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1.
Dalton Trans ; 41(24): 7218-26, 2012 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22576867

RESUMO

Self-assembly of the linear segmental ligand L5, consisting of a tridentate binding unit flanked with two bidentate binding units, with a mixture of Fe(II)/Ag(I) yields the trinuclear coordination-captured [2]catenate [AgFeAg(L5)(2)](4+) instead of the planned isomeric double-stranded helicate. Replacing the octahedral (Fe(II)) and tetrahedral (Ag(I)) cations with Zn(II), which is compatible with both geometries, gives intricate mixtures of homometallic complexes upon reaction with the twin ligand L6, from which the macrocyclic dinuclear complex [Zn(2)(L6)](4+) can be isolated. Application of the thermodynamic site binding model attributes the origin of the ligand preference for producing single-stranded macrocycles, the precursors of the trinuclear catenate, to the abnormally low value of the effective molarity controlling the intramolecular connection leading to the usual double-stranded helical isomer.

2.
J Org Chem ; 77(10): 4586-95, 2012 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22500580

RESUMO

We report herein an efficient route for the synthesis of 2,4,8-trichloropyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidines 1 with R(1) substituents at C-6. The potential of such scaffolds was demonstrated by the possibility to displace regioselectively each aromatic chloride to introduce diversity. Sequential sulfur nucleophilic addition followed by Liebeskind-Srogl cross-coupling reaction yielded unprecedented aryl introduction at C-4 on a trichloropyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidine derivative. The reactivity difference of the remaining two chlorides toward S(N)Ar reactions was investigated. Amination yielded high C-2 regioselectivity, while thiolation was influenced by C-6 substituents, resulting in medium to high C-2 versus C-8 regioselectivity. The last chloride was efficiently displaced by S(N)Ar, Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction, or reduction. C-2 arylation as a final step was also possible by Liebeskind-Srogl cross-coupling reaction on the previously introduced C-2 thioether. A concise and highly divergent synthetic use of 1 was developed, thereby providing an efficient approach to explore the structure-activity relationship of pyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidine derivatives such as 9, 10, 15, and 16.


Assuntos
Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas/química , Piridinas/química , Pirimidinas/química , Pirimidinas/síntese química , Catálise , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Estereoisomerismo
3.
Dalton Trans ; 41(16): 4817-23, 2012 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22392102

RESUMO

This contribution investigates Ln(III) complexes formed with a small ditopic ligand, L1, and their structural, thermodynamic and photophysical properties. The spectrophotometric and NMR titrations evidence the triangular assemblies [Ln(3)(L1-H)(3)](6+) at stoichiometric conditions and their properties are discussed in relation to L2-containing analogues. In addition, the dinuclear species, [Ln(2)(L1-H)](5+), is observed with an excess of metal.

4.
J Org Chem ; 77(1): 243-52, 2012 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22118529

RESUMO

We report herein the synthesis of 4-amino-2,8-dichloropyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidine derivatives 2 and their regioselective diversification through S(N)Ar and metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions. While amination of 2 took place selectively at C-2, the regioselectivity of thiol or thiolate addition depended on the reaction conditions. Selective C-8 addition was obtained in DMF with Hünig's base and C-2 addition in (i)PrOH. These C-2 or C-8 regioselective thiolations provided an opportunistic way to selectively activate either of the two positions toward the metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction. The chloride could be efficiently substituted by Suzuki-Miyaura reaction and the sulfanyl group by Liebeskind-Srogl cross-coupling reaction, demonstrating the orthogonality of both reactive centers. The development of regioselective conditions for these different transformations yielded the synthesis of 4-amino-2,6,8-trisubstituted pyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidine derivatives, with various substituents.


Assuntos
Pirimidinas/síntese química , Aminação , Catálise , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas , Ésteres , Estrutura Molecular , Pirimidinas/química , Estereoisomerismo
5.
Org Biomol Chem ; 9(8): 2809-20, 2011 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21365099

RESUMO

Two syntheses of the Amaryllidaceae alkaloid clivonine (1) are described. Both employ previously reported 7-arylhydrindane 6 as an intermediate but differ in the method employed for subsequent introduction of what becomes the ring-B lactone carbonyl carbon (C7). The synthesis featuring a Bischler-Napieralski reaction for this transformation constitutes the first asymmetric synthesis of natural (+)-clivonine. Crystal structures for compounds (±)-13, (±)-16, (-)-20 and (±)-28 are also reported.


