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1.
Physiol Behav ; 260: 114055, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36563733

RESUMO

AIMS: This study investigated the possible relationships between the expression of the Kiss1 and Gpr54 gene expressions and the pituitary-gonadal hormones with the female onset of puberty and sexual behavior. The Kiss1 and Gpr54 gene expressions were examined because they are critical to controlling the hypothalamic activation of GnRH neurons and, in turn, the pituitary-gonadal hormones related to the early onset of puberty and sexual behavior. Further, it was evaluated that the pituitary and gonadal hormones involved in the vaginal opening and the expression of sexual behavior. METHODS: Pregnant rats exposed to PRS from gestation days 17 to 20 were evaluated for maternal and open-field behaviors. The maternal behavior was analyzed because it may alter brain sexual organization affecting the pups development. It was observed in female pups the physical and development and, in adult age, the open-field behavior, the anxiety-like behavior, the estrous cycle, the sexual behavior, the serum FSH, LH, estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone levels, and the gene expression of kisspeptin protein (Kiss1) and Gpr54 in the hypothalamus. RESULTS: the maternal and open-field behaviors were unaffected. In the F1 generation, PRS reduced weight at weaning, delayed the day of the vaginal opening and reduced the intensity of lordosis, the estrogen levels, and the Kiss1 and Gpr54 gene expression. These effects were attributed to hypothalamic kisspeptidergic system downregulation of transcripts genes and the reduced estrogen levels affected by the PRS.


Assuntos
Kisspeptinas , Maturidade Sexual , Gravidez , Ratos , Animais , Feminino , Kisspeptinas/genética , Maturidade Sexual/fisiologia , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Estrogênios/farmacologia
2.
Brain Res ; 1799: 148180, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36463954

RESUMO

Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling plays a critical role during central nervous system (CNS) development, and its dysregulation leads to neurological disorders. Nevertheless, little is known about Shh signaling regulation in the adult brain. Here, we investigated the contribution of DNA methylation on the transcriptional control of Shh signaling pathway members and its basal distribution impact on the brain, as well as its modulation by inflammation. The methylation status of the promoter regions of these members and the transcriptional profile of DNA-modifying enzymes (DNA Methyltransferases - DNMTs and Tet Methylcytosine Dioxygenase - TETs) were investigated in a murine model of neuroinflammation by qPCR. We showed that, in the adult brain, methylation in the CpG promoter regions of the Shh signaling pathway members was critical to determine the endogenous differential transcriptional pattern observed between distinct brain regions. We also found that neuroinflammation differentially modulates gene expression of DNA-modifying enzymes. This study reveals the basal transcriptional profile of DNMTs and TETs enzymes in the CNS and demonstrates the effect of neuroinflammation on the transcriptional control of members of the Shh Signaling pathway in the adult brain.

3.
Int J Dev Neurosci ; 82(6): 528-538, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35750327

RESUMO

Glyphosate is the organophosphate pesticide most widely used in the world. Recent studies correlate exposure to glyphosate and the emergence of neurodevelopmental disorders. Therefore, it was objective to propose a rat model of perinatal exposure to glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH) to study associated neurodevelopmental disorders. Behavioral aspects and brain pathways were assessed in the prepubertal phase. For this, maternal treatment occurred throughout the entire gestation period (from GD0) until weaning on postnatal day 22 (PND 22). Control group received oral gavage with 5 mL/kg of saline per day and GBH group received oral gavage with 50 mg/kg of GBH per day (n = 10 per group). Maternal behavior was evaluated in PND 2-6. Offspring were evaluated for quantification of ultrasonic vocalizations (PND 5); homing behavior test (PND 13); and hole board, social play behavior, open field, and object recognition tests (PND 28-32). Prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of the offspring were processed to evaluate oxidative stress. Maternal exposure to GBH impaired early social communication, olfactory discrimination, social play behavior, and the exploration of objects, in addition to increasing repetitive and stereotyped movements. GBH also increased oxidative stress. Therefore, perinatal GBH exposure induced behavioral and oxidative stress impairments in rats associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. The manifestations found in the offspring are in accordance with symptoms of autism spectrum disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Herbicidas , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Animais , Feminino , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Hipocampo , Humanos , Organofosfatos , Estresse Oxidativo , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
4.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 21(1): 9-9, May 6, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, HomeoIndex - Homeopatia | ID: biblio-1396587

