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1.
Neurology ; 93(11): e1112-e1122, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405905

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the intrinsic organization of the thalamocortical circuitry in patients with generalized epilepsy with tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) via resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) connectome analysis and to evaluate its relation to drug response. METHODS: In a prospectively followed-up sample of 41 patients and 27 healthy controls, we obtained rs-fMRI and structural MRI. After 1 year of follow-up, 27 patients were classified as seizure-free and 14 as drug-resistant. We examined connectivity within and between resting-state communities in cortical and thalamic subregions. In addition to comparing patients to controls, we examined associations with seizure control. We assessed reproducibility in an independent cohort of 21 patients. RESULTS: Compared to controls, patients showed a more constrained network embedding of the thalamus, while frontocentral neocortical regions expressed increased functional diversity. Findings remained significant after regressing out thalamic volume and cortical thickness, suggesting independence from structural alterations. We observed more marked network imbalances in drug-resistant compared to seizure-free patients. Findings were similar in the reproducibility dataset. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a pathoconnectomic mechanism of generalized epilepsy centered on diverging changes in cortical and thalamic connectivity. More restricted thalamic connectivity could reflect the tendency to engage in recursive thalamocortical loops, which may contribute to hyperexcitability. Conversely, increased connectional diversity of frontocentral networks may relay abnormal activity to an extended bilateral territory. Network imbalances were observed shortly after diagnosis and related to future drug response, suggesting clinical utility.

3.
Neurology ; 93(13): e1272-e1280, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467252

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: MRI studies of genetic generalized epilepsies have mainly described group-level changes between patients and healthy controls. To determine the endophenotypic potential of structural MRI in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), we examined MRI-based cortical morphologic markers in patients and their healthy siblings. METHODS: In this prospective, cross-sectional study, we obtained 3T MRI in patients with JME, siblings, and controls. We mapped sulco-gyral complexity and surface area, morphologic markers of brain development, and cortical thickness. Furthermore, we calculated mean geodesic distance, a surrogate marker of cortico-cortical connectivity. RESULTS: Compared to controls, patients and siblings showed increased folding complexity and surface area in prefrontal and cingulate cortices. In these regions, they also displayed abnormally increased geodesic distance, suggesting network isolation and decreased efficiency, with strongest effects for limbic, fronto-parietal, and dorsal-attention networks. In areas of findings overlap, we observed strong patient-sibling correlations. Conversely, neocortical thinning was present in patients only and related to disease duration. Patients showed subtle impairment in mental flexibility, a frontal lobe function test, as well as deficits in naming and design learning. Siblings' performance fell between patients and controls. CONCLUSION: MRI markers of brain development and connectivity are likely heritable and may thus serve as endophenotypes. The topography of morphologic anomalies and their abnormal structural network integration likely explains cognitive impairments in patients with JME and their siblings. By contrast, cortical atrophy likely represents a marker of disease.

4.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 40(18): 5213-5230, 2019 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444896

RESUMO

Aging is characterized by accumulation of structural and metabolic changes in the brain. Recent studies suggest transmodal brain networks are especially sensitive to aging, which, we hypothesize, may be due to their apical position in the cortical hierarchy. Studying an open-access healthy cohort (n = 102, age range = 30-89 years) with MRI and Aß PET data, we estimated age-related cortical thinning, hippocampal atrophy and Aß deposition. In addition to carrying out surface-based morphological and metabolic mapping experiments, we stratified effects along neocortical and hippocampal resting-state functional connectome gradients derived from independent datasets. The cortical gradient depicts an axis of functional differentiation from sensory-motor regions to transmodal regions, whereas the hippocampal gradient recapitulates its long-axis. While age-related thinning and increased Aß deposition occurred across the entire cortical topography, increased Aß deposition was especially pronounced toward higher-order transmodal regions. Age-related atrophy was greater toward the posterior end of the hippocampal long-axis. No significant effect of age on Aß deposition in the hippocampus was observed. Imaging markers correlated with behavioral measures of fluid intelligence and episodic memory in a topography-specific manner, confirmed using both univariate as well as multivariate analyses. Our results strengthen existing evidence of structural and metabolic change in the aging brain and support the use of connectivity gradients as a compact framework to analyze and conceptualize brain-based biomarkers of aging.

