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1.
J Pediatr Genet ; 10(4): 292-299, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34849274

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between neurodevelopmental disorders, brain anomalies, and copy number variations (CNVs) and to estimate the diagnostic potential of cytogenomical microarray analysis (CMA) in individuals neuroradiologically characterized with intellectual developmental disorders (IDDs) isolated or associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and epilepsy (EPI), all of which were identified as a "synaptopathies." We selected patients who received CMA and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) over a 7-year period. We divided them into four subgroups: IDD, IDD + ASD, IDD + EPI, and IDD + ASD + EPI. The diagnostic threshold of CMA was 16%. The lowest detection rate for both CMA and brain anomalies was found in IDD + ASD, while MRI was significantly higher in IDD and IDD + EPI subgroups. CMA detection rate was significantly higher in patients with brain anomalies, so CMA may be even more appropriate in patients with pathological MRI, increasing the diagnostic value of the test. Conversely, positive CMA in IDD patients should require an MRI assessment, which is more often associated with brain anomalies. Posterior fossa anomalies, both isolated and associated with other brain anomalies, showed a significantly higher rate of CMA positive results and of pathogenic CNVs. In the next-generation sequencing era, our study confirms once again the relevant diagnostic output of CMA in patients with IDD, either isolated or associated with other comorbidities. Since more than half of the patients presented brain anomalies in this study, we propose that neuroimaging should be performed in such cases, particularly in the presence of genomic imbalances.

2.
Hum Genet ; 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34821995

RESUMO

Cooks syndrome (CS) is an ultrarare limb malformation due to in tandem microduplications involving KCNJ2 and extending to the 5' regulatory element of SOX9. To date, six CS families were resolved at the molecular level. Subsequent studies explored the evolutionary and pathological complexities of the SOX9-KCNJ2/Sox9-Kcnj2 locus, and suggested a key role for the formation of novel topologically associating domain (TAD) by inter-TAD duplications in causing CS. Here, we report a unique case of CS associated with a de novo 1;17 translocation affecting the KCNJ2 locus. On chromosome 17, the breakpoint mapped between KCNJ16 and KCNJ2, and combined with a ~ 5 kb deletion in the 5' of KCNJ2. Based on available capture Hi-C data, the breakpoint on chromosome 17 separated KCNJ2 from a putative enhancer. Gene expression analysis demonstrated downregulation of KCNJ2 in both patient's blood cells and cultured skin fibroblasts. Our findings suggest that a complex rearrangement falling in the 5' of KCNJ2 may mimic the developmental consequences of in tandem duplications affecting the SOX9-KCNJ2/Sox9-Kcnj2 locus. This finding adds weight to the notion of an intricate role of gene regulatory regions and, presumably, the related three-dimensional chromatin structure in normal and abnormal human morphology.

4.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665525

RESUMO

Koolen-de Vries syndrome (KdVS) is a rare genetic disorder caused by a de novo microdeletion in chromosomal region 17q21.31 encompassing KANSL1 or by a de novo intragenic pathogenic variant of KANSL1. KdVS is typically characterized by intellectual disability (ID), variable from mild to severe, developmental psychomotor delay, especially of expressive language development, friendly disposition, and multiple systemic abnormalities. So far, most of the individuals affected by KdVS are diagnosed in infancy or in adolescence; to the best of our knowledge, only 34 (including ours) adults have been reported in literature. Here we present the adult phenotype of a 63-year-old Italian woman affected by KdVS, caused by a 17q21.31 microdeletion. She is, to our knowledge, the oldest affected individual reported so far. We collected her clinical history and photographs, as well as those of other 26 adult patients described so far and compared her to them. We propose that the cardinal features of KdVS in adulthood are ID (ranging from mild to severe, usually moderate), friendly behavior, musculoskeletal abnormalities (especially scoliosis), and facial dysmorphism (a long face and a pronounced pear-shape nose with bulbous overhanging nasal tip). Therefore, we suggest considering KdVS in differential diagnosis in adult patients characterized by these features.