RESUMO

Different environmental conditions can influence the effects of toxic agents on living beings. Recently, a series of experiments performed in Artemia salina submitted to different kinds of intoxication have shown that both, isotherapic and succussed watercan change Artemia salina ́s bio resilience at different levels. Moreover, it seems to vary according to the circalunar cycle. Objective:To verify if circalunar phases and water agitation can modify the toxicity of lead chloride on Artemia salina in vitro. Methodology:Artemia salina cysts were exposed to seawater containing 0.04% of lead chloride (equal to EC10 or 10% effective concentration, previously determined in a pilot study) in 96-well culture plates. Thirty-six experimental repetitions were performed in four series to observe the possible effects of adding stirred water, the so-called succussed water, and the moon phases. The hatched cysts were recorded after 48 hours using a digital microscope (1000x magnification) to identify the hatching percentage and the viability and mobility of the born nauplii. Results:The exposition of cysts to PbCl2 led to an increase in the hatching rate, and it was more evident during the full moon (p = 0.00014) The addition of succussed water into the seawater medium reduced this effect to the baseline levels. An increase in mobility was seen in nauplii born from exposed cysts during the full moon (p = 0.00077), but this effect was not affected by the treatment with succussed water. Discussion:Although the effects of lead chloride EC10 on the increase of nauplii hatching were expected, two environmental variables changed the sensitivity of cysts to this harmful stimulus. The circalunar cycle varied the hatching rate according to the moon phase, even in laboratory conditions, and the addition of succussed water into the medium reduced the hatching rate, even with different intensities according to the moon phase. The organization of nano and microbubbles generated after the succussion of water could be related to this protective effect and can explain, at least partially the effects of high diluted preparations on this biological context. Conclusion:Environmental factors, such as the circalunar cycle and products of water agitation, can modulate the adaptative control of hatching in Artemia salina exposed to lead chloride at EC10.


Assuntos
Animais , Artemia , Cloretos/análise , Ecotoxicologia
5.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 21(1): 13-13, May 6, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, HomeoIndex - Homeopatia | ID: biblio-1396581

RESUMO

Artemia salina, an ecotoxicity bioindicator, isa microcrustacean belonging to the order Anostraca. Glyphosate is an herbicide widely used to control weeds. However, its intoxication can cause serious damage to human health and the balance of the environment, given its effects as an endocrine disruptor.Objective:verify the possible protection of the artemia exposed to glyphosate by the addition of its isotherapic into water, by means of the evaluation of the behavioral and morphological features of nauplii and of the physical properties of remedies andtreated water, to elucidate the involved mechanisms. Methods:Artemia salinacysts were kept in culture bottles containing artificial seawatercontaining glyphosate at LC 10 (lethal concentration 10%), to promote hatching within 48 hours. The isotherapic preparations were inserted in each bottle in a 10% of the total water volume. Part of the nauplii was distributed in transparent tubes, being 10 nauplii per tube and 6 tubes per group, for behavioral analysis, and part were collected for a detailed morphological analysis, under an optical microscope. About 80 to 270 nauplii were analyzed per group. The reserved water was divided into aliquots for physicochemical analysis, that is, evaluation of the water dipole behavior by Cartwright ́s method.Results:Gly 6cH presented selective effects on nauplii hatching (p=0.02) and on defected/healthy ratio (p=0.001), representing some protective action. This result was dependent of the salinity of water and presented correspondence with the effects on solvatochromic dyes, indicating that charges and ions can be critical factors involved in the mechanism of action. We concluded that the use of isotherapics could be a plausible tool to reduce the environmental impact of the indiscriminate use of glyphosate, since these results can be reproduced in further studies.


Assuntos
Artemia , Isoterapia , Ecotoxicologia , Homeopatia
6.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 21(2): 6-6, May 6, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396757

