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1.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; : e1054, 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Posterior fossa malformations are among the most diagnosed central nervous system (CNS) anomalies detected by ultrasound (US) in prenatal age. We identified the pathogenic gene mutation in a male fetus of 17 weeks of gestation with US suspicion of familial Dandy-Walker spectrum malformation, using Next Generation Sequencing approach in prenatal diagnosis. METHODS: Whole exome sequencing (WES) approach has been performed on fetal genomic DNA. After reads preprocessing, mapping, variant calling, and annotation, a filtering strategy based on allelic frequency, recessive inheritance, and phenotypic ontologies has been applied. A fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 18 weeks of gestation has been performed. An in silico analysis of a potential causative missense variant in the fukutin protein has been carried out through a structural modeling approach. RESULTS: We identified a new homozygous missense mutation in fukutin gene (FKTN, NM_006731.2: c.898G>A; NP_006722.2: p.Gly300Arg). Fetal MRI supported molecular findings. Structural modeling analyses indicated a potential pathogenetic mechanism of the variant, through a reduced activation of the sugar moieties, which in turn impairs transfer to dystroglycan and thus its glycosylation. These findings pointed to a redefinition of the US suspicion of recurrence of Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM) to a muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy type A4. CONCLUSIONS: The present case confirmed WES as a reliable tool for the prenatal identification of the molecular bases of early-detected CNS malformations.

2.
Eur J Med Genet ; : 103772, 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568860

RESUMO

Some cases of chromosome 7p22.3 deletions have been reported, but the genotype-phenotype correlation is still uncertain. Neurodevelopmental delay and heart anomalies have been recorded as the most recurrent defects. We describe the clinical features of a four-year-old male child with a 139 kb deletion at 7p22.3 involving SNX8 gene, inherited from a mosaic mother. The same deletion is also present in the fetus on the ongoing third pregnancy of the couple with normal fetal ultrasound assessment. The proband was prenatally diagnosed with left kidney agenesis. He does not show any congenital heart disease, but mild intellectual disability, learning and language delay, and severe behavioral problems related to the hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive area. These clinical features are also evident in other 7p22 deletions cases involving the SNX8 gene, supporting the role of this gene in neurodevelopment. Conversely, the revision of all published cases with small 7p22 deletions and the absence of heart malformations in the present family confirm that this region is involved in heart development, anyway did not confirm the role of SNX8 in cardiac phenotypes, either due to the reduced penetrance or the involvement of other candidate genes.

4.
Stem Cell Res ; 40: 101551, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493762

RESUMO

Dentato-Rubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) is a rare autosomal, dominant, progressive neurodegenerative disease that causes involuntary movements, mental and emotional problems. DRPLA is caused by a mutation in the ATN1 gene that encodes for an abnormal polyglutamine stretch in the atrophin-1 protein. DRPLA is most common in the Japanese population, where it has an estimated incidence of 2 to 7 per million people. This condition has also been seen in families from North America and Europe. We obtained a reprogrammed iPSC line from a Caucasian patient with a juvenile onset of the disease, carrying 64 CAG repeat expansion in the ATN1 gene.

5.
Eur J Med Genet ; 62(9): 103558, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405577

RESUMO

Microduplications involving 1q32.1 chromosomal region have been rarely reported in literature. Patients with these microduplications suffer from intellectual disability, developmental delay and a number of dysmorphic features, although no clear karyotype/phenotype correlation has yet been determined. In this case report we describe two monochorionic-diamniotic twins with intellectual disability, abnormality of coordination and dysmorphic features associated with a de novo 280 kb mosaic microduplication of 1q32.1 chromosomal region, identified using a Chromosome Microarray Analysis (CMA) and confirmed by quantitative PCR analysis. The duplicated region encompassed entirely three OMIM genes KDM5B (*605393), KLHL12 (*614522), RABIF (*603417) and involved partially SYT2 (*600104). This unique case report allows to redefine the critical 1q32.1 microduplicated region implicated in the ethiopathogenesis of intellectual disability and developmental delay. Furthermore, it suggests that KDM5B gene can have a pivotal role in the development of neurodevelopmental disorders through its demethylase activity.

