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1.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247254, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33724991

RESUMO

Having an optimal quality of vision as well as adequate cognitive capacities is known to be essential for driving safety. However, the interaction between vision and cognitive mechanisms while driving remains unclear. We hypothesized that, in a context of high cognitive load, reduced visual acuity would have a negative impact on driving behavior, even when the acuity corresponds to the legal threshold for obtaining a driving license in Canada, and that the impact observed on driving performance would be greater with the increase in the threshold of degradation of visual acuity. In order to investigate this relationship, we examined driving behavior in a driving simulator under optimal and reduced vision conditions through two scenarios involving different levels of cognitive demand. These were: 1. a simple rural driving scenario with some pre-programmed events and 2. a highway driving scenario accompanied by a concurrent task involving the use of a navigation device. Two groups of visual quality degradation (lower/ higher) were evaluated according to their driving behavior. The results support the hypothesis: A dual task effect was indeed observed provoking less stable driving behavior, but in addition to this, by statistically controlling the impact of cognitive load, the effect of visual load emerged in this dual task context. These results support the idea that visual quality degradation impacts driving behavior when combined with a high mental workload driving environment while specifying that this impact is not present in the context of low cognitive load driving condition.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Direção Distraída/psicologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Canadá , Cognição/fisiologia , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Desempenho Psicomotor , Visão Ocular/fisiologia , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia
2.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 12: 588653, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33281600

RESUMO

Cognitive demands for postural control increase with aging and cognitive-motor interference (CMI) exists for a number of walking situations, especially with visuo-spatial cognitive tasks. Such interference also influences spatial learning abilities among older adults; however, this is rarely considered in research on aging in spatial navigation. We posited that visually and physically exploring an unknown environment may be subject to CMI for older adults. We investigated potential indicators of postural control interfering with spatial learning. Given known associations between age-related alterations in gait and brain structure, we also examined potential neuroanatomical correlates of this interference. Fourteen young and 14 older adults had to find an invisible goal in an unfamiliar, real, ecological environment. We measured walking speed, trajectory efficiency (direct route over taken route) and goal fixations (proportion of visual fixations toward the goal area). We calculated the change in walking speed between the first and last trials and adaptation indices for all three variables to quantify their modulation across learning trials. All participants were screened with a battery of visuo-cognitive tests. Eighteen of our participants (10 young, 8 older) also underwent a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination. Older adults reduced their walking speed considerably on the first, compared to the last trial. The adaptation index of walking speed correlated positively with those of trajectory efficiency and goal fixations, indicating a reduction in resource sharing between walking and encoding the environment. The change in walking speed correlated negatively with gray matter volume in superior parietal and occipital regions and the precuneus. We interpret older adults' change in walking speed as indicative of CMI, similar to dual task costs. This is supported by the correlations between the adaptation indices and between the change in walking speed and gray matter volume in brain regions that are important for navigation, given that they are involved in visual attention, sensory integration and encoding of space. These findings under ecological conditions in a natural spatial learning task question what constitutes dual tasking in older adults and they can lead future research to reconsider the actual cognitive burden of postural control in aging navigation research.

3.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0240201, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382720

RESUMO

Driving is an everyday task involving a complex interaction between visual and cognitive processes. As such, an increase in the cognitive and/or visual demands can lead to a mental overload which can be detrimental for driving safety. Compiling evidence suggest that eye and head movements are relevant indicators of visuo-cognitive demands and attention allocation. This study aims to investigate the effects of visual degradation on eye-head coordination as well as visual scanning behavior during a highly demanding task in a driving simulator. A total of 21 emmetropic participants (21 to 34 years old) performed dual-task driving in which they were asked to maintain a constant speed on a highway while completing a visual search and detection task on a navigation device. Participants did the experiment with optimal vision and with contact lenses that introduced a visual perturbation (myopic defocus). The results indicate modifications of eye-head coordination and the dynamics of visual scanning in response to the visual perturbation induced. More specifically, the head was more involved in horizontal gaze shifts when the visual needs were not met. Furthermore, the evaluation of visual scanning dynamics, based on time-based entropy which measures the complexity and randomness of scanpaths, revealed that eye and gaze movements became less explorative and more stereotyped when vision was not optimal. These results provide evidence for a reorganization of both eye and head movements in response to increasing visual-cognitive demands during a driving task. Altogether, these findings suggest that eye and head movements can provide relevant information about visuo-cognitive demands associated with complex tasks. Ultimately, eye-head coordination and visual scanning dynamics may be good candidates to estimate drivers' workload and better characterize risky driving behavior.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Movimentos da Cabeça/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor , Adulto , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Assunção de Riscos , Treinamento por Simulação , Visão Ocular/fisiologia
4.
Cogn Neurodyn ; 14(2): 155-168, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226559

RESUMO

Understanding the neural mechanisms associated with time to contact (TTC) estimation is an intriguing but challenging task. Despite the importance of TTC estimation in our everyday life, few studies have been conducted on it, and there are still a lot of unanswered questions and unknown aspects of this issue. In this study, we intended to address one of these unknown aspects. We used independent component analysis to systematically assess EEG substrates associated with TTC estimation using two experiments: (1) transversal motion experiment (when a moving object passes transversally in the frontoparallel plane from side to side in front of the observer), and (2) head-on motion experiment (when the observer is on the motion path of the moving object). We also studied the energy of all EEG sources in these two experiments. The results showed that brain regions involved in the transversal and head-on motion experiments were the same. However, the energy used by some brain regions in the head-on motion experiment, including some regions in left parietotemporal and left frontal lobes, was significantly higher than the energy used by those regions in the transversal motion experiment. These brain regions are dominantly associated with different kinds of visual attention, integration of visual information, and responding to visual motion.