Assuntos
Alcaloides de Amaryllidaceae/síntese química , Magnoliopsida/química , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular
6.
Org Lett ; 12(24): 5604-7, 2010 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21082811

RESUMO

Single point binding ruthenium Lewis acid catalysts [Ru(acetone)(S,S)-BIPHOP-F)Cp][SbF(6)] ((S,S)-1b) and [Ru(acetone)(S,S)-BIPHOP-F)(indenyl)][SbF(6)] ((S,S)-1c) efficiently catalyze intramolecular Diels-Alder (IMDA) reactions under mild conditions to afford the endo cycloaddition products as the major product in excellent yields with high diastereo- and enantioselectivities.

7.
Chemistry ; 16(21): 6300-9, 2010 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20411544

RESUMO

New Enders/Herrmann-type chiral N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands have been developed and applied in asymmetric palladium-catalyzed intramolecular alpha-arylations of amides. The best ligands feature the bulky tert-butyl group and ortho-substituted aryl groups at the stereogenic centers. Aryl bromides readily react at room temperature and aryl chlorides at 50 degrees C. The highly enantiomerically enriched (up to 96% ee) 3-alkyl-3-aryloxindole products were obtained in generally high yields (>95%) except in cases of steric congestion. The critical roles both of the bulky alkyl group and of the ortho-aryl substituent at the stereogenic center of the ligand were revealed in the crystal structure of a [Pd(eta(3)-allyl)(NHC-L*)(I)] complex. The ligand aryl location and orientation is fixed by conformational locking that minimizes A(1,3)-strain and enables optimal transfer of chiral information.

8.
Chemistry ; 16(21): 6285-99, 2010 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20397248

RESUMO

Access to highly enantioenriched planar chiral [Cr(5-bromonaphthalene)(CO)(3)] (6), [Ru(eta(5)-C(5)R(5))(5-bromonaphthalene)][PF(6)] (42) and [Ru(eta(5)-C(5)R(5))(4-bromoindene)] (44) was sought using asymmetric hydrogenolysis of [Cr(5,8-dibromonaphthalene)(CO)(3)] (5), [Ru(eta(5)-C(5)R(5))(5,8-dibromonaphthalene)] (39) and [Ru(eta(5)-C(5)R(5))(4,7-dibromoindene)] (40), respectively. Initial efforts focused on the chromium complex 5. Pd(0) catalysts with dimethoxyethane as the solvent and LiBH(4) or NaBH(3)CN as a hydride source worked best. Nineteen chiral bidentate phosphorus ligands were screened in this reaction. Asymmetric induction was low to modest with product ee's in the range of 4 to 52% and yields of 6 of up to 70%. Chiral phosphoramidite ligands proved superior and a bulky ligand derived from a Whitesell amine and 3,3'-diphenyl-binaphtol afforded 6 with an ee of 97%. The high enantioselectivity is largely due to the initial desymmetrization reaction though kinetic resolution also plays an important role as shown by the determination of a selectivity factor s=8.5 at -10 degrees C. Initially high ligand loadings (4 equiv/Pd) were necessary to achieve good asymmetric induction. This could be traced to the trapping of the chiral ligand by borane formed in the reaction. Addition of 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) suppressed this, and its addition led to the use of Pd and chiral ligand in a 1:1.2 ratio. Asymmetric hydrogenolysis of cationic dibromonaphthalene and neutral dibromoindenyl complexes of Ru cyclopentadienyl complexes was investigated and afforded the following results: [RuCp(5-bromonaphthalene)][PF(6)] (39a; 75%, 90% ee), [RuCp*(5-bromonaphthalene)] [PF(6)] (39b; 88%, 99% ee), [RuCp(4-bromoindenyl)] (44a; 72%, 96% ee), and [RuCp*(4-bromoindenyl)] (44b; 62%, 68% ee).

9.
Chemistry ; 16(9): 2797-805, 2010 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20099285

RESUMO

Three tricyclic diquats with an eight-membered ring were prepared and shown to be the first configurationally stable derivatives of their kind. Resolution was achieved by using chiral hexacoordinated phosphorus BINPHAT and TRISPHAT anions. The diquat cations were obtained in high diastereo- and enantiomeric purity (ee>96% in most cases). X-ray diffraction analysis coupled with circular dichroism (CD) measurements allowed a precise determination of the relative and absolute configuration of the salts. The barriers to racemization of these compounds were calculated by using CD time-course measurements at different temperatures, affording DeltaG(++) values above 25 kcal mol(-1). Derivatives 4a, 4b, and 4c are the first eight-membered-ring derivatives with only three ring constraints to be resolved. This manuscript also reports the first procedure to remove TRISPHAT anions after diastereomeric separation.