RESUMO

Isotherapics preparedfromtoxic substances have been described as attenuation factors for heavy metal intoxicationin aquatic animals. Herein, Artemia salinaand mercury chloride were usedas a model to identify treatment-related bioresilience. The aim was to describe the effects of Mercurius corrosivus(MC) in different potencies on Artemia salinacyst hatching and on mercury bioavailability. Artemia salinacysts were exposed to 5.0 µg/mL of mercury chloride during the hatching phase. MC6cH, 30cH, and 200cHwere prepared and poured into artificial seawater. Different controls were used (nonchallenged cysts and challenged cysts treated with water, succussed water, and Ethilicum 1cH). Four series of nine experiments were performed for4 weeks to evaluate the percentage of cyst hatchingconsidering all moon phases. Soluble total mercury (THg) levels and precipitated mercury content were also evaluated. Solvatochromic dyes were used to check for eventual physicochemical markers of MCbiological activity. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with mixed modelswas used for evaluating the effect of different treatments andthe simultaneous influence of the moon phases on the cystshatching rate, at both observation times (24 and 48 hours).When necessary, outliers were removed, using the Tukeycriterion.Thelevel of significance αwas set at 5%. Significant delay (p<0.0001) in cyst hatching was observed after treatment with MC30cH, compared with the controls. An increase inTHg concentration in seawater (p<0.0018) and of chlorine/oxygen ratio (p<0.0001) in suspended micro-aggregateswas also seen, with possiblerelation with mercury bioavailability. Specific interaction of MC30cH with the solvatochromic dye ET33 (p<0.0017) was found. The other observed potencies of Mercurius corrosivus6 and 200 cH were not significant in relation to the observed groups.The results werepostulated as being protective effects of MC30cH on Artemia salina, by improving its bioresilience.


Assuntos
Artemia , Ecotoxicologia , Homeopatia , Mercúrio
7.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e186467, fev. 2022. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1380241

RESUMO

Objectives: The herbicide glyphosate, a pesticide used in agriculture to control weeds, both in food crops and in other agricultural areas, has been identified as an endocrine modulator through the inhibition of aromatase activity and the activation of estrogen receptors. The present study examined the effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide (Roundup® (GLY-BH) on sexual dimorphism of rats after perinatal exposure to low and high GLY-BH in males and females offspring. Methods: Two groups of pregnant rats were treated with two doses of GLY-BH (50 or 150 mg/kg) from day 15 of gestation (GD15) to postnatal day 7 (PND7). Play fighting behavior was observed at the juvenile stage and during social and sexual behaviors in adulthood. Results: Perinatal GLY-BH exposure reduced male and female body weight at 28, 75, and 90 days of age. The play fighting behavior was decreased in both sexes, but female rats were more affected. The sexual behaviors were reduced only in females. Conclusions: Perinatal exposure to both doses of GLY-BH promoted sexually dimorphic effects in both juvenile and adulthood stages. These effects were attributed to the inhibition of aromatase activity induced by exposure to GLY-BH in the perinatal period.(AU)


Objetivos: O glifosato é um herbicida não seletivo, usado em muitas culturas alimentares e não alimentares e em áreas não agrícolas, sendo que os produtos a base de glifosato atuam como moduladores das funções endócrinas por meio da inibição da atividade da aromatase e da ativação de receptores de estrógeno. O presente estudo avaliou os efeitos do herbicida Roundup® (GLY-BH) à base de glifosato, em comportamentos sexualmente dimórficos de ratos após exposição perinatal a doses baixas e altas de GLY-BH no período perinatal. Métodos: Ratas prenhas foram tratadas com 50 ou 150 mg/kg de GLY-BH do 15º dia de gestação (GD15) ao 7º dia de lactação (LD7). O comportamento de luta/brincar foi observado na fase juvenil e os comportamentos social e sexual na idade adulta. Resultados: a exposição perinatal a GLY-BH reduziu o peso corporal de machos e fêmeas aos 28, 75 e 90 dias de idade. O comportamento de luta/brincar diminuiu em ambos os sexos, sendo as ratas foram as mais afetadas. O comportamento sexual foi reduzido apenas nas fêmeas. Conclusões: A exposição perinatal a ambas as doses do GLY- BH promoveu tanto na idade juvenil como na idade adulta, efeitos sexualmente dimórficos. Esses efeitos foram atribuídos à inibição da atividade da aromatase induzida exposição perinatal ao GLY-BH.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Gravidez , Ratos , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Inibidores da Aromatase/efeitos adversos , Caracteres Sexuais , Herbicidas/administração & dosagem , Herbicidas/efeitos adversos
8.
Homeopathy ; 110(4): 244-255, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474498