5.
PLoS One ; 12(10): e0185909, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29016693

RESUMO

To investigate the links between mental workload, age and risky driving, a cross-sectional study was conducted on a driving simulator using several established and some novel measures of driving ability and scenarios of varying complexity. A sample of 115 drivers was divided into three age and experience groups: young inexperienced (18-21 years old), adult experienced (25-55 years old) and older adult (70-86 years old). Participants were tested on three different scenarios varying in mental workload from low to high. Additionally, to gain a better understanding of individuals' ability to capture and integrate relevant information in a highly complex visual environment, the participants' perceptual-cognitive capacity was evaluated using 3-dimensional multiple object tracking (3D-MOT). Results indicate moderate scenario complexity as the best suited to highlight well-documented differences in driving ability between age groups and to elicit naturalistic driving behavior. Furthermore, several of the novel driving measures were shown to provide useful, non-redundant information about driving behavior, complementing more established measures. Finally, 3D-MOT was demonstrated to be an effective predictor of elevated crash risk as well as decreased naturally-adopted mean driving speed, particularly among older adults. In sum, the present experiment demonstrates that in cases of either extreme high or low task demands, drivers can become overloaded or under aroused and thus task measures may lose sensitivity. Moreover, insights from the present study should inform methodological considerations for future driving simulator research. Importantly, future research should continue to investigate the predictive utility of perceptual-cognitive tests in the domain of driving risk assessment.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Assunção de Riscos , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Treinamento com Simulação de Alta Fidelidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Medição de Risco , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
6.
Data Brief ; 13: 301-305, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28649590

RESUMO

The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "The use of transdermal scopolamine to solve methodological issues raised by gender differences in susceptibility to simulator sickness" (Chaumillon et al., 2017) [1]. In an outstanding first demonstration, Kennedy et al. [2] showed that the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) is an appropriate tool to suit the purposes of characterizing motion sickness experienced in virtual environments. This questionnaire has since been used in many scientific studies. Recently, Balk et al. [3] suggested that the proposed segregation of SSQ scores into three subclasses of symptoms might limit the accuracy of simulator sickness assessment. These authors performed a factor analysis based on SSQ scores obtained from nine studies on driving simulators. Although their factor analysis resulted in the same three orthogonal classes of symptoms as Kennedy et al. [2], unlike this pioneering study, no items were attributed to more than one factor and five items were not attributed to any class of symptoms. As a result, they claimed that an exploration of each item score should give additional cues on individual profiles. To gain a better characterization of such item-by-item exploration, data utilised in this research are shown using a radar chart visualisation.

7.
Neuroscience ; 347: 134-147, 2017 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28188853

RESUMO

Optic flow provides visual self-motion information and is shown to modulate gait and provoke postural reactions. We have previously reported an increased reliance on the visual, as opposed to the somatosensory-based egocentric, frame of reference (FoR) for spatial orientation with age. In this study, we evaluated FoR reliance for self-motion perception with respect to the ground surface. We examined how effects of ground optic flow direction on posture may be enhanced by an intermittent podal contact with the ground, and reliance on the visual FoR and aging. Young, middle-aged and old adults stood quietly (QS) or stepped in place (SIP) for 30s under static stimulation, approaching and receding optic flow on the ground and a control condition. We calculated center of pressure (COP) translation and optic flow sensitivity was defined as the ratio of COP translation velocity over absolute optic flow velocity: the visual self-motion quotient (VSQ). COP translation was more influenced by receding flow during QS and by approaching flow during SIP. In addition, old adults drifted forward while SIP without any imposed visual stimulation. Approaching flow limited this natural drift and receding flow enhanced it, as indicated by the VSQ. The VSQ appears to be a motor index of reliance on the visual FoR during SIP and is associated with greater reliance on the visual and reduced reliance on the egocentric FoR. Exploitation of the egocentric FoR for self-motion perception with respect to the ground surface is compromised by age and associated with greater sensitivity to optic flow.


