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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369172

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alaska Native (AN) infants are at risk for severe disease due to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza. Maternal immunization protects young infants through transplacental antibody transfer. RSV- and influenza-specific transplacental antibody transfer in mother-infant pairs has not previously been evaluated in the AN population. METHODS: Serum samples collected during pregnancy and at birth from AN mother-infant pairs in the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta region (YKD) of Alaska (2000-2011; n = 75) and predominantly white pairs in Seattle, Washington (2014-2016; n = 57), were tested for RSV and influenza antibody using a microneutralization and hemagglutination inhibition assay, respectively, and compared between sites. RESULTS: Mean RSV antibody concentrations in pregnant women in YKD and Seattle were similar (log2 RSV antibody 10.6 vs 10.7, P = .86), but cord blood RSV antibody concentrations were significantly lower in infants born to mothers in YKD compared with Seattle (log2 RSV antibody 11.0 vs 12.2, P < .001). Maternal and cord blood influenza antibody concentrations were lower for women and infants in YKD compared with Seattle for all 4 influenza antigens tested (all P < .05). The mean cord to maternal RSV antibody transfer ratio was 1.15 (standard deviation [SD], 0.13) in mother-infant pairs in Seattle compared with 1.04 (SD, 0.08) in YKD. Mean cord blood to maternal antibody transfer ratios for influenza antigens ranged from 1.22 to 1.42 in Seattle and from 1.05 to 1.59 in YKD. CONCLUSIONS: Though the transplacental antibody transfer ratio was high (>1.0) for both groups, transfer ratios for RSV antibody were significantly lower in AN mother-infant pairs. Further studies are needed to elucidate the impact of lower transplacental antibody transfer on infant disease risk in rural Alaska.Alaska Native and continental US mother-infant pairs have high transplacental antibody transfer ratios (>1.0) for influenza and respiratory syncytial virus, but anti-respiratory syncytial virus antibody levels are significantly lower in Alaska Native pairs than in those from the continental US.

2.
Int J Circumpolar Health ; 79(1): 1726256, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32039659

RESUMO

Biomonitoring for heavy metals is important to assess health risks, especially in Arctic communities where rural residents rely on locally harvested foods. However, laboratory testing for blood contaminants is expensive and might not be sustainable for long-term monitoring. We assessed whether pooled specimen biomonitoring could be a part of a plan for blood contaminant surveillance among pregnant women in rural Alaska using existing blood mercury level data from three cross sectional studies of pregnant women. We applied a hypothetical pooled specimen template stratified into 8 demographic groups based on age, coastal or inland residence, and pre-pregnancy weight. The hypothetical geometric mean blood mercury levels were similar to the individual-level geometric means. However, the 95% confidence intervals were much wider for the hypothetical geometric means compared to the true geometric means. Although the variability that resulted from pooling specimens using a small sample made it difficult to compare demographic groups to each other, pooled specimen results could be an accurate reflection of the population burden of mercury contamination in the Arctic in the context of large numbers of biomonitoring samples.

3.
J Wildl Dis ; 55(4): 823-833, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081740

RESUMO

Mercury (Hg) poses a health risk to wildlife populations and has been documented at relatively high concentrations in many marine mammals, including wild-caught pinnipeds along the central California, US coast. We measured total Hg concentrations ([THg]) in hair and blood of live-stranded harbor seals (HS; Phoca vitulina), California sea lions (CSL; Zalophus californianus), and northern elephant seals (NES; Mirounga angustirostris) in California to quantify species, temporal, and spatial variability in [THg] and assess the relationships between [THg] measured by different methods (blood vs. filter paper) and in different matrices (blood vs. hair). We compared [THg] with toxicologic thresholds of concern to aid in identification of at-risk individuals or groups and better understand how the use of different methods and matrices affects assumed toxicologic risk. There was a wide range of [THg] in blood (<0.01-1.13 µg/g) and hair (0.45-81.98 µg/g), and NES had higher [THg] compared with HS and CSL. All three species had individuals with [THg] that exceeded the lower threshold for one or both matrices, but only HS pups had [THg] exceeding upper thresholds. Spatial differences in [THg] were detected, with higher concentrations in HS pups from areas surrounding San Francisco Bay, but differences were dependent on sampling year and matrix. The relationship between [THg] in blood and filter paper (r2=0.98) was strong, and differences had little influence on comparisons with toxicologic thresholds. Blood and hair [THg] were generally in agreement (r2=0.72), but large mismatches for a few seals underscore the importance of combined sampling in adverse effects studies where accurate assessment of Hg exposure is crucial. The wide range of [THg] in stranded HS pups that exceeded published thresholds of concern makes them a promising candidate for adverse effects studies, particularly because different matrices represent Hg exposure across key developmental stages.