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Finding solutions to mitigate the impact of pollution on living systems is a matter of great interest. Homeopathic preparations of toxic substances have been described in the literature as attenuation factors for intoxication. Herein, an experimental study using Artemia salina and mercury chloride was developed as a model to identify aspects related to bioresilience. AIMS: The aim of the study was to describe the effects of homeopathic Mercurius corrosivus (MC) on Artemia salina cysts hatching and on mercury bioavailability. METHODS: Artemia salina cysts were exposed to 5.0 µg/mL of mercury chloride during the hatching phase. MC potencies (6cH, 30cH, and 200cH) were prepared in sterile purified water and poured into artificial sea water. Different controls were used (non-challenged cysts and challenged cysts treated with water, succussed water, and Ethilicum 1cH). Four series of nine experiments were performed to evaluate the percentage of cyst hatching. Soluble total mercury (THg) levels and precipitated mercury content were also evaluated. Solvatochromic dyes were used to check for eventual physicochemical markers of MC biological activity. RESULTS: Significant delay (p < 0.0001) in cyst hatching was observed only after treatment with MC 30cH, compared with controls. This result was associated with an increase of THg concentration in water (p = 0.0018) and of chlorine/oxygen ratio (p < 0.0001) in suspended micraggregates, suggesting changes in mercury bioavailability. A specific interaction of MC 30cH with the solvatochromic dye ET33 (p = 0.0017) was found. CONCLUSION: Changes in hatching rate and possible changes in Hg bioavailability are postulated as protective effects of MC 30cH on Artemia salina, by improving its natural bioresilience processes.


Assuntos
Homeopatia , Mercúrio , Animais , Artemia , Cloretos , Cloreto de Mercúrio
9.
Epilepsy Behav ; 105: 106945, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109856

RESUMO

The tremor mutant phenotype results from an autosomal recessive spontaneous mutation arisen in a Swiss-Webster mouse colony. The mutant mice displayed normal development until three weeks of age when they began to present motor impairment comprised by whole body tremor, ataxia, and decreased exploratory behavior. These features increased in severity with aging suggesting a neurodegenerative profile. In parallel, they showed audiogenic generalized clonic seizures. Results from genetic mapping identified the mutation tremor on chromosome 14, in an interval of 5 cM between D14Mit37 (33.21 cM) and D14Mit115 (38.21 cM), making Early Growth Response 3 (Egr3) the main candidate gene. Comparing with wild type (WT) mice, the tremor mice showed higher hippocampal gene expression of Egr3 and Gabra1 and increased concentrations of noradrenalin (NOR; p = .0012), serotonin (5HT; p = .0083), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA; p = .0032), γ-amino butyric acid (GABA; p = .0123), glutamate (p = .0217) and aspartate (p = .0124). In opposition, the content of glycine (p = .0168) and the vanillylmandelic acid (VMA)/NOR ratio (p = .032) were decreased. Regarding to dopaminergic system, neither dopamine (DA) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) contents nor the turnover rate of DA showed statistically significant differences between WT and mutant mice. Data demonstrated that audiogenic seizures of tremor mice are associated with progressive motor impairment as well as to hippocampal alterations of the Egr3 and Gabra1 gene expression and amino acid and monoamine content. In addition, the tremor mice could be useful for study of neurotransmission pathways as modulators of epilepsy and the pathogenesis of epilepsies occurring with generalized clonic seizures.


Assuntos
Estimulação Acústica/efeitos adversos , Epilepsia Reflexa/genética , Epilepsia Reflexa/metabolismo , Mutação/genética , Tremor/genética , Tremor/metabolismo , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Dopamina/metabolismo , Feminino , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Hipocampo/química , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Norepinefrina/metabolismo , Convulsões/genética , Convulsões/metabolismo , Serotonina/metabolismo
10.
Brain Behav Immun ; 87: 489-497, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006614

RESUMO

Considering all mental and addictive disorders, depression is the most responsible for years of life lost due to premature mortality and disability. Antidepressant drugs have limited effectiveness. Depression can be triggered by immune/inflammatory factors. Zinc and paracetamol interfere with immune system and have demonstrated beneficial effects on depression treatment when administered concomitant with antidepressant drugs. The objective of this study was to test zinc and/or paracetamol as treatments of depressive-like behavior, sickness behavior, and anxiety in rats, as well as to understand the central and peripheral mechanisms involved. Sickness behavior and depressive-like behavior were induced in rats with repetitive lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 mg/kg for two consecutive days) administrations. Rats received zinc and/or paracetamol for three consecutive days. Sickness behavior (daily body weight and open field general activity); anxiety (light-dark test); depressive-like/antidepressant behavior (forced swim test); plasma corticosterone and interferon (IFN)-gamma levels; and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) brain expression were evaluated. LPS induced sickness behavior and depressive-like behavior, as well as elevated IFN-gamma levels and increased GFAP expression. Zinc prevented both behavioral and biochemical impairments. Paracetamol and zinc + paracetamol association induced only slight beneficial effects. Anxiety, corticosterone, and TH do not seem be related with depression and the other behavioral and neuroimmune changes. In conclusion, zinc treatment was beneficial for sickness behavior and depressive-like behavior without concomitant administration of antidepressants. IFN-gamma and GFAP were linked with the expression of sickness behavior and depressive-like behavior and were also involved with the antidepressant effects. Therefore, zinc, IFN-gamma, and GFAP pathways should be considered for depression treatment.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Doença , Interferon gama , Acetaminofen , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Gliose , Lipopolissacarídeos , Ratos , Zinco
11.
Behav Brain Res ; 378: 112233, 2020 01 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521736