10.
Inorg Chem ; 49(3): 1252-65, 2010 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20050599

RESUMO

Despite the recent emergence of a toolbox fitted with microscopic thermodynamic descriptors for predicting the stabilities and speciations of polynuclear complexes in solution, the discovery of novel or unusual type of metal-ligand assemblies in metallosupramolecular chemistry still often relies on serendipity. In order to highlight the novel perspectives offered by a rational exploitation of these thermodynamic parameters, the segmental bis-tridentate ligands L7 and L8 have been designed for providing effective molarities upon reaction with trivalent lanthanides, Ln(III), so small that the saturated binuclear triple-stranded helicates [Ln(2)(Lk)(3)](6+), which obey the well-respected principle of maximum site occupancy, cannot be detected in solution because of their deliberately planned instabilities. The hierarchical evolution of the effective molarities with an increasing number of ligand strands in these complexes indeed favors the formation of the alternative unsaturated single-stranded [Ln(2)(Lk)](6+) and double-stranded [Ln(2)(Lk)(2)](6+) complexes, whose relative speciations in solution depend on the nature of the binding sites introduced into the segmental ligand.

11.
Inorg Chem ; 49(2): 606-15, 2010 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20020694

RESUMO

Two tridentate and one bidentate binding strands have been anchored on a carbon atom to provide a new unsymmetrical tripodal ligand L for Ln(III) coordination. The ligand itself adopts a single conformation in solution stabilized by intramolecular hydrogen bonds evidenced in the solid state. The reaction of L with trivalent lanthanides provides different coordination complexes depending on the metal/ligand ratio. The speciation studies with selected lanthanides were performed in solution by means of NMR, ESMS, and spectrophotometric titrations. Differences in coordination properties along the lanthanide series were evidenced and may be associated with the changes in the ionic size. However, thermodynamic stability constants for the species of the same stoichiometry do not significantly vary. In addition, the structure of the dinuclear complex [Eu(2)L(2)](6+) has been elucidated in the solid state, where the complex crystallizes predominantly as an M-isomer. The crystal structure shows the coordination of two different ligands to each europium cation through tridentate strands, and the europium nine-coordinate sphere is completed with three solvent molecules. Finally, the results of photophysical investigations of [Eu(2)L(2)](6+) are in close agreement with the structural parameters determined by crystallography.

12.
Org Biomol Chem ; 8(1): 193-200, 2010 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20024150

RESUMO

Well defined, stable, one-point binding ruthenium complexes and selectively bind and activate alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds for cycloaddition reactions. These mild Lewis acids catalyze asymmetric 1,4-addition reactions of aryl thiols to enones with product selectivities up to 87% ee. (31)P NMR experiments provide an insight into the intricate equilibria governing the reaction mechanism. The absolute configuration of the major products indicates enones to react in the syn-s-trans orientation. Models based on X-ray structures of the Ru complexes can be used to rationalize selectivity.


Assuntos
Alcenos/química , Cetonas/química , Compostos de Rutênio/química , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química , Sítios de Ligação , Catálise , Cristalografia por Raios X , Ciclização , Estereoisomerismo
13.
Dalton Trans ; (40): 8493-508, 2009 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19809724