5.
Epilepsia ; 60(7): 1293-1305, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179547

RESUMO

Neuroimaging techniques applied to a variety of organisms-from zebrafish, to rodents to humans-can offer valuable insights into neuronal network properties and their dysfunction in epilepsy. A wide range of imaging methods used to monitor neuronal circuits and networks during evoked seizures in animal models and advances in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) applied to patients with epilepsy were discussed during the XIV Workshop on Neurobiology of Epilepsy (XIV WONOEP) organized in 2017 by the Neurobiology Commission of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). We review the growing number of technological approaches developed, as well as the current state of knowledge gained from studies applying these advanced imaging approaches to epilepsy research.

6.
Epilepsia ; 60(6): 1054-1068, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31135062

RESUMO

Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is of fundamental importance to the diagnosis and treatment of epilepsy, particularly when surgery is being considered. Despite previous recommendations and guidelines, practices for the use of MRI are variable worldwide and may not harness the full potential of recent technological advances for the benefit of people with epilepsy. The International League Against Epilepsy Diagnostic Methods Commission has thus charged the 2013-2017 Neuroimaging Task Force to develop a set of recommendations addressing the following questions: (1) Who should have an MRI? (2) What are the minimum requirements for an MRI epilepsy protocol? (3) How should magnetic resonance (MR) images be evaluated? (4) How to optimize lesion detection? These recommendations target clinicians in established epilepsy centers and neurologists in general/district hospitals. They endorse routine structural imaging in new onset generalized and focal epilepsy alike and describe the range of situations when detailed assessment is indicated. The Neuroimaging Task Force identified a set of sequences, with three-dimensional acquisitions at its core, the harmonized neuroimaging of epilepsy structural sequences-HARNESS-MRI protocol. As these sequences are available on most MR scanners, the HARNESS-MRI protocol is generalizable, regardless of the clinical setting and country. The Neuroimaging Task Force also endorses the use of computer-aided image postprocessing methods to provide an objective account of an individual's brain anatomy and pathology. By discussing the breadth and depth of scope of MRI, this report emphasizes the unique role of this noninvasive investigation in the care of people with epilepsy.

7.
Neurology ; 92(19): e2209-e2220, 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31004070

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether hippocampal sclerosis (HS) severity is mirrored at the level of large-scale networks. METHODS: We studied preoperative high-resolution anatomical and diffusion-weighted MRI of 44 temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients with histopathologic diagnosis of HS (n = 25; TLE-HS) and isolated gliosis (n = 19; TLE-G) and 25 healthy controls. Hippocampal measurements included surface-based subfield mapping of atrophy and T2 hyperintensity indexing cell loss and gliosis, respectively. Whole-brain connectomes were generated via diffusion tractography and examined using graph theory along with a novel network control theory paradigm that simulates functional dynamics from structural network data. RESULTS: Compared to controls, we observed markedly increased path length and decreased clustering in TLE-HS compared to controls, indicating lower global and local network efficiency, while TLE-G showed only subtle alterations. Similarly, network controllability was lower in TLE-HS only, suggesting limited range of functional dynamics. Hippocampal imaging markers were positively associated with macroscale network alterations, particularly in ipsilateral CA1-3. Systematic assessment across several networks revealed maximal changes in the hippocampal circuity. Findings were consistent when correcting for cortical thickness, suggesting independence from gray matter atrophy. CONCLUSIONS: Severe HS is associated with marked remodeling of connectome topology and structurally governed functional dynamics in TLE, as opposed to isolated gliosis, which has negligible effects. Cell loss, particularly in CA1-3, may exert a cascading effect on brain-wide connectomes, underlining coupled disease processes across multiple scales.