5.
J Pediatr Genet ; 10(3): 245-249, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504730

RESUMO

Inverted duplications deletions are rare, complex, and nonrecurrent chromosomal rearrangements associated with a variable phenotype. In this case report, we described the phenotype and genotype of a 14-week-old male fetus, who was aborted after discovery of multiple anomalies (septal cystic hygroma, open abdominal wall, and a nonidentifiable lower limb). At autopsy, fluorescence in situ hybridization and array comparative genomic hybridization identified an inverted duplication with terminal deletion of 4p [46,XY,der(4)del(p16.3)dup(4)(p15.2p16.3)]. Only five genotypically similar cases have been reported, and we hope our case contribution will add meaningful to the body of knowledge.

6.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(6)2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200245

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive cancer, with most patients diagnosed at advanced stages. First-line treatment based on a combined chemotherapy (FOLFIRINOX or gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel) provides limited benefits. Olaparib, a PARP inhibitor, has been approved as maintenance for PDAC patients harboring germline BRCA1/2 pathogenic mutations and previously treated with a platinum-based chemotherapy. BRCA1/2 germline testing is recommended, but also somatic mutations could predict responses to PARP inhibitors. Analysis of tumor tissues can detect both germline and somatic mutations and potential resistance alterations. Few data are available about BRCA1/2 testing on pancreatic tumor tissues, which often include limited biological material. We performed BRCA1/2 testing, by an amplicon-based Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) panel, on 37 consecutive PDAC clinical samples: 86.5% of cases were adequate for NGS analysis, with a success rate of 81.2% (median DNA input: 10 nanograms). Three BRCA2 mutations were detected (11.5%). Failed samples were all from tissue macrosections, which had higher fragmented DNA than standard sections, biopsies and fine-needle aspirations, likely due to fixation procedures. BRCA1/2 testing on pancreatic tumor tissues can also be feasible on small biopsies, but more cases must be analyzed to define its role and value in the PDAC diagnostic algorithm.

7.
Stem Cell Res ; 53: 102356, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087986

RESUMO

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an incurable neurodegenerative condition with phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity. It is characterized by the selective vulnerability and the progressive loss of the neural population. Here, an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line was generated from dermal fibroblasts of an individual carrying the p.G376D mutation in the TDP-43 protein. Fibroblasts were reprogrammed using non-integrating episomal plasmids. There were no karyotype abnormalities, and iPSCs successfully differentiated into all three germ layers. This cell line may prove useful in the study of the pathogenic mechanisms that underpin ALS syndrome.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular , Fibroblastos , Humanos , Mutação
8.
Biomolecules ; 11(6)2021 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067288

RESUMO

FOLFIRINOX (FFX) and gemcitabine + nab-paclitaxel (GN) are the most common chemotherapy regimens in first-line treatment of metastatic pancreatic cancer (PC). They have not been compared each other in a prospective trial, but only in retrospective studies, which can thus be affected by several biases. In order to overcome these biases, we took advantage of matching-adjusted indirect comparison (MAIC), that allows an indirect comparison by reducing cross-trial differences, and compared data from 268 patients treated with GN in a real-world setting with data from the 171 patients included in the FFX arm of the PRODIGE trial. Survival outcomes did not differ between the two populations. Overall survival was 11.1 months for both treatments (hazard ratio (HR) of FFX 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.81-1.49; p = 0.527). Progression-free survival was 6.0 months with GN and 6.4 months with FFX (HR of FFX 1.11, 95% CI 0.82-1.50; p = 0.520). On the other hand, we observed a difference in the toxicity profiles: grade 3/4 anemia was more frequent with GN, whereas a higher occurrence of grade 3/4 vomiting and diarrhea was reported with FFX. FFX and GN show an equivalent efficacy but different safety profiles in the first-line therapy of metastatic pancreatic cancer. Searching for reliable predictive biomarkers is advised in order to improve therapeutic strategy in metastatic PC.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Irinotecano/administração & dosagem , Irinotecano/efeitos adversos , Leucovorina/administração & dosagem , Leucovorina/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Oxaliplatina/administração & dosagem , Oxaliplatina/efeitos adversos , Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Taxa de Sobrevida
9.
Biology (Basel) ; 10(6)2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063745