RESUMO

Doxorubicin (DOX) is known to cause cognitive impairments in patients submitted to long-term chemotherapy (deficits also known as chemobrain). The present study investigated whether DOX administration could affect behavior and brain morphology, as well as oxidative and inflammatory status in rats. Male Wistar rats were injected with DOX (2.5 mg/kg/week, 4 weeks, i.p.) or saline. Behavioral analyses were performed. Brains were collected and analyzed by hematoxylin-eosin and luxol fast blue staining techniques and by immunohistochemistry (for glial fibrillary acidic protein expression in astrocytes; GFAP). Serum and brain levels of TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and CXCL-1 were determined. Oxidative parameters, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), nitric oxide (NO•), brain iron and ferritin levels, as well as reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH and GSSG, respectively) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were also assessed in brain. DOX-injected rats presented cognitive/memory impairments, increased GFAP expression, increased levels of TBARS, NO and GR, but decreased GSSG and ferritin levels in brain homogenate. In addition, increased serum and brain levels of IL-6, IL-8 and CXCL1 were noted in the DOX group, although IL-10 decreased. As DOX has a poor penetration across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), it is proposed that this drug elicits a systemic proinflammatory response with increase of proinflammatory cytokines which cross the BBB and can be involved in the induction of oxidative molecules and proinflammatory cytokines that altogether induce astrogliosis all over the brain. These events may be responsable for chemotherapy-induced cognitive/memory deficits.


Assuntos
Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunção Cognitiva/induzido quimicamente , Citocinas/metabolismo , Doxorrubicina/efeitos adversos , Gliose/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos da Memória/induzido quimicamente , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Encéfalo/imunologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Citocinas/sangue , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/metabolismo , Transtornos da Memória/patologia , Transtornos da Memória/fisiopatologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
12.
Nutr Neurosci ; 23(6): 411-421, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30126346

RESUMO

Introduction: Obesity promotes hypothalamic inflammation and local morphological changes in astrocytes, including the increased expression of the astrocytic biomarker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), which is seen as a sign of neuroinflammation.Objective: This study aimed to observe the astrocytic expression of GFAP in different brain areas from female rats that received a hypercaloric (HD) or a normocaloric (ND) diet during puberty (F0 generation) as well as in their male pups (F1 generation).Methods: Female rats received highly palatable HD (Ensure®) or ND from postnatal day (PND) 23-65. On PND90-95, some were euthanized for the immunohistochemical study and some were mated to obtain the F1 generation. Male pups were immunochallenged on PND50 with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 µg/kg) or 0.9% saline solution (1 mL/kg) intraperitoneal injection. Body weight (BW) and retroperitoneal fat weight (RFW) were recorded on PND95 for F0 generation and on PND50 for F1 generation. GFAP expression for both generations was assessed by morphometry in the parietal/frontal cortex, corpus callosum, nucleus accumbens, arcuate/periventricular nuclei of hypothalamus, pons, molecular/granular layers of cerebellum.Results: Female rats fed with HD presented a significant increase in the GFAP expression in all evaluated areas as well as in the RFW. Male rats born from mothers that received HD showed decreased GFAP expression, BW and RFW when treated with LPS in relation to those from mothers fed with ND.Discussion: HD induced astrogliosis in several brain areas in females from F0 generation and an adaptive phenotypic change of decreased GFAP expression in males from F1 generation after LPS challenge.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Animais , Encefalite/metabolismo , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Gliose/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos , Masculino , Ratos Wistar
13.
Epilepsy Behav. ; 105: 106945, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IBPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: but-ib17469