RESUMO

A series of five vicinal bis(alkyl-triarylphosphoniums) derived from o-bis(diphenyl-phosphino)benzene (o-dppb) is described. Each of them have been prepared by specific methods, and their formal electrostatic and possible van der Waals strain is compared through the P+...P+ distances in the crystal state. According to X-ray diffraction analyses, while the conformations of the dimethyl dication is C2 symmetric, the conformation of alka-1,n-diyl-diphosphoniums (n = 1, 2, 3) is pseudo-Cs symmetric. The solution structure of the dimethyldiphosphonium 2 was studied by NMR techniques after metathesis of the triflate counterions with enantiomerically pure X-PHAT chiral anions (X = TRIS, BIN). [(Delta)-BINPHAT] was indirectly shown to discriminate between the enantiomers of the diphosphonium, but no effective enantio-differentiation could be measured down to -70 degrees C in CD2Cl2. When associated to [(Delta)-TRISPHAT] counterions, progressive cleavage of the diphosphonium afforded the corresponding methyl-triphenyl-monophosphonium salt. In the bridged series, the diphosphoniacyclopentene dication was found to be stable in spite of the very short transannular P+...P+ distance (2.83 A). The naturally more relaxed homologous diphosphoniacyclohexene dication (P+...P+ = 3.28 A) was found to be flexible in solution, as indicated by the equivalence of the four protons of the +P-CH2CH2-P+ bridge from 20 degrees C to -80 degrees C in acetone-d6. The two diphosphoniacycloheptene dications exhibit no P+...P+ steric compression (ca 3.64 A), just as the dimethyl dication (3.70 A). In solution, the seven-membered ring of the +P-CH2CR2CH2-P+ dications (R = H, Me) remains rigidly Cs symmetric: no interconversion of the pseudo-axial and pseudo-equatorial R groups is evidenced at the NMR time scale at -95 degrees C (coalescence at -20 degrees C for R = H, at -65 degrees C for R = Me). According to DFT calculations at the B3PW91/6-31G** level in 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE: PCM, epsilon = 10.36), the lowest energy conformation is indeed Cs-symmetric. However a quasi-isoenergetic C2-symmetric conformation which is the most stable in the gas phase is also found, and is thus a likely intermediate in the observed Cs <==> Cs interconversion. This +P-CH2CMe2CH2-P+ diphosphonium was obtained by dialkylation of o-dppb with 2,2-dimethylpropan-1,3-diyl bistriflate in DCE at 80 degrees C. The use of this solvent was the key for the synthesis of this dication, which was however competitively produced along with some +P-CH2CH2-P+ dication. The latter was also obtained by a totally different route, by heating a sulfinylethyl monophosphonium salt of o-dppb in the presence of the cationic complex [Rh(cod)2][PF6]. A mechanism for this peculiar process is proposed.

14.
Dalton Trans ; (37): 7625-38, 2009 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19759934

RESUMO

Reaction of unsymmetrical tridentate 2-benzimidazolyl-6-carboxamidopyridine binding units in the ligands (b) and with neutral Ln(NO(3))(3) (Ln is a trivalent lanthanide) gives mononuclear [Ln((b))(NO(3))(3)(solvent)] and binuclear [Ln(2)(L5)(NO(3))(6)(solvent)(2)] complexes. The crystal structures of (b) and [Eu((b))(NO(3))(3)(CH(3)CN)] unravel the conformational change of the tridentate binding units required for its coordination to the metal, a process responsible for the change in electronic absorption spectra and in (1)H NMR spectra recorded in acetonitrile solution. In the solid state, the bis-tridentate ligand shows variable helical conformations of its central diphenylmethane spacer in its uncoordinated form (amphiverse helix) and in its complexed form in [Eu(2)(L5)(NO(3))(6)(H(2)O)(2)] (regular helix), which puts the two metals at a contact distance of 8.564(1) A. In solution, fast rearrangements yield an average planar extended conformation of the spacer, which increases the intramolecular intermetallic contact distance by 30% in [Ln(2)(L5)(NO(3))(6)(H(2)O)(2)]. Surprisingly, the thermodynamic analysis of the complexation processes in solution points to unusual, and to some extent non-predicted charge effects because the intramolecular intermetallic repulsive interaction measured in the neutral complex [Ln(2)(L5)(NO(3))(6)] (Ln...Ln approximately 12 A) is comparable with that found in the highly charged triple-stranded helicate [Ln(2)(L5)(3)](6+) (Ln...Ln approximately 9 A). The origin of this effect and its consequences on programming stable polynuclear complexes is discussed.

15.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; (35): 5227-9, 2009 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19707628

RESUMO

Key elements in this communication are a very efficient microwave synthesis of [RuCp(naphthalene)][PF(6)], the precursor of [RuCp(CH(3)CN)(3)][PF(6)], and a Pd-catalysed asymmetric hydrogenolysis to afford planar chiral ruthenium complexes with high levels of enantioselectivity using a bulky chiral phosphoramidite ligand.

16.
J Org Chem ; 74(15): 5553-8, 2009 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19572594

RESUMO

A simple protocol for the synthesis of 3-amino-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyridines is reported. The newly developed one-pot methodology involves the reaction of hydrazinopyridine with isothiocyanates to give the corresponding thiosemicarbazides, which are further desulfurized in situ using polymer-supported Mukaiyama's reagent to promote the final cyclization and formation of the central core. Aryl isothiocyanates bearing both electron-donating and electron-withdrawing groups are well tolerated, and the expected compounds were obtained in excellent purities and yields after removal of salts with a SPE-NH2 column. This methodology proved to be robust in the extension to 3-amino-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]-pyrazines and 3-amino-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-c]-pyrimidines, and no significant differences were noticed in terms of purities and yields. The straightforward protocol developed, mix, filter, and evaporate, is appropriate for performing multiple reactions in parallel fashion without need of purification.