6.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448840

RESUMO

Xq22 deletions that encompass PLP1 (Xq22-PLP1-DEL) are notable for variable expressivity of neurological disease traits in females ranging from a mild late-onset form of spastic paraplegia type 2 (MIM# 312920), sometimes associated with skewed X-inactivation, to an early-onset neurological disease trait (EONDT) of severe developmental delay, intellectual disability, and behavioral abnormalities. Size and gene content of Xq22-PLP1-DEL vary and were proposed as potential molecular etiologies underlying variable expressivity in carrier females where two smallest regions of overlap (SROs) were suggested to influence disease. We ascertained a cohort of eight unrelated patients harboring Xq22-PLP1-DEL and performed high-density array comparative genomic hybridization and breakpoint-junction sequencing. Molecular characterization of Xq22-PLP1-DEL from 17 cases (eight herein and nine published) revealed an overrepresentation of breakpoints that reside within repeats (11/17, ~65%) and the clustering of ~47% of proximal breakpoints in a genomic instability hotspot with characteristic non-B DNA density. These findings implicate a potential role for genomic architecture in stimulating the formation of Xq22-PLP1-DEL. The correlation of Xq22-PLP1-DEL gene content with neurological disease trait in female cases enabled refinement of the associated SROs to a single genomic interval containing six genes. Our data support the hypothesis that genes contiguous to PLP1 contribute to EONDT.

7.
Stem Cell Res ; 38: 101480, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202121

RESUMO

Joubert syndrome (JS) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by congenital cerebellar and brainstem defects, belonging to the group of disorders known as ciliopathies, which are caused by mutations in genes encoding proteins of the primary cilium and basal body. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from a patient carrying a homozygous missense mutation (c.2168G > A) in AHI1, the first gene to be associated with JS, were produced using a virus-free protocol.

8.
Stem Cells Transl Med ; 8(9): 887-897, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104357

RESUMO

The main objective of this phase I trial was to assess the feasibility and safety of microtransplanting human neural stem cell (hNSC) lines into the spinal cord of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Eighteen patients with a definite diagnosis of ALS received microinjections of hNSCs into the gray matter tracts of the lumbar or cervical spinal cord. Patients were monitored before and after transplantation by clinical, psychological, neuroradiological, and neurophysiological assessment. For up to 60 months after surgery, none of the patients manifested severe adverse effects or increased disease progression because of the treatment. Eleven patients died, and two underwent tracheotomy as a result of the natural history of the disease. We detected a transitory decrease in progression of ALS Functional Rating Scale Revised, starting within the first month after surgery and up to 4 months after transplantation. Our results show that transplantation of hNSC is a safe procedure that causes no major deleterious effects over the short or long term. This study is the first example of medical transplantation of a highly standardized cell drug product, which can be reproducibly and stably expanded ex vivo, comprising hNSC that are not immortalized, and are derived from the forebrain of the same two donors throughout this entire study as well as across future trials. Our experimental design provides benefits in terms of enhancing both intra- and interstudy reproducibility and homogeneity. Given the potential therapeutic effects of the hNSCs, our observations support undertaking future phase II clinical studies in which increased cell dosages are studied in larger cohorts of patients. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2019;8:887&897.

9.
Clin Genet ; 96(3): 246-253, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090057

RESUMO

Two distinct genomic disorders have been linked to Xq28-gains, namely Xq28-duplications including MECP2 and Int22h1/Int22h2-mediated duplications involving RAB39B. Here, we describe six unrelated patients, five males and one female, with Xq28-gains distal to MECP2 and proximal to the Int22h1/Int22h2 low copy repeats. Comparison with patients carrying overlapping duplications in the literature defined the MidXq28-duplication syndrome featuring intellectual disability, language impairment, structural brain malformations, microcephaly, seizures and minor craniofacial features. The duplications overlapped for 108 kb including FLNA, RPL10 and GDI1 genes, highly expressed in brain and candidates for the neurologic phenotype.

10.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2018 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30244530

RESUMO

Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome is a well-defined disorder due to 4p16.3 deletion, characterized by distinct facial features, intellectual disability, prenatal and postnatal growth retardation, and seizures. Genotype-phenotype correlations based on differently sized deletions have been attempted, and some candidate genes have been suggested. We report on clinical characteristics of three patients with pure interstitial submicroscopic 4p16.3 deletions, ranging in size from 68 to 166 kb, involving WHSCR1 and/or part of WHSCR2, and review published cases with overlapping 4p16.3 losses. The present study highlights a major role of NSD2 gene in the pathogenesis of the WHS main features and predicts that loss-of-function mutations affecting NSD2 gene could result in microcephaly, prenatal and postnatal growth retardation, psychomotor and language delay, and craniofacial features. Absent seizures in all subjects corroborate the suggestion that this specific feature is causally linked with at least one additional causative gene. Finally, we suggest that mir-943 could play a role in the pathogenesis of CHD in some of these patients.