8.
Epilepsia ; 60(4): 593-604, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30889276

RESUMO

Epilepsy is among the most common chronic neurologic disorders, with 30%-40% of patients having seizures despite antiepileptic drug treatment. The advent of brain imaging and network analyses has greatly improved the understanding of this condition. In particular, developments in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have provided measures for the noninvasive characterization and detection of lesions causing epilepsy. MRI techniques can probe structural and functional connectivity, and network analyses have shaped our understanding of whole-brain anomalies associated with focal epilepsies. This review considers the progress made by neuroimaging and connectomics in the study of drug-resistant epilepsies due to focal substrates, particularly temporal lobe epilepsy related to mesiotemporal sclerosis and extratemporal lobe epilepsies associated with malformations of cortical development. In these disorders, there is evidence of widespread disturbances of structural and functional connectivity that may contribute to the clinical and cognitive prognosis of individual patients. It is hoped that studying the interplay between macroscale network anomalies and lesional profiles will improve our understanding of focal epilepsies and assist treatment choices.

9.
Brain ; 142(3): 688-699, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30726864

RESUMO

Neuroimaging studies have consistently shown distributed brain anomalies in epilepsy syndromes associated with a focal structural lesion, particularly mesiotemporal sclerosis. Conversely, a system-level approach to focal cortical dysplasia has been rarely considered, likely due to methodological difficulties in addressing variable location and topography. Given the known heterogeneity in focal cortical dysplasia histopathology, we hypothesized that lesional connectivity consists of subtypes with distinct structural signatures. Furthermore, in light of mounting evidence for focal anomalies impacting whole-brain systems, we postulated that patterns of focal cortical dysplasia connectivity may exert differential downstream effects on global network topology. We studied a cohort of patients with histologically verified focal cortical dysplasia type II (n = 27), and age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n = 34). We subdivided each lesion into similarly sized parcels and computed their connectivity to large-scale canonical functional networks (or communities). We then dichotomized connectivity profiles of lesional parcels into those belonging to the same functional community as the focal cortical dysplasia (intra-community) and those adhering to other communities (inter-community). Applying hierarchical clustering to community-reconfigured connectome profiles identified three lesional classes with distinct patterns of functional connectivity: decreased intra- and inter-community connectivity, a selective decrease in intra-community connectivity, and increased intra- as well as inter-community connectivity. Hypo-connectivity classes were mainly composed of focal cortical dysplasia type IIB, while the hyperconnected lesions were type IIA. With respect to whole-brain networks, patients with hypoconnected focal cortical dysplasia and marked structural damage showed only mild imbalances, while those with hyperconnected subtle lesions had more pronounced topological alterations. Correcting for interictal epileptic discharges did not impact connectivity patterns. Multivariate structural equation analysis provided a mechanistic model of such complex, diverging interactions, whereby the focal cortical dysplasia structural makeup shapes its functional connectivity, which in turn modulates whole-brain network topology.

10.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0207233, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30475833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quality of care is a difficult parameter to measure. With the introduction of digital algorithms based on the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI), we are interested to understand if the adherence to the guidelines improved for a better quality of care for children under 5 years old. METHODS: More than one year after the introduction of digital algorithms, we carried out two cross sectional studies to assess the improvements in comparison with the situation prior to the implementation of the project, in two Basic Health Centres in Kabul province. One survey was carried out inside the consultation room and was based on the direct observation of 181 consultations of children aged 2 months to 5 years old, using a checklist completed by a senior physicians. The second survey queried 181 caretakers of children outside the health facility for their opinion about the consultation carried out through the tablet and prescriptions and medications given. RESULTS: We measured the quality of care as adherence to the IMCI's guidelines. The study evaluated the quality of the physical examination and the therapies prescribed with a special attention to antibiotic prescription. We noticed a dramatic improvement (p<0.05) of several indicators following the introduction of digital algorithms. The baseline physical examination was appropriate only for 23.8% [IC% 19.9-28.1] of the patients, 34.5% [IC% 30.0-39.2] received a correct treatment and 86.1% [IC% 82.4-89.2] received at least one antibiotic. With the introduction of digital algorithms, these indicators statistically improved respectively to 84.0% [IC% 77.9-88.6], >85% and less than 30%. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that digital algorithms improve quality of care by applying the guidelines more effectively. Our experience should encourage to test this tool in different settings and to scale up its use at province/state level.