Assuntos
Piridinas/síntese química , Triazóis/síntese química , Estrutura Molecular , Piridinas/química , Estereoisomerismo , Triazóis/química
17.
Inorg Chem ; 48(12): 5512-25, 2009 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19499959

RESUMO

The connection of an additional bidentate chelating unit at the extremity of a segmental bis-tridentate ligand in L5 provides an unprecedented sequence of binding sites for the self-assembly of heterometallic 3d-4f triple-stranded helicates. Thorough thermodynamic and structural investigations in acetonitrile show the formation of intricate mixtures of complexes when a single type of metal (3d or 4f) is reacted with L5. However, the situation is greatly simplified when Zn(II) (3d-block) and Lu(III) (4f-block) are simultaneously coordinated to L5, thus leading to only two identified species: the target C(3)-symmetrical trinuclear triple-stranded d-f-f helicate HHH-[ZnLu(2)(L5)(3)](8+) and a tetranuclear double-stranded complex [Zn(2)Lu(2)(L5)(2)](10+). Interestingly, the removal of Zn(II) from the former triple-helical complex has only a minor effect on the coordination of Lu(III), and translational autodiffusion coefficients show a simple reduction of the length of the molecular rigid cylinder from L = 2.7 nm in HHH-[ZnLu(2)(L5)(3)](8+) to L = 2.3 nm in HHH-[Lu(2)(L5)(3)](6+). Finally, the complete thermodynamic picture provides five novel stability macroconstants containing information about short-range (ca. 9 A) and long-range (ca. 18 A) intramolecular intermetallic d-f and f-f interactions.

18.
Chemistry ; 15(20): 5012-22, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19373792

RESUMO

Synthetic routes to a penta(4-pyridyl)cyclopentadienyl ligand are explored. The most successful route uses a palladium-catalysed pentapyridation of di(tert-butyl)phosphinoferrocene by using a procedure developed by Hartwig. The same method allows the synthesis of cyclopentadiene ligands substituted with 4-benzaldehydes or 4-phenylthiols. The pyridine ligands are formally five-connected nodes that may be linked by linear coordination metals to give closed spherical complexes of composition [(metal)(30)(ligand)(12)] as shown by molecular modelling. Experiment shows that the ligand complexes copper(I) and silver(I) with the expected 1:2.5 stoichiometry, and the (1)H NMR spectrum of the resulting product shows the ligands to be equivalent. NMR diffusion and light-scattering measurements support the formation of a species with a hydrodynamic radius of the order of 15 A, in agreement with the modelling studies. The resulting complex would be topologically identical to the C(60) fullerene structure.

19.
Dalton Trans ; (7): 1114-22, 2009 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19322481

RESUMO

The synthesis and characterisation of two new Cu(ii)-hexanoate-azacrown ether species are described. The first monomeric complex is a "classical" macrocyclic Cu(ii) complex with two monodentate axially coordinated carboxylates serving as counterions. The second is an adduct of the former complex with the copper(ii) hexanoate paddlewheel dimer, Cu(2)(hexanoate)(4), forming an infinite 1-D chain of alternating monomer-dimer units. The electronic and magnetic properties of both species are discussed based on UV-vis, IR, X-ray and EPR studies combined with the DFT calculations. The UV-vis titration results prove that complex and the polymeric species are in equilibrium in toluene solution.

20.
Chemistry ; 15(13): 3204-20, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19204962

RESUMO

Chiral framework: Chiral amines with pyrrolidine frameworks catalyze the enantioselective conjugate addition of a wide range of aldehydes to various vinyl sulfones and vinyl phosphonates in high yields and with enantioselectivities up to >99 % ee (see scheme). The high versatility of the Michael adducts is exemplified by various functionalizations with conservation of the optical purity.Chiral amines with a pyrrolidine framework catalyze the enantioselective conjugate addition of a broad range of aldehydes to various vinyl sulfones and vinyl phosphonates in high yields and with enantioselectivities up to >99 % ee. This novel process provides synthetically useful chiral gamma-gem-sulfonyl or phosphonyl aldehydes which can be widely functionalized with retention of the enantiomeric excess. Mechanistic insights including DFT calculations are explored in detail.


Assuntos
Aldeídos/química , Técnicas de Química Combinatória , Organofosfonatos/química , Organofosfonatos/síntese química , Sulfonas/química , Sulfonas/síntese química , Compostos de Vinila/química , Compostos de Vinila/síntese química , Aldeídos/síntese química , Aminas/química , Catálise , Modelos Químicos , Estrutura Molecular , Pirrolidinas/química , Estereoisomerismo
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