Assuntos
Caniformia/sangue , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/veterinária , Mercúrio/sangue , Poluentes Químicos da Água/sangue , Animais , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Cabelo/química , Mercúrio/química
4.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 19(8): 563-575, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30789314

RESUMO

Background: Due to their close relationship with the environment, Alaskans are at risk for zoonotic pathogen infection. One way to assess a population's disease burden is to determine the seroprevalence of pathogens of interest. The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of 11 zoonotic pathogens in people living in Alaska. Methods: In a 2007 avian influenza exposure study, we recruited persons with varying wild bird exposures. Using sera from this study, we tested for antibodies to Cryptosporidium spp., Echinococcus spp., Giardia intestinalis, Toxoplasma gondii, Trichinella spp., Brucella spp., Coxiella burnetii, Francisella tularensis, California serogroup bunyaviruses, and hepatitis E virus (HEV). Results: Eight hundred eighty-seven persons had sera tested, including 454 subsistence bird hunters and family members, 160 sport bird hunters, 77 avian wildlife biologists, and 196 persons with no wild bird exposure. A subset (n = 481) of sera was tested for California serogroup bunyaviruses. We detected antibodies to 10/11 pathogens. Seropositivity to Cryptosporidium spp. (29%), California serotype bunyaviruses (27%), and G. intestinalis (19%) was the most common; 63% (301/481) of sera had antibodies to at least one pathogen. Using a multivariable logistic regression model, Cryptosporidium spp. seropositivity was higher in females (35.7% vs. 25.0%; p = 0.01) and G. intestinalis seropositivity was higher in males (21.8% vs. 15.5%; p = 0.02). Alaska Native persons were more likely than non-Native persons to be seropositive to C. burnetii (11.7% vs. 3.8%; p = 0.005) and less likely to be seropositive to HEV (0.4% vs. 4.1%; p = 0.01). Seropositivity to Cryptosporidium spp., C. burnetii, HEV, and Echinococcus granulosus was associated with increasing age (p ≤ 0.01 for all) as was seropositivity to ≥1 pathogen (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Seropositivity to zoonotic pathogens is common among Alaskans with the highest to Cryptosporidium spp., California serogroup bunyaviruses, and G. intestinalis. This study provides a baseline for use in assessing seroprevalence changes over time.

5.
J Wildl Dis ; 54(2): 375-379, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29369725

RESUMO

We explored the use of filter paper soaked in whole blood for measuring carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stable isotopes, often used in feeding ecology or diet studies, to better understand drivers of exposure to contaminants. Our results showed no statistically or biologically relevant differences in C and N stable isotope measures between our gold standard (whole blood with anticoagulant) and eluates from processed, blood-soaked filter paper. Our data supported the effectiveness of using filter paper for assessing C and N stable isotopes in blood to address feeding ecology and other uses. The ease of sampling and processing should allow blood-soaked filter paper to be used in sampling of live (e.g., captured, stranded) and lethally taken (e.g., hunter-killed) wild vertebrates.


Assuntos
Sangue , Carbono/química , Celulose , Nitrogênio/química , Papel , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa/sangue , Isótopos de Carbono , Cervos/sangue , Etilaminas , Isótopos de Nitrogênio , Ruminantes/sangue , Sulfetos
6.
Int J Circumpolar Health ; 75: 33820, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27974139

RESUMO

The AMAP Human Health Assessment Group has developed different adaptation strategies through a long-term collaboration with all Arctic countries. Different adaptation strategies are discussed, with examples mainly from native population groups in Alaska.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Nível de Saúde , Inuítes , Abastecimento de Água , Adaptação Fisiológica , Alaska , Regiões Árticas , Doenças Transmissíveis , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Humanos , Saúde da População Rural , Fatores Socioeconômicos
7.
J Med Toxicol ; 12(3): 315-7, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27379884