RESUMO

The tremor mutant phenotype results from an autosomal recessive spontaneous mutation arisen in a Swiss–Webster mouse colony. The mutant mice displayed normal development until three weeks of age when they began to present motor impairment comprised by whole body tremor, ataxia, and decreased exploratory behavior. These features increased in severity with aging suggesting a neurodegenerative profile. In parallel, they showed audiogenic generalized clonic seizures. Results from genetic mapping identified the mutation tremor on chromosome 14, in an interval of 5 cM between D14Mit37 (33.21cM) and D14Mit115 (38.21cM), making Early Growth Response 3 (Egr3) the main candidate gene. Comparing with wild type (WT) mice, the tremor mice showed higher hippocampal gene expression of Egr3 and Gabra1 and increased concentrations of noradrenalin (NOR; p=.0012), serotonin (5HT; p=.0083), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA; p=.0032), gama-amino butyric acid (GABA; p=.0123), glutamate (p=.0217) and aspartate (p=.0124). In opposition, the content of glycine (p=.0168) and the vanillylmandelic acid (VMA)/NOR ratio (p=.032) were decreased. Regarding to dopaminergic system, neither dopamine (DA) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) contents nor the turnover rate of DA showed statistically significant differences between WT and mutant mice. Data demonstrated that audiogenic seizures of tremor mice are associated with progressive motor impairment as well as to hippocampal alterations of the Egr3 and Gabra1 gene expression and amino acid and monoamine content. In addition, the tremor mice could be useful for study of neurotransmission pathways as modulators of epilepsy and the pathogenesis of epilepsies occurring with generalized clonic seizures.

14.
Epilepsy Behav, v. 105, 106945, fev. 2020
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IBPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: bud-2955

RESUMO

The tremor mutant phenotype results from an autosomal recessive spontaneous mutation arisen in a Swiss–Webster mouse colony. The mutant mice displayed normal development until three weeks of age when they began to present motor impairment comprised by whole body tremor, ataxia, and decreased exploratory behavior. These features increased in severity with aging suggesting a neurodegenerative profile. In parallel, they showed audiogenic generalized clonic seizures. Results from genetic mapping identified the mutation tremor on chromosome 14, in an interval of 5 cM between D14Mit37 (33.21cM) and D14Mit115 (38.21cM), making Early Growth Response 3 (Egr3) the main candidate gene. Comparing with wild type (WT) mice, the tremor mice showed higher hippocampal gene expression of Egr3 and Gabra1 and increased concentrations of noradrenalin (NOR; p=.0012), serotonin (5HT; p=.0083), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA; p=.0032), gama-amino butyric acid (GABA; p=.0123), glutamate (p=.0217) and aspartate (p=.0124). In opposition, the content of glycine (p=.0168) and the vanillylmandelic acid (VMA)/NOR ratio (p=.032) were decreased. Regarding to dopaminergic system, neither dopamine (DA) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) contents nor the turnover rate of DA showed statistically significant differences between WT and mutant mice. Data demonstrated that audiogenic seizures of tremor mice are associated with progressive motor impairment as well as to hippocampal alterations of the Egr3 and Gabra1 gene expression and amino acid and monoamine content. In addition, the tremor mice could be useful for study of neurotransmission pathways as modulators of epilepsy and the pathogenesis of epilepsies occurring with generalized clonic seizures.

15.
Eur J Neurosci ; 50(6): 2942-2954, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30888692

RESUMO

Grooming behaviour has different functions on many species during development and can be observed and affected during periods of stress. By selecting male mice with high (HI) and low (LI) immobility traits in the tail suspension test, a screening for antidepressant drugs, we investigate how these phenotypes associated with grooming behaviour may be influenced by the effects of repeated restraint stress. For this we used the sucrose preference test and the splash test in a novel and a familiar cage performed before and after exposure to 2 days of restraint stress. Animals were submitted to an additional day of restraint stress before the hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex and midbrain extraction for dopamine activity analysis. Corticosterone analysis was made in three distinct moments: without stress (prior first restraint session), immediately after the last restrain, and 1 hr after the last restrain episode. Compared to LI group, HI animals exhibited an increased frequency and decreased time of grooming in the familiar cage. In the novel cage, stress increased frequency and time of grooming of HI animals compared to LI. Corticosterone levels were increased in HI animals after 3 days of stress. Lower hypothalamic dopaminergic activity without stress and decreased hypothalamic dopaminergic activity immediately after stress in HI group were observed. The HI group displayed decreased prefrontal cortex dopaminergic activity and increased activity in the mesolimbic area. We proposed that through the influence of stress the two phenotypes manifested as a resilient (LI) and a not resilient (HI) trait in response to restraint stress.