RESUMO

Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is a rare and complex disease defined by congenital aplasia of the vagina and uterus in 46,XX women, often associated with kidney and urinary tract anomalies. The aetiopathogenesis of MRKH syndrome is still largely unknown. Herein, we investigated the role of selected candidate genes in the aetiopathogenesis of MRKH syndrome, with a focus on PRKX, which encodes for protein kinase X. Through RT-qPCR analyses performed on vaginal dimple samples from patients, and principal component analysis (PCA), we highlighted a phenotype-related expression pattern of PRKX, MUC1, HOXC8 and GREB1L in MRKH patients. By using an in vitro approach, we proved that PRKX ectopic overexpression in a cell model of vaginal keratinocytes promotes cell motility through epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) activation, a fundamental process in urogenital tract morphogenesis. Moreover, our findings showed that PRKX upregulation in vaginal keratinocytes is able to affect transcriptional levels of HOX genes, implicated in urinary and genital tract development. Our study identified the dysregulation of PRKX expression as a possible molecular cause for MRKH syndrome. Moreover, we propose the specific role of PRKX in vaginal keratinocyte biology as one of the possible mechanisms underlying this complex disease.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34033000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The need to estimate prognosis of advanced BTC (aBTC) patients treated with first-line chemotherapy is compelling. The aim of the study is to evaluate the ECSIPOT (psECogSIiPnigOT) index, influenced by PECS (PsECogSii) index, prognostic nutritional index (PNI), and GOT. METHODS: This international study was conducted on a training cohort of 126 patients and in three validation cohorts, both European and Korean. ECSIPOT index formula: (PECS:0 = 1 point; PECS:1 = 1.4 points; PECS:2 = 3.2 points) + (PNI > 36.7 = 1 point; PNI < 36.7 = 2 points) + (GOT < 100 = 1 point; GOT > 100 = 2 points). Event-time distributions were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and survival curves were compared using the log-rank test. RESULTS: In the training cohort, mOS was 12.9, 6.3, and 2.8 months for patients with ECSIPOT-0, ECSIPOT-1, and ECSIPOT-2, respectively (ECSIPOT-0: HR 1; ECSIPOT-1: HR 2.11; ECSIPOT-2: HR 4.93; p < 0.0001). In the first validation cohort, mOS was 11.5, 7.3, and 3.3 months for ECSIPOT-0, ECSIPOT-1, and ECSIPOT-2, respectively (ECSIPOT-0: HR 1; ECSIPOT-1: HR 1.74; ECSIPOT-2: HR 3.41; p < 0.0001). In the second validation cohort, mOS was 25.2, 12.5, and 3.0 months for ECSIPOT-0, ECSIPOT-1, and ECSIPOT-2, respectively (ECSIPOT-0: HR = 1; ECSIPOT-1: HR 2.33; ECSIPOT-2: HR 8.46; p < 0.0001). In the third validation cohort, mOS was 11.8, 8.1, and 4.6 months for ECSIPOT-0, ECSIPOT-1, and ECSIPOT-2, respectively (ECSIPOT-0: HR = 1; ECSIPOT-1: HR 1.47; ECSIPOT-2: HR 3.17; p < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis in all cohorts confirmed the ECSIPOT index as an independent prognostic factor for OS. CONCLUSION: The easy assessment and good risk-stratification performance make the ECSIPOT index a promising tool to comprehensively estimate the prognosis of aBTC patients.

12.
Clin Genet ; 100(3): 268-279, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33988253

RESUMO

Oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS) is a developmental disorder of craniofacial morphogenesis. Its etiology is unclear, but assumed to be complex and heterogeneous, with contribution of both genetic and environmental factors. We assessed the occurrence of copy number variants (CNVs) in a cohort of 19 unrelated OAVS individuals with congenital heart defect. Chromosomal microarray analysis identified pathogenic CNVs in 2/19 (10.5%) individuals, and CNVs classified as variants of uncertain significance in 7/19 (36.9%) individuals. Remarkably, two subjects had small intragenic CNVs involving DACH1 and DACH2, two paralogs coding for key components of the PAX-SIX-EYA-DACH network, a transcriptional regulatory pathway controlling developmental processes relevant to OAVS and causally associated with syndromes characterized by craniofacial involvement. Moreover, a third patient showed a large duplication encompassing DMBX1/OTX3, encoding a transcriptional repressor of OTX2, another transcription factor functionally connected to the DACH-EYA-PAX network. Among the other relevant CNVs, a deletion encompassing HSD17B6, a gene connected with the retinoic acid signaling pathway, whose dysregulation has been implicated in craniofacial malformations, was also identified. Our findings suggest that CNVs affecting gene dosage likely contribute to the genetic heterogeneity of OAVS, and implicate the PAX-SIX-EYA-DACH network as novel pathway involved in the etiology of this developmental trait.