11.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 5(10): 1200-1210, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30349855

RESUMO

Objective: In contrast to adult cohorts, neocortical changes in epileptic children with hippocampal damage are not well characterized. Here, we mapped multimodal neocortical markers of epilepsy-related structural compromise in a pediatric cohort of temporal lobe epilepsy and explored how they relate to clinical factors. Methods: We measured cortical thickness, gray-white matter intensity contrast and intracortical FLAIR intensity in 22 patients with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and 30 controls. Surface-based linear models assessed between-group differences in morphological and MR signal intensity markers. Structural integrity of the hippocampus was measured by quantifying atrophy and FLAIR patterns. Linear models were used to evaluate the relationships between hippocampal and neocortical MRI markers and clinical factors. Results: In the hippocampus, patients demonstrated ipsilateral atrophy and bilateral FLAIR hyperintensity. In the neocortex, patients showed FLAIR signal hyperintensities and gray-white matter boundary blurring in the ipsilesional mesial and lateral temporal neocortex. In contrast, cortical thinning was minimal and restricted to a small area of the ipsilesional temporal pole. Furthermore, patients with a history of febrile convulsions demonstrated more pronounced FLAIR hyperintensity in the ipsilesional temporal neocortex. Interpretation: Pediatric HS patients do not yet demonstrate the widespread cortical thinning present in adult cohorts, which may reflect consequences of a protracted disease process. However, pronounced temporal neocortical FLAIR hyperintensity and blurring of the gray-white matter boundary are already detectable, suggesting that alterations in MR signal intensities may reflect a different underlying pathophysiology that is detectable earlier in the disease and more pervasive in patients with a history of febrile convulsions.

13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(40): 10154-10159, 2018 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30249658

RESUMO

The hippocampus plays key roles in cognition and affect and serves as a model system for structure/function studies in animals. So far, its complex anatomy has challenged investigations targeting its substructural organization in humans. State-of-the-art MRI offers the resolution and versatility to identify hippocampal subfields, assess its microstructure, and study topographical principles of its connectivity in vivo. We developed an approach to unfold the human hippocampus and examine spatial variations of intrinsic functional connectivity in a large cohort of healthy adults. In addition to mapping common and unique connections across subfields, we identified two main axes of subregional connectivity transitions. An anterior/posterior gradient followed long-axis landmarks and metaanalytical findings from task-based functional MRI, while a medial/lateral gradient followed hippocampal infolding and correlated with proxies of cortical myelin. Findings were consistent in an independent sample and highly stable across resting-state scans. Our results provide robust evidence for long-axis specialization in the resting human hippocampus and suggest an intriguing interplay between connectivity and microstructure.


Assuntos
Conectoma , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Bainha de Mielina/metabolismo
14.
Brain Connect ; 2018 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30079754

RESUMO

Rapid advances in neuroimaging and network science have produced powerful tools and measures to appreciate human brain organization at multiple spatial and temporal scales. It is now possible to obtain increasingly meaningful representations of whole-brain structural and functional brain networks and to formally assess macroscale principles of network topology. In addition to its utility in characterizing healthy brain organization, individual variability, and life span-related changes, there is high promise of network neuroscience for the conceptualization and, ultimately, management of brain disorders. In the current review, we argue for a science of the human brain that, while strongly embracing macroscale connectomics, also recommends awareness of brain properties derived from meso- and microscale resolutions. Such features include MRI markers of tissue microstructure, local functional properties, as well as information from nonimaging domains, including cellular, genetic, or chemical data. Integrating these measures with connectome models promises to better define the individual elements that constitute large-scale networks, and clarify the notion of connection strength among them. By enriching the description of large-scale networks, this approach may improve our understanding of fundamental principles of healthy brain organization. Notably, it may also better define the substrate of prevalent brain disorders, including stroke, autism, as well as drug-resistant epilepsies that are each characterized by intriguing interactions between local anomalies and network-level perturbations.