Assuntos
Dopamina/metabolismo , Asseio Animal/fisiologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Animais , Corticosterona/sangue , Elevação dos Membros Posteriores , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Masculino , Mesencéfalo/metabolismo , Camundongos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Restrição Física
16.
Neuroimmunomodulation ; 26(6): 285-291, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935743

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previously we observed an attenuation of body temperature in lactating rats treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) compared with virgin saline-treated females. We proposed that high levels of prolactin (PRL) during lactation may induce this attenuation because PRL has a suppressive effect on inflammation. In the present study, we induced hyperprolactinemia in female virgin rats to investigate the effects of PRL on body temperature and sickness behavior induced by LPS. METHODS: To induce hyperprolactinemia, female rats in the estrous phase received domperidone 3 times/day for 5 days and an LPS injection (D + LPS group). Two other groups were treated with saline solution for 5 days, and one of them received a saline injection (S + S group) and the other LPS (S + LPS group). Tympanic temperature was assessed 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after treatment. Body weight gain and food and water consumption were observed 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after treatment. RESULTS: Hyperprolactinemia impaired LPS-induced hypothermia and hyperthermia phases of body temperature. Body weight gains in the S + LPS group and the D + LPS group were similar. A decrease in food consumption was observed in the D + LPS rats at 72 and 96 h compared to the S + LPS group. CONCLUSION: Hyperprolactinemia impaired the body temperature increase induced by LPS and several signs of sickness behavior, suggesting that febrile responses to LPS can be modulated by the physiological state. These phenomena may have adaptive value for reproduction.


Assuntos
Temperatura Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hiperprolactinemia , Comportamento de Doença/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Animais , Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Feminino , Comportamento de Doença/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
17.
Behav Brain Res ; 359: 958-966, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29913187

RESUMO

Otoconia are crucial for the correct processing of positional information and orientation. Mice lacking otoconia cannot sense the direction of the gravity vector and cannot swim properly. This study aims to characterize the behavior of mergulhador (mlh), otoconia-deficient mutant mice. Additionally, the central catecholamine levels were evaluated to investigate possible correlations between behaviors and central neurotransmitters. A sequence of behavioral tests was used to evaluate the parameters related to the general activity, sensory nervous system, psychomotor system, and autonomous nervous system, in addition to measuring the acquisition of spatial and declarative memory, anxiety-like behavior, motor coordination, and swimming behavior of the mlh mutant mice. As well, the neurotransmitter levels in the cerebellum, striatum, frontal cortex, and hippocampus were measured. Relative to BALB/c mice, the mutant mlh mice showed 1) reduced locomotor and rearing behavior, increased auricular and touch reflexes, decreased motor coordination and increased micturition; 2) decreased responses in the T-maze and aversive wooden beam tests; 3) increased time of immobility in the tail suspension test; 4) no effects in the elevated plus maze or object recognition test; 5) an inability to swim; and 6) reduced turnover of dopaminergic system in the cerebellum, striatum, and frontal cortex. Thus, in our mlh mutant mice, otoconia deficiency reduced the motor, sensory and spatial learning behaviors likely by impairing balance. We did not rule out the role of the dopaminergic system in all behavioral deficits of the mlh mutant mice.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Mutação/genética , Neurotransmissores/metabolismo , Membrana dos Otólitos/patologia , Doenças Vestibulares/genética , Animais , Comportamento Exploratório/fisiologia , Elevação dos Membros Posteriores , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Mutantes , Atividade Motora , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Aprendizagem Espacial , Natação , Doenças Vestibulares/etiologia
18.
J Clin Invest ; 129(1): 230-245, 2019 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30352046