RESUMO

Evidence suggests that in-utero exposure to environmental chemicals, such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs), heavy metals, and radionuclides, that might bioaccumulate in the mother may increase a newborn's risk of adverse developmental, neurological, and immunologic effects. Chemical contamination of bodies of water and strong ocean currents worldwide can drive these chemicals from lower latitudes to Arctic waters where they accumulate in common traditional subsistence foods. In response to concerns of the people from Alaska of the effects of bio-accumulated chemicals on their children, the Maternal Organics Monitoring Study(MOMS) was developed. The objective of the study was to assess the risks and benefits associated with the population's subsistence diet. Data analysis of biological samples at the CDC's NCEH laboratory and maternal questionnaires is ongoing. Results will be provided to Alaska Native communities to help support public health actions and inform future interventions and research.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Contaminação de Alimentos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Saúde Pública/métodos , Toxicologia/métodos , Adulto , Alaska , Nativos do Alasca , Regiões Árticas , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Exposição Materna/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Saúde Pública/tendências , Sistema de Registros , Toxicologia/tendências , Estados Unidos , United States Dept. of Health and Human Services
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 12(4): 4076-100, 2015 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25872019

RESUMO

Racial and ethnic minority communities, including American Indian and Alaska Natives, have been disproportionately impacted by environmental pollution and contamination. This includes siting and location of point sources of pollution, legacies of contamination of drinking and recreational water, and mining, military and agricultural impacts. As a result, both quantity and quality of culturally important subsistence resources are diminished, contributing to poor nutrition and obesity, and overall reductions in quality of life and life expectancy. Climate change is adding to these impacts on Native American communities, variably causing drought, increased flooding and forced relocation affecting tribal water resources, traditional foods, forests and forest resources, and tribal health. This article will highlight several extramural research projects supported by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Science to Achieve Results (STAR) tribal environmental research grants as a mechanism to address the environmental health inequities and disparities faced by tribal communities. The tribal research portfolio has focused on addressing tribal environmental health risks through community based participatory research. Specifically, the STAR research program was developed under the premise that tribal populations may be at an increased risk for environmentally-induced diseases as a result of unique subsistence and traditional practices of the tribes and Alaska Native villages, community activities, occupations and customs, and/or environmental releases that significantly and disproportionately impact tribal lands. Through a series of case studies, this article will demonstrate how grantees-tribal community leaders and members and academic collaborators-have been addressing these complex environmental concerns by developing capacity, expertise and tools through community-engaged research.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Saúde Ambiental , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Índios Norte-Americanos , Alaska , Mudança Climática , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupos Minoritários , Qualidade de Vida , Estados Unidos , United States Environmental Protection Agency
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23940840

RESUMO

In August 2012, a literature search with the aim of describing indicators on food and water security in an Arctic health context was initialized in collaboration between the Arctic Human Health Expert Group, SDWG/AHHEG and the AMAP (Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme within the Arctic Council) Human Health Assessment Group, AMAP/HHAG. In December 2012, workshop discussions were performed with representatives from both of these organizations, including 7 Arctic countries. The aim of this article is to describe the workshop discussions and the rational for the 12 indicators selected and the 9 rejected and to discuss the potential feasibility of these. Advantages and disadvantages of candidate indicators were listed. Informative value and costs for collecting were estimated separately on a 3-level scale: low, medium and high. Based on these reviews, the final selection of promoted and rejected indicators was performed and summarized in tables. Among 10 suggested indicators of food security, 6 were promoted: healthy weight, traditional food proportion in diet, monetary food costs, non-monetary food accessibility, food-borne diseases and food-related contaminants. Four were rejected: per-person dietary energy supply, food security modules, self-estimated food safety and healthy eating. Among 10 suggested indicators of water security, 6 were promoted: per-capita renewable water, accessibility of running water, waterborne diseases, drinking-water-related contaminants, authorized water quality assurance and water safety plans. Four were rejected: water consumption, types of water sources, periodic water shortages and household water costs.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Regiões Árticas , Peso Corporal , Monitoramento Ambiental , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Humanos
10.
Ambio ; 42(7): 816-22, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23918411

RESUMO

This perspective paper argues for an urgent need to monitor a set of 12 concrete, measurable indicators of food and water security in the Arctic over time. Such a quantitative indicator approach may be viewed as representing a reductionist rather than a holistic perspective, but is nevertheless necessary for actually knowing what reality aspects to monitor in order to accurately understand, quantify, and be able to project critical changes to food and water security of both indigenous and non-indigenous people in the Arctic. More relevant indicators may be developed in the future, taking us further toward reconciliation between reductionist and holistic approaches to change assessment and understanding. However, the potential of such further development to improved holistic change assessment is not an argument not to urgently start to monitor and quantify the changes in food and water security indicators that are immediately available and adequate for the Arctic context.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos , Abastecimento de Água , Regiões Árticas , Mudança Climática , Monitoramento Ambiental
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23399790