15.
Front Neuroinform ; 12: 39, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30050423

RESUMO

Numerous neurological disorders are associated with atrophy of mesiotemporal lobe structures, including the hippocampus (HP), amygdala (AM), and entorhinal cortex (EC). Accurate segmentation of these structures is, therefore, necessary for understanding the disease process and patient management. Recent multiple-template segmentation algorithms have shown excellent performance in HP segmentation. Purely surface-based methods precisely describe structural boundary but their performance likely depends on a large template library, as segmentation suffers when the boundaries of template and individual MRI are not well aligned while volume-based methods are less dependent. So far only few algorithms attempted segmentation of entire mesiotemporal structures including the parahippocampus. We compared performance of surface- and volume-based approaches in segmenting the three mesiotemporal structures and assess the effects of different environments (i.e., size of templates, under pathology). We also proposed an algorithm that combined surface- with volume-derived similarity measures for optimal template selection. To further improve the method, we introduced two new modules: (1) a non-linear registration that is driven by volume-based intensities and features sampled on deformable template surfaces; (2) a shape averaging based on regional weighting using multi-scale global-to-local icosahedron sampling. Compared to manual segmentations, our approach, namely HybridMulti showed high accuracy in 40 healthy controls (mean Dice index for HP/AM/EC = 89.7/89.3/82.9%) and 135 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (88.7/89.0/82.6%). This accuracy was comparable across two different datasets of 1.5T and 3T MRI. It resulted in the best performance among tested multi-template methods that were either based on volume or surface data alone in terms of accuracy and sensitivity to detect atrophy related to epilepsy. Moreover, unlike purely surface-based multi-template segmentation, HybridMulti could maintain accurate performance even with a 50% template library size.

16.
J Clin Invest ; 128(9): 3957-3975, 2018 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29969437

RESUMO

Biallelic loss-of-function (LOF) mutations of the NCF4 gene, encoding the p40phox subunit of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase, have been described in only 1 patient. We report on 24 p40phox-deficient patients from 12 additional families in 8 countries. These patients display 8 different in-frame or out-of-frame mutations of NCF4 that are homozygous in 11 of the families and compound heterozygous in another. When overexpressed in NB4 neutrophil-like cells and EBV-transformed B cells in vitro, the mutant alleles were found to be LOF, with the exception of the p.R58C and c.120_134del alleles, which were hypomorphic. Particle-induced NADPH oxidase activity was severely impaired in the patients' neutrophils, whereas PMA-induced dihydrorhodamine-1,2,3 (DHR) oxidation, which is widely used as a diagnostic test for chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), was normal or mildly impaired in the patients. Moreover, the NADPH oxidase activity of EBV-transformed B cells was also severely impaired, whereas that of mononuclear phagocytes was normal. Finally, the killing of Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus hyphae by neutrophils was conserved in these patients, unlike in patients with CGD. The patients suffer from hyperinflammation and peripheral infections, but they do not have any of the invasive bacterial or fungal infections seen in CGD. Inherited p40phox deficiency underlies a distinctive condition, resembling a mild, atypical form of CGD.

17.
Leuk Res ; 71: 6-12, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29935384

RESUMO

Several conventions have been established in order to define and characterize Mixed Phenotype Acute Leukemia (MPAL). However, megakaryocytic markers have not been included in the definition of MPAL neither in the European Group for the Immunological Characterization of Leukemias (EGIL) proposal nor in any of the WHO Classification of Tumors issues. We report four pediatric acute leukemia (AL) cases (prevalence: 0.18%) with megakaryoblasts co-expressing the T-specific antigen CD3 (cytoplasmic), together with a very homogeneous antigen profile of immature cells and other lymphoid traits. In one case, the presence of epsilon CD3 mRNA was confirmed as well on sorted CD34+ blasts. All four cases were infants, and two of them disclosed trisomy 21 in the blast population (not constitutional) without being children with Down Syndrome. They were homogeneously treated with AML schemes, achieving all four CR. However, 3 patients relapsed early. Only one patient is alive and remain disease-free, with a long follow-up. Even though cyCD3 was the only T cell marker expressed, its specificity entails the consideration of these cases as a new subtype of MPAL Megakaryoblastic/T, keeping this in mind when designing diagnostic panels. Detection and report of these cases are necessary so as to further characterize them in order to define the most appropriate treatment.