RESUMO

Levothyroxine (LT4) is a form of thyroid hormone used to treat hypothyroidism. In the brain, T4 is converted to the active form T3 by type 2 deiodinase (D2). Thus, it is intriguing that carriers of the Thr92Ala polymorphism in the D2 gene (DIO2) exhibit clinical improvement when liothyronine (LT3) is added to LT4 therapy. Here, we report that D2 is a cargo protein in ER Golgi intermediary compartment (ERGIC) vesicles, recycling between ER and Golgi. The Thr92-to-Ala substitution (Ala92-D2) caused ER stress and activated the unfolded protein response (UPR). Ala92-D2 accumulated in the trans-Golgi and generated less T3, which was restored by eliminating ER stress with the chemical chaperone 4-phenyl butyric acid (4-PBA). An Ala92-Dio2 polymorphism-carrying mouse exhibited UPR and hypothyroidism in distinct brain areas. The mouse refrained from physical activity, slept more, and required additional time to memorize objects. Enhancing T3 signaling in the brain with LT3 improved cognition, whereas restoring proteostasis with 4-PBA eliminated the Ala92-Dio2 phenotype. In contrast, primary hypothyroidism intensified the Ala92-Dio2 phenotype, with only partial response to LT4 therapy. Disruption of cellular proteostasis and reduced Ala92-D2 activity may explain the failure of LT4 therapy in carriers of Thr92Ala-DIO2.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Hipotireoidismo , Iodeto Peroxidase , Polimorfismo Genético , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Animais , Encéfalo/enzimologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Retículo Endoplasmático/enzimologia , Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Complexo de Golgi/enzimologia , Complexo de Golgi/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo/tratamento farmacológico , Hipotireoidismo/enzimologia , Hipotireoidismo/genética , Hipotireoidismo/patologia , Iodeto Peroxidase/genética , Iodeto Peroxidase/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Tiroxina/uso terapêutico , Tri-Iodotironina/uso terapêutico
19.
Nutr Neurosci ; 22(11): 805-816, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29514592

RESUMO

Objectives: Estrogen and phytoestrogens, mainly isoflavones (SIF) treatment has been suggested to improve mood, behavior, and cognitive function in postmenopausal women. However, there is a lack of information on the mechanism of such treatment on the central nervous system. We used rats to investigate the effects of long-term treatment with commercial isoflavones on behavior, hormones, and brain neurotransmitter levels. Methods: Intact female middle-aged (12 months) rats received 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day of commercial isoflavones extract by gavage for 90 days. After treatment, locomotor activity, anxiety-like behavior, spatial memory, estradiol, and neurotransmitter levels were measured. Results: Isoflavones treatment decreased total body weight gain in rats received 100 (P < 0.05) and 200 mg/kg (P < 0.05). There were no differences in locomotor activity or anxiety-like behavior; however, isoflavone treatment improved spatial memory (P < 0.05). Estradiol concentration was increased (P < 0.05) in groups SIF 100 and SIF 200. Glutamate (P < 0.01) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were increased in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of rats receiving the highest doses and in the hypothalamus in rats that received SIF200 (P < 0.05). Discussion: These findings showed that long-term treatment with commercial isoflavones decreased total body weight gain and facilitated spatial memory performance in rats and this may be involved with the increase in estradiol levels as well as the increase in GABA and glutamate levels in PFC. Furthermore, isoflavones treatment may attenuate age-related cognitive impairment and may therefore be an effective tool to combat this undesirable feature of the natural aging process.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Química Encefálica/efeitos dos fármacos , Estradiol/análise , Ácido Glutâmico/análise , Isoflavonas/administração & dosagem , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/análise , Animais , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Menopausa/efeitos dos fármacos , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Wistar , Memória Espacial/efeitos dos fármacos , Aumento de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Arch Oral Biol ; 97: 165-169, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30391792

RESUMO

The pain in dentin hypersensitivity (DH) has distinct sensory and emotional origins, with variations that occur in different intensities for each individual. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of diazepam in the attenuation of the pain induced by DH. DESIGN: Fifty male Wistar rats were divided into five groups: control group received water ad libitum (C); stress group received water ad libitum plus stress (S); DH induced by erosion challenge with isotonic solution ad libitum (G); DH and stress (GS); and DH, stress and diazepam (GSD) groups. Animals of the GS group were exposed to the New York Subway Stress Model. Animals treated with diazepam (GSD group) received 1 mg/kg every 3 days, from the 15th day of treatment until the end of the stress-inducing period. The body weights of rats were weekly registered. After 30 days, all groups were submitted to the DH test, which was assessed using cold water stimuli, and were graded 0, 0.5, 1, 2, or 3. Dental elements were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). RESULTS: 1) Groups G and GS presented the highest DH scores, which confirms that stress increased pain response; 2) GSD group had significantly reduced DH scores compared to G and GS groups; 3) SEM of dental elements showed exposed dentin tubules in G, GS, and GSD groups, as expected. CONCLUSIONS: diazepam attenuated pain induced by dentin hypersensitivity in rats exposed to stress.


Assuntos
Sensibilidade da Dentina/tratamento farmacológico , Diazepam/farmacologia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Animais , Dentina/ultraestrutura , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Propriedades de Superfície
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