13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(3)2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530447

RESUMO

Oculo-auriculo-vertebral-spectrum (OAVS; OMIM 164210) is a rare disorder originating from abnormal development of the first and second branchial arch. The clinical phenotype is extremely heterogeneous with ear anomalies, hemifacial microsomia, ocular defects, and vertebral malformations being the main features. MYT1, AMIGO2, and ZYG11B gene variants were reported in a few OAVS patients, but the etiology remains largely unknown. A multifactorial origin has been proposed, including the involvement of environmental and epigenetic mechanisms. To identify the epigenetic mechanisms contributing to OAVS, we evaluated the DNA-methylation profiles of 41 OAVS unrelated affected individuals by using a genome-wide microarray-based methylation approach. The analysis was first carried out comparing OAVS patients with controls at the group level. It revealed a moderate epigenetic variation in a large number of genes implicated in basic chromatin dynamics such as DNA packaging and protein-DNA organization. The alternative analysis in individual profiles based on the searching for Stochastic Epigenetic Variants (SEV) identified an increased number of SEVs in OAVS patients compared to controls. Although no recurrent deregulated enriched regions were found, isolated patients harboring suggestive epigenetic deregulations were identified. The recognition of a different DNA methylation pattern in the OAVS cohort and the identification of isolated patients with suggestive epigenetic variations provide consistent evidence for the contribution of epigenetic mechanisms to the etiology of this complex and heterogeneous disorder.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Síndrome de Goldenhar/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Goldenhar/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Ilhas de CpG , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Fenótipo
14.
Oncology ; 99(5): 292-299, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33626532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In the last few years, there has been increasing interest in non-cancer medications and their potential anti-cancer activity. Data are not available in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) patients. The aim of this study is to fill this gap by investigating the potential impact in terms of clinical outcome of the common non-cancer medications. METHODS: All consecutive patients with CCAs were retrospectively identified from 7 Italian medical institutions. We investigated the role of intake of vitamin D, aspirin, metformin, statins, and diuretics. RESULTS: A total of 537 patients with CCAs were identified; 197 patients undergoing surgery were evaluated for disease-free survival (DFS), and 509 patients with an advanced stage were evaluated for overall survival (OS). A longer DFS was found in patients with intake of vitamin D versus never users (HR 0.55, 95% CI 0.32-0.92, p = 0.02). In an advanced stage an association with OS was found in patients with intake of metformin versus never users (HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.52-0.93, p = 0.0162), and in patients who have started taking metformin after chemotherapy versus before chemotherapy and never users (HR 0.44, 95% CI 0.26-0.73, p = 0.0016). CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlighted that vitamin D intake improves DFS in patients undergoing surgery. Metformin intake after starting chemotherapy can improve the clinical outcome in advanced disease. These results could open up new therapeutic strategies in cholangiocarcinoma patients. We are planning to undertake a prospective study to validate these data.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/mortalidade , Colangiocarcinoma/mortalidade , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/patologia , Colangiocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Colangiocarcinoma/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 448, 2021 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432050

RESUMO

Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is a rare disease, characterised by the aplasia of vagina and uterus in women with a 46,XX karyotype. Most cases are sporadic, but familial recurrence has also been described. Herein, we investigated an Italian cohort of 36 unrelated MRKH patients to explore the presence of pathogenic copy number variations (CNVs) by array-CGH and MLPA assays. On the whole, aberrations were found in 9/36 (25%) patients. Interestingly, one patient showed a novel heterozygous microduplication at Xp22.33, not yet described in MRKH patients, containing the PRKX gene. Moreover, a novel duplication of a specific SHOX enhancer was highlighted by MLPA. To predict the potential significance of CNVs in MRKH pathogenesis, we provided a network analysis for protein-coding genes found in the altered genomic regions. Although not all of these genes taken individually showed a clear clinical significance, their combination in a computational network highlighted that the most relevant biological connections are related to the anatomical structure development. In conclusion, the results described in the present study identified novel genetic alterations and interactions that may be likely involved in MRKH phenotype determination, so adding new insights into the complex puzzle of MRKH disease.