RESUMO

Over the last 60 years, Alaska's mean annual temperature has increased by 1.6°C, more than twice the rate of the rest of the United States. As a result, climate change impacts are more pronounced here than in other regions of the United States. Warmer temperatures may allow some infected host animals to survive winters in larger numbers, increase their population and expand their range of habitation thus increasing the opportunity for transmission of infection to humans. Subsistence hunting and gathering activities may place rural residents of Alaska at a greater risk of acquiring zoonotic infections than urban residents. Known zoonotic diseases that occur in Alaska include brucellosis, toxoplasmosis, trichinellosis, giardiasis/cryptosporidiosis, echinococcosis, rabies and tularemia. Actions for early disease detection, research and prevention and control include: (1) determining baseline levels of infection and disease in both humans and host animals; (2) conducting more research to understand the ecology of infection in the Arctic environment; (3) improving active and passive surveillance systems for infection and disease in humans and animals; (4) improving outreach, education and communication on climate-sensitive infectious diseases at the community, health and animal care provider levels; and (5) improving coordination between public health and animal health agencies, universities and tribal health organisations.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Alaska/epidemiologia , Animais , Regiões Árticas/epidemiologia , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Comunicação , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/prevenção & controle , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Administração em Saúde Pública , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose/prevenção & controle , Tularemia/epidemiologia , Tularemia/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/transmissão
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22022304

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: This article provides examples of adverse health effects, including weather-related injury, food insecurity, mental health issues, and water infrastructure damage, and the responses to these effects that are currently being applied in two Northwest Alaska communities. BACKGROUND: In Northwest Alaska, warming is resulting in a broad range of unusual weather and environmental conditions, including delayed freeze-up, earlier breakup, storm surge, coastal erosion, and thawing permafrost. These are just some of the climate impacts that are driving concerns about weather-related injury, the spread of disease, mental health issues, infrastructure damage, and food and water security. Local leaders are challenged to identify appropriate adaptation strategies to address climate impacts and related health effects. IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS: The tribal health system is combining local observations, traditional knowledge, and western science to perform community-specific climate change health impact assessments. Local leaders are applying this information to develop adaptation responses. OBJECTIVE: The Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium will describe relationships between climate impacts and health effects and provide examples of community-scaled adaptation actions currently being applied in Northwest Alaska. FINDINGS: Climate change is increasing vulnerability to injury, disease, mental stress, food insecurity, and water insecurity. Northwest communities are applying adaptation approaches that are both specific and appropriate. CONCLUSION: The health impact assessment process is effective in raising awareness, encouraging discussion, engaging partners, and implementing adaptation planning. With community-specific information, local leaders are applying health protective adaptation measures.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Nível de Saúde , Inuítes , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Alaska , Regiões Árticas , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Inundações , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , Saúde Pública/tendências
13.
Int J Circumpolar Health ; 70(3): 266-73, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21703129

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Develop a process for assessing climate change impacts on public health that identifies climate-health vulnerabilities and mechanisms and encourages adaptation. STUDY DESIGN: Multi-stakeholder, participatory, qualitative research. METHODS: A Climate Change Health Assessment (CCHA) was developed that involved 4 steps: (1) scoping to describe local conditions and engage stakeholders; (2) surveying to collect descriptive and quantitative data; (3) analysis to evaluate the data; and (4) planning to communicate findings and explore appropriate actions with community members. The health effects related to extreme weather, thinning ice, erosion, flooding, thawing permafrost and changing conditions of water and food resources were considered. RESULTS: The CCHA process was developed and performed in north-west Arctic villages. Refinement of the process took place in Point Hope, a coastal Inupiat village that practices whaling and a variety of other traditional subsistence harvest practices. Local observers identified climate change impacts that resulted in damaged health infrastructure, compromised food and water security and increased risk of injury. Priority health issues included thawing traditional ice cellars, diminished quality of the community water source and increased safety issues related to sea ice change. The CCHA increased awareness about health vulnerability and encouraged informed planning and decision-making. CONCLUSION: A community-scale assessment process guided by observation-based data can identify climate health impacts, raise awareness and encourage adaptive actions, thereby improving the response capacity of communities vulnerable to climate change.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Nível de Saúde , Inuítes , Alaska , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos
15.
Int J Circumpolar Health ; 67(2-3): 261-8, 2008 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18767346

