorhizobium, Dietzia, and Cupriavidus were underrepresented in infected bugs; Sporosarcina, an unclassified genus of Porphyromonadaceae, Nestenrenkonia, Alkalibacterium, Peptoniphilus, Marinilactibacillus were overrepresented in infected bugs). Our findings suggest that T. cruzi infection is associated with the microbiota of T. infestans and that inferring the microbiota of wild T. infestans may not be possible through sampling of T. infestans reared in the insectary.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Insetos Vetores/microbiologia , Microbiota , Triatoma/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Laboratórios , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Triatoma/parasitologia , Triatoma/fisiologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/fisiologia
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(1): e0007024, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30633743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The detection of Trypanosoma cruzi genetic material in clinical samples is considered an important diagnostic tool for Chagas disease. We have previously demonstrated that PCR using clot samples yields greater sensitivity than either buffy coat or whole blood samples. However, phenol-chloroform DNA extraction from clot samples is difficult and toxic. The objective of the present study was to improve and develop a more sensitive method to recover parasite DNA from clot samples for the diagnosis of Chagas disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 265 match pair samples of whole blood-guanidine (GEB) and clot samples were analyzed; 150 were from Chagas seropositive subjects. DNA was extracted from both whole blood-guanidine samples, using a previously standardized methodology, and from clot samples, using a newly developed methodology based on a combination of the FastPrep technique and the standard method for GEB extraction. A qPCR targeting the nuclear satellite sequences was used to compare the sample source and the extraction method. Of the 150 samples from Chagas positive individuals by serology, 47 samples tested positive by qPCR with DNA extracted by both GEB and clot, but an additional 13 samples tested positive only in DNA extracted from clot. No serology-negative samples resulted positive when tested by qPCR. CONCLUSIONS: The new methodology for DNA extraction from clot samples improves the molecular diagnosis of Chagas disease.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/diagnóstico , DNA de Protozoário/sangue , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Humanos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação
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