11.
Cell Death Dis ; 9(10): 937, 2018 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30224709

RESUMO

Establishing specific cell lineages from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) is vital for cell therapy approaches in regenerative medicine, particularly for neurodegenerative disorders. While neural precursors have been induced from hiPSCs, the establishment of hiPSC-derived human neural stem cells (hiNSCs), with characteristics that match foetal hNSCs and abide by cGMP standards, thus allowing clinical applications, has not been described. We generated hiNSCs by a virus-free technique, whose properties recapitulate those of the clinical-grade hNSCs successfully used in an Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) phase I clinical trial. Ex vivo, hiNSCs critically depend on exogenous mitogens for stable self-renewal and amplification and spontaneously differentiate into astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and neurons upon their removal. In the brain of immunodeficient mice, hiNSCs engraft and differentiate into neurons and glia, without tumour formation. These findings now warrant the establishment of clinical-grade, autologous and continuous hiNSC lines for clinical trials in neurological diseases such as Huntington's, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's, among others.

12.
Stem Cell Res ; 32: 73-77, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30218896

RESUMO

CHRNA7, encoding the neuronal alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (a7nAChR), is highly expressed in the brain, particularly in the hippocampus. It is situated in the 15q13.3 chromosome region, frequently associated with a Copy Number Variation (CNV), which causes its duplication or deletion. The clinical significance of CHRNA7 duplications is unknown so far, but there are several research data suggesting that they may be pathogenic, with reduced penetrance. We have produced an iPS cell line from a single healthy donor's fibroblasts carrying a 15q13.3 CNV, including CHRNA7 in order to study the exact role of this CNV during the neurodevelopment.

13.
Hum Mutat ; 39(9): 1226-1237, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29897170

RESUMO

Malan syndrome is an overgrowth disorder described in a limited number of individuals. We aim to delineate the entity by studying a large group of affected individuals. We gathered data on 45 affected individuals with a molecularly confirmed diagnosis through an international collaboration and compared data to the 35 previously reported individuals. Results indicate that height is > 2 SDS in infancy and childhood but in only half of affected adults. Cardinal facial characteristics include long, triangular face, macrocephaly, prominent forehead, everted lower lip, and prominent chin. Intellectual disability is universally present, behaviorally anxiety is characteristic. Malan syndrome is caused by deletions or point mutations of NFIX clustered mostly in exon 2. There is no genotype-phenotype correlation except for an increased risk for epilepsy with 19p13.2 microdeletions. Variants arose de novo, except in one family in which mother was mosaic. Variants causing Malan and Marshall-Smith syndrome can be discerned by differences in the site of stop codon formation. We conclude that Malan syndrome has a well recognizable phenotype that usually can be discerned easily from Marshall-Smith syndrome but rarely there is some overlap. Differentiation from Sotos and Weaver syndrome can be made by clinical evaluation only.

14.
Stem Cell Res ; 29: 174-178, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29704769

RESUMO

Juvenile Onset Huntington's Disease (JOHD) is a rare variant of HD withage of onset ≤20 years, accounting for 3-10% of all HD patients. The rarity occurrence of JOHD cases, who severely progress towards mental and physical disability with atypical clinical manifestations compared to classical HD, are responsible of general lack of knowledge about this variant. We obtained a fully reprogrammed iPS cell line from fibroblasts of a JOHD patient carrying 65 CAG repeats and age at onset at age 15. At the biopsy time, the patient showed an advanced stage after 10 years of disease.

15.
Stem Cell Res ; 28: 153-156, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29494847

RESUMO

Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a complex genetic disorder characterized by developmental delay, behavioural problems and circadian rhythm dysregulation. About 90% of SMS cases are due to a 17p11.2 deletion containing retinoic acid induced1 (RAI1) gene, 10% are due to heterozygous mutations affecting RAI1 coding region. Little is known about RAI1 role.

16.
Stem Cell Res ; 28: 145-148, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29486399

RESUMO

Huntington's disease (HD) is an incurable, autosomal dominant, hereditary neurodegenerative disorder that typically manifests itself in midlife. This pathology is linked to the deregulation of multiple, as yet unknown, cellular processes starting before HD onset. A human iPS cell line was generated from skin fibroblasts of a subject at the presymptomatic life stage, carrying a polyglutamine expansion in HTT gene codifying Huntingtin protein. The iPSC line contained the expected CAG expansion, expressed the expected pluripotency markers, displayed in vivo differentiation potential to the three germ layers and had a normal karyotype.