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Although banned nationwide for waterfowl hunting, lead shot is still used for hunting in regions of Alaska. Consumption of birds hunted with lead shot may be a route of human lead exposure in susceptible populations. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and Alaskan health officials conducted a cross-sectional exposure assessment and used isotope ratios (IR) to test that assumption. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional exposure assessment study. METHODS: We compared isotopic profiles of blood lead in Alaska Native women from Bethel (n = 10) and Barrow (n = 10) to lead shot samples purchased from the respective regions. To evaluate the source of lead for the buckshot, we evaluated IR profiles for lead mineral and ore from a smelter in Torreon, Mexico, a suspected source of origin for the lead. RESULTS: The lead IRs for the blood lead differed significantly from the lead shot IRs (p < 0.001); thus, lead shot is unlikely to be the sole source of lead exposure of public health significance in participants of this study. Overlap in IRs for the lead shot and blood lead existed for 6 (30%) of the women from Bethel and Barrow; however, no correlation was noted between lead levels and the IRs for the blood lead. IR profiles for lead mineral and ore from Mexico were substantially different from the IRs of lead shot from Alaska, confirming that buckshot in this study is unlikely to originate from the Mexican smelter. CONCLUSIONS: Lead shot from the manufacturer in this study does not appear to be the sole source of lead exposure in most participants; nonetheless, lead shot could yet be a potential source of exposure in some populations, possibly those whose diet consists of game hunted with lead shot.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Chumbo/sangue , Alaska , Animais , Aves , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Armas de Fogo , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Índios Norte-Americanos , Inuítes , Isótopos , México
17.
Int J Circumpolar Health ; 64(5): 487-97, 2005 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16440611

RESUMO

In northern regions, climate change can include changes in precipitation magnitude and frequency, reductions in sea ice extent and thickness, and climate warming and cooling. These changes can increase the frequency and severity of storms, flooding, or erosion; other changes may include drought or degradation of permafrost. Climate change can result in damage to sanitation infrastructure resulting in the spread of disease or threatening a community's ability to maintain its economy, geographic location and cultural tradition, leading to mental stress. Through monitoring of some basic indicators communities can begin to develop a response to climate change. With this information, planners, engineers, health care professionals and governments can begin to develop approaches to address the challenges related to climate change.


Assuntos
Efeito Estufa , Administração em Saúde Pública , População Rural , Regiões Árticas , Clima Frio , Humanos , Saneamento , Abastecimento de Água
18.
Int J Circumpolar Health ; 64(5): 498-508, 2005 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16440612

RESUMO

Many northern indigenous populations are exposed to elevated concentrations of contaminants through traditional food and many of these contaminants come from regions exterior to the Arctic. Global contaminant pathways include the atmosphere, ocean currents, and river outflow, all of which are affected by climate. In addition to these pathways, precipitation, animal availability, UV radiation, cryosphere degradation and human industrial activities in the North are also affected by climate change. The processes governing contaminant behaviour in both the physical and biological environment are complex and therefore, in order to understand how climate change will affect the exposure of northern people to contaminants, we must have a better understanding of the processes that influence how contaminants behave in the Arctic environment. Furthermore, to predict changes in contaminant levels, we need to first have a good understanding of current contaminant levels in the Arctic environment, biota and human populations. For this reason, it is critical that both spatial and temporal trends in contaminant levels are monitored in the environment, biota and human populations from all the Arctic regions.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Contaminação de Alimentos , Efeito Estufa , Inuítes , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Clima Frio , Ecossistema , Humanos , Raios Ultravioleta , Movimentos da Água
19.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 206(4-5): 351-62, 2003 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12971690

RESUMO

In Western Hemisphere arctic regions, scientific findings in humans, wildlife, and the environment have resulted in major governmental policy formulations. Government policy resulted in establishment of an effective international organization to address scientifically identified problems, including health disparities in arctic indigenous populations. Western scientific data and indigenous knowledge from initial international programs led to international agreements restricting certain persistent organic pollutants. In recent years, scientific data, and indigenous traditional knowledge, have resulted in governmental policy in the United States, Canada, and Nordic countries that includes the full participation of indigenous residents in defining research agendas, interpreting data, communicating information, and local community policy formulation.


Assuntos
Saúde Ambiental , Política de Saúde , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Índios Norte-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Cooperação Internacional , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Alaska/epidemiologia , Regiões Árticas/epidemiologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Noruega/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos
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