18.
Inorg Chem ; 57(11): 6746-6752, 2018 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29792421

RESUMO

The evolution of the hybrid structure between 9R hexagonal perovskite and palmierite in the entire Ba3Mo(1- x)W xNbO8.5 solid solution (where x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1) was probed in the 100-900 K range by synchrotron high-resolution powder diffraction. Each sample exhibits a chemical-dependent structural model in the low-temperature regime (from 100 to 500 K) in which 9R and palmierite structures compete each other, the former being progressively favored as tungsten replaces molybdenum. Above 500 K, unit cell parameters and metal site occupancies start to converge toward a similar structural arrangement that is completely reached at 900 K. In fact, at this temperature, the entire solid solution discloses comparable unit cell and an almost enterely occupied M1 site, with a structure that is much closer to palmierite rather than 9R polytype. The present crystallographic results well explain the behavior of the material's bulk ionic conductivity, whose temperature evolution for different compositions depends from the contribution of tetrahedral units proper of the palmierite structure.

19.
Epilepsia ; 59(3): 627-635, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29383717

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), relative to the large number of whole-brain morphological studies, neocortical T2 changes have not been systematically investigated. The aim of this study was to assess the anatomical principles that govern the distribution of neocortical T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) signal intensity and uncover its topographic principles. METHODS: Using a surface-based sampling scheme, we mapped neocortical FLAIR intensity of 61 TLE patients relative to 38 healthy controls imaged at 3 T. To address topographic principles of the susceptibility to FLAIR signal changes in TLE, we assessed associations with normative data on tissue composition using 2 complementary approaches. First, we evaluated whether the degree of TLE-related FLAIR intensity changes differed across cytoarchitectonic classes as defined by Von Economo-Koskinas taxonomy. Second, as a proxy to map regions with similar intracortical composition, we carried out a FLAIR intensity covariance paradigm in controls by seeding systematically from all cortical regions, and identified those networks that were the best spatial predictors of the between-group FLAIR changes. RESULTS: Increased intensities were observed in bilateral limbic and paralimbic cortices (hippocampus, parahippocampus, cingulate, temporopolar, insular, orbitofrontal). Effect sizes were highest in periallocortical limbic and insular classes as defined by the Von Economo-Koskinas cytoarchitectonic taxonomy. Furthermore, systematic FLAIR intensity covariance analysis in healthy controls revealed that similarity patterns characteristic of limbic cortices, most notably the hippocampus, served as sensitive predictors for the topography of FLAIR hypersignal in patients. FLAIR intensity findings were robust against correction for morphological confounds. Patients with a history of febrile convulsions showed more marked signal changes in parahippocampal and retrosplenial cortices, known to be strongly connected to the hippocampus. SIGNIFICANCE: FLAIR intensity mapping and covariance analysis provide a model of TLE gray matter pathology based on shared vulnerability of periallocortical and limbic cortices.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/fisiopatologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
20.
Epilepsy Res ; 140: 29-38, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29227798

RESUMO

Growing evidence highlights the importance of white matter in the pathogenesis of focal epilepsy. Ex vivo and post-mortem studies show pathological changes in epileptic patients in white matter myelination, axonal integrity, and cellular composition. Diffusion-weighted MRI and its analytical extensions, particularly diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), have been the most widely used technique to image the white matter in vivo for the last two decades, and have shown microstructural alterations in multiple tracts both in the vicinity and at distance from the epileptogenic focus. These techniques have also shown promising ability to predict cognitive status and response to pharmacological or surgical treatments. More recently, the hypothesis that focal epilepsy may be more adequately described as a system-level disorder has motivated a shift towards the study of macroscale brain connectivity. This review will cover emerging findings contributing to our understanding of white matter alterations in focal epilepsy, studied by means of histological and ultrastructural analyses, diffusion MRI, and large-scale network analysis. Focus is put on temporal lobe epilepsy and focal cortical dysplasia. This topic was addressed in a special interest group on neuroimaging at the 70th annual meeting of the American Epilepsy Society, held in Houston December 2-6, 2016.

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