17.
Stem Cell Res ; 27: 74-77, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29334628

RESUMO

Joubert Syndrome (JS) is a rare autosomal recessive or X-linked condition characterized by a peculiar cerebellar malformation, known as the molar tooth sign (MTS), associated with other neurological phenotypes and multiorgan involvement. JS is a ciliopathy, a spectrum of disorders whose causative genes encode proteins involved in the primary cilium apparatus. In order to elucidate ciliopathy-associated molecular mechanisms, human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) were derived from a patient affected by JS carrying a homozygous missense mutation in the AHI1 gene (p.H896R) that encodes a protein named Jouberin.

18.
Stem Cell Res ; 27: 86-89, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29342448

RESUMO

Huntington Disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by motor, cognitive and behavioral features caused by a CAG expansion in the HTT gene beyond 35 repeats. The juvenile form (JHD) may begin before the age of 20years and is associated with expanded alleles as long as 60 or more CAG repeats. In this study, induced pluripotent stem cells were generated from skin fibroblasts of a 8-year-old child carrying a large size mutation of 84 CAG repeats in the HTT gene. HD appeared at age 3 with mixed psychiatric (i.e. autistic spectrum disorder) and motor (i.e. dystonia) manifestations.

19.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(1): 175-187, 2018 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29276005

RESUMO

Histone lysine methyltransferases (KMTs) and demethylases (KDMs) underpin gene regulation. Here we demonstrate that variants causing haploinsufficiency of KMTs and KDMs are frequently encountered in individuals with developmental disorders. Using a combination of human variation databases and existing animal models, we determine 22 KMTs and KDMs as additional candidates for dominantly inherited developmental disorders. We show that KMTs and KDMs that are associated with, or are candidates for, dominant developmental disorders tend to have a higher level of transcription, longer canonical transcripts, more interactors, and a higher number and more types of post-translational modifications than other KMT and KDMs. We provide evidence to firmly associate KMT2C, ASH1L, and KMT5B haploinsufficiency with dominant developmental disorders. Whereas KMT2C or ASH1L haploinsufficiency results in a predominantly neurodevelopmental phenotype with occasional physical anomalies, KMT5B mutations cause an overgrowth syndrome with intellectual disability. We further expand the phenotypic spectrum of KMT2B-related disorders and show that some individuals can have severe developmental delay without dystonia at least until mid-childhood. Additionally, we describe a recessive histone lysine-methylation defect caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous KDM5B variants and resulting in a recognizable syndrome with developmental delay, facial dysmorphism, and camptodactyly. Collectively, these results emphasize the significance of histone lysine methylation in normal human development and the importance of this process in human developmental disorders. Our results demonstrate that systematic clinically oriented pathway-based analysis of genomic data can accelerate the discovery of rare genetic disorders.

20.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(6): 1021-1033, 2017 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29220674

RESUMO

ACTB encodes ß-actin, an abundant cytoskeletal housekeeping protein. In humans, postulated gain-of-function missense mutations cause Baraitser-Winter syndrome (BRWS), characterized by intellectual disability, cortical malformations, coloboma, sensorineural deafness, and typical facial features. To date, the consequences of loss-of-function ACTB mutations have not been proven conclusively. We describe heterozygous ACTB deletions and nonsense and frameshift mutations in 33 individuals with developmental delay, apparent intellectual disability, increased frequency of internal organ malformations (including those of the heart and the renal tract), growth retardation, and a recognizable facial gestalt (interrupted wavy eyebrows, dense eyelashes, wide nose, wide mouth, and a prominent chin) that is distinct from characteristics of individuals with BRWS. Strikingly, this spectrum overlaps with that of several chromatin-remodeling developmental disorders. In wild-type mouse embryos, ß-actin expression was prominent in the kidney, heart, and brain. ACTB mRNA expression levels in lymphoblastic lines and fibroblasts derived from affected individuals were decreased in comparison to those in control cells. Fibroblasts derived from an affected individual and ACTB siRNA knockdown in wild-type fibroblasts showed altered cell shape and migration, consistent with known roles of cytoplasmic ß-actin. We also demonstrate that ACTB haploinsufficiency leads to reduced cell proliferation, altered expression of cell-cycle genes, and decreased amounts of nuclear, but not cytoplasmic, ß-actin. In conclusion, we show that heterozygous loss-of-function ACTB mutations cause a distinct pleiotropic malformation syndrome with intellectual disability. Our biological studies suggest that a critically reduced amount of this protein alters cell shape, migration, proliferation, and gene expression to the detriment of brain, heart, and kidney development.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Actinas/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Haploinsuficiência/genética , Actinas/biossíntese , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Ciclo Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Códon sem Sentido/genética , Coloboma/genética , Facies , Feminino , Mutação da Fase de Leitura/genética , Deleção de Genes , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical/genética , Camundongos , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Adulto Jovem
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