Assuntos
Percepção de Movimento , Fluxo Óptico , Autoimagem , Caminhada , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
8.
Age (Dordr) ; 37(4): 9805, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26122710

RESUMO

Reliance on the visual frame of reference for spatial orientation (or visual field dependence) has been reported to increase with age. This has implications on old adults' daily living tasks as it affects stability, attention, and adaptation capacities. However, the nature and underlying mechanisms of this increase are not well defined. We investigated sensorimotor and cognitive factors possibly associated with increased visual field dependence in old age, by considering functions that are both known to degrade with age and important for spatial orientation and sensorimotor control: reliance on the (somatosensory-based) egocentric frame of reference, visual fixation stability, and attentional processing of complex visual scenes (useful field of view, UFOV). Twenty young, 18 middle-aged, and 20 old adults completed a visual examination, three tests of visual field dependence (RFT, RDT, and GEFT), a test of egocentric dependence (subjective vertical estimation with the body erect and tilted at 70°), a visual fixation task, and a test of visual attentional processing (UFOV®). Increased visual field dependence with age was associated with reduced egocentric dependence, visual fixation stability, and visual attentional processing. In addition, visual fixation instability and reduced UFOV were correlated. Results of middle-aged adults fell between those of the young and old, revealing the progressive nature of the age effects we evaluated. We discuss results in terms of reference frame selection with respect to ageing as well as visual and non-visual information processing. Inter-individual differences amongst old adults are highlighted and discussed with respect to the functionality of increased visual field dependence.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Orientação/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Processamento Espacial/fisiologia , Campos Visuais/fisiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Atenção/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
9.
Exp Brain Res ; 223(1): 65-78, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22968738

RESUMO

During locomotion, a top-down organization has been previously demonstrated with the head as a stabilized platform and gaze anticipating the horizontal direction of the trajectory. However, the quantitative assessment of the anticipatory sequence from gaze to trajectory and body segments has not been documented. The present paper provides a detailed investigation into the spatial and temporal anticipatory relationships among the direction of gaze and body segments during locomotion. Participants had to walk along several mentally simulated complex trajectories, without any visual cues indicating the trajectory to follow. The trajectory shapes were presented to the participants on a sheet of paper. Our study includes an analysis of the relationships between horizontal gaze anticipatory behavior direction and the upcoming changes in the trajectory. Our findings confirm the following: 1) The hierarchical ordered organization of gaze and body segment orientations during complex trajectories and free locomotion. Gaze direction anticipates the head orientation, and head orientation anticipates reorientation of the other body segments. 2) The influence of the curvature of the trajectory and constraints of the tasks on the temporal and spatial relationships between gaze and the body segments: Increased curvature resulted in increased time and spatial anticipation. 3) A different sequence of gaze movements at inflection points where gaze plans a much later segment of the trajectory.


Assuntos
Antecipação Psicológica/fisiologia , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Locomoção/fisiologia , Adulto , Algoritmos , Calibragem , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Feminino , Pé/fisiologia , Movimentos da Cabeça , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
10.
Neurosci Lett ; 465(3): 230-4, 2009 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19591896

RESUMO

We examined to which extent proprioceptive information involved in the perception of subjective vertical corresponded to mechanical mass-based axes of the body. Blindfolded subjects (n=14) estimated their subjective vertical in conditions of deviation of the centre of mass (CM) of (1) the head-trunk unit or (2) the head segment alone. Verticality estimates (provided in a haptic modality) were significantly altered by the deviation of the head-trunk CM (by either 4 degrees or 7 degrees), indicating that the subjects used mass-based proprioceptive information stemming from the trunk. Modifying the perception of body orientation by shifting the trunk CM sideways while keeping the body vertical, deviates the subjective vertical towards the opposite side in a similar way to the so-called 'E-effect'. The induced deviations of head CM (9.33 degrees) did not affect the subjective vertical, suggesting that when the balance of the body is not threatened, proprioceptive or vestibular information is prioritized to estimate gravitational direction.


Assuntos
Orientação/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Propriocepção/fisiologia , Tato/fisiologia , Adolescente , Humanos , Masculino
11.
Exp Brain Res ; 167(4): 487-95, 2005 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16292573

RESUMO

The identification of the kinaesthetic information used for directing 3D multi-joint arm movements toward a target remains an open question. Several psychophysical studies have suggested that the ability to perceive and control the spatial orientation of our limbs depends on the exploitation of the eigenvectors (e (3)) of the inertia tensor (I ( ij )), which correspond to the arm rotational inertial axes. The present experiment aimed at investigating whether e (3) was used as a collective variable to direct the masses toward the target and hence to control the spatial accuracy of the final hand position. Natural, unconstrained, three-dimensional multi-joint reaching movements were submitted to alterations of forearm mass distribution. Given the existence of several "sensorimotor strategies" for the control of arm movements, the participants were a priori contrasted and ranged in groups according to their reliance on either visual or kinaesthetic information. The results indicated (1) the dependency of the arm's directional control on I ( ij ) parameters, (2) a non-linear relationship between the performance predicted by the inertia tensor and the observed performance, depending on the deviation amplitude and (3) the presence of a large inter-individual variability suggesting the existence of different strategies, including proprioceptive compensation mechanisms. This study validates in unconstrained multi-joint arm movements the exploitation of the inertia tensor by the central nervous system, thus simplifying the coordination of the segments' masses during reaching. The results also provide evidence for the existence of motor alternatives in exploiting proprioceptive information that may depend on spatial referencing modes.


Assuntos
Braço/fisiologia , Articulações/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adulto , Algoritmos , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Masculino , Orientação/fisiologia , Propriocepção/fisiologia , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia
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