Assuntos
Transtornos 46, XX do Desenvolvimento Sexual/genética , Anormalidades Congênitas/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Ductos Paramesonéfricos/anormalidades , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Raras , Proteína de Homoeobox de Baixa Estatura/genética , Adulto Jovem
16.
Clin Case Rep ; 9(1): 314-321, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33505690

RESUMO

Interstitial 8p deletions were previously described, in literature and databases, in approximately 30 patients with neurodevelopmental disorders. We report on a novel patient with a 8p21.2p11.21 deletion presenting a clinical phenotype that includes severe intellectual disability, microcephaly, epilepsy, and autism, the latter having been rarely associated with this genetic defect.

17.
HPB (Oxford) ; 23(6): 915-920, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33191108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The aim of our retrospective study is to evaluate the prognostic significance of aspirin in patients with advanced HCC treated with sorafenib. METHODS: 304 patients with HCC,consecutively treated with sorafenib from May 2007 to September 2018, were included in the clinical study. Of Them 93 patients token aspirin. Progression-free survival (PFS)and overall survival (OS)were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with the log-rank test. RESULTS: The concomitant use of sorafenib and aspirin was associated with a median OS of 18.3 months compared to 8.8 months of patients who did not receive aspirin (HR 0.57; P < 0.0001). The concomitant use of sorafenib and aspirin was associated with a median PFS of 7.3 months compared to 3.0 months of patients who did not receive aspirin (HR 0.61; P = 0.0003). In the multivariate analysis, the use of aspirin maintained an independent prognostic value for OS(HR 0.61; P = 0.0013). In second line the concomitant use of regorafenib and aspirin was associated with a median OS of 16.9 months compared to 8.0 months of patients who did not receive aspirin (HR 0.30; P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Globally, our data seem to suggest that aspirin use may improve the clinical outcome of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma receiving sorafenib and regorafenib.

18.
J Perinatol ; 41(5): 940-951, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33293665

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, resulting from infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has caused severe and widespread illness in adults, including pregnant women, while rarely infecting neonates. An incomplete understanding of disease pathogenesis and viral spread has resulted in evolving guidelines to reduce transmission from infected mothers to neonates. Fortunately, the risk of neonatal infection via perinatal/postnatal transmission is low when recommended precautions are followed. However, the psychosocial implications of these practices and racial/ethnic disparities highlighted by this pandemic must also be addressed when caring for mothers and their newborns. This review provides a comprehensive overview of neonatal-perinatal perspectives of COVID-19, ranging from the basic science of infection and recommendations for care of pregnant women and neonates to important psychosocial, ethical, and racial/ethnic topics emerging as a result of both the pandemic and the response of the healthcare community to the care of infected individuals.


Assuntos
COVID-19/transmissão , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/prevenção & controle , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico
19.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 10(12)2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33255855

RESUMO

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), defined as transcripts of >200 nucleotides not translated into protein, have been involved in a wide range of regulatory functions. Their dysregulations have been associated with diverse pathological conditions such as cancer, schizophrenia, Parkinson's, Huntington's, Alzheimer's diseases and Neurodevelopmental Disorders (NDDs), including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). We report on the case of a five-year-old child with global developmental delay carrying a de novo microduplication on chromosome Xq26.2 region characterized by a DNA copy-number gain spanning about 147 Kb (chrX:130,813,232-130,960,617; GRCh37/hg19). This small microduplication encompassed the exons 2-12 of the functional intergenic repeating RNA element (FIRRE) gene (chrX:130,836,678-130,964,671; GRCh37/hg19) that encodes for a lncRNA involved in the maintenance of chromatin repression. The association of such a genetic alteration with a severe neurodevelopmental delay without clear dysmorphic features and congenital abnormalities indicative of syndromic condition further suggests that small Xq26.2 chromosomal region microduplications containing the FIRRE gene may be responsible for clinical phenotypes mainly characterized by structural or functioning neurological impairment.

20.
Stem Cell Res ; 47: 101924, 2020 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739880

RESUMO

Among the known causative genes of familial ALS, SOD1mutation is one of the most common. It encodes for the ubiquitous detoxifying copper/zinc binding SOD1 enzyme, whose mutations selectively cause motor neuron death, although the mechanisms are not as yet clear. What is known is that mutant-mediated toxicity is not caused by loss of its detoxifying activity but by a gain-of-function. In order to better understand the pathogenic mechanisms of SOD1 mutation, a human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) line was generated from the somatic cells of a female patient carrying a missense variation in SOD1 (L145F).

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