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1.
Science ; 373(6562): 1511-1514, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385353

RESUMO

The realization of an efficient quantum optical interface for multi-qubit systems is an outstanding challenge in science and engineering. Using two atoms in individually controlled optical tweezers coupled to a nanofabricated photonic crystal cavity, we demonstrate entanglement generation, fast nondestructive readout, and full quantum control of atomic qubits. The entangled state is verified in free space after being transported away from the cavity by encoding the qubits into long-lived states and using dynamical decoupling. Our approach bridges quantum operations at an optical link and in free space with a coherent one-way transport, potentially enabling an integrated optical interface for atomic quantum processors.

2.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(6): 063602, 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109118

RESUMO

We demonstrate photon-mediated interactions between two individually trapped atoms coupled to a nanophotonic cavity. Specifically, we observe collective enhancement when the atoms are resonant with the cavity and level repulsion when the cavity is coupled to the atoms in the dispersive regime. Our approach makes use of individual control over the internal states of the atoms and their position with respect to the cavity mode, as well as the light shifts to tune atomic transitions individually, allowing us to directly observe the anticrossing of the bright and dark two-atom states. These observations open the door for realizing quantum networks and studying quantum many-body physics based on atom arrays coupled to nanophotonic devices.

3.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(23): 230504, 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31868463

RESUMO

We demonstrate quantum many-body state reconstruction from experimental data generated by a programmable quantum simulator by means of a neural-network model incorporating known experimental errors. Specifically, we extract restricted Boltzmann machine wave functions from data produced by a Rydberg quantum simulator with eight and nine atoms in a single measurement basis and apply a novel regularization technique to mitigate the effects of measurement errors in the training data. Reconstructions of modest complexity are able to capture one- and two-body observables not accessible to experimentalists, as well as more sophisticated observables such as the Rényi mutual information. Our results open the door to integration of machine learning architectures with intermediate-scale quantum hardware.

4.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(17): 170503, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702233

RESUMO

We report the implementation of universal two- and three-qubit entangling gates on neutral-atom qubits encoded in long-lived hyperfine ground states. The gates are mediated by excitation to strongly interacting Rydberg states and are implemented in parallel on several clusters of atoms in a one-dimensional array of optical tweezers. Specifically, we realize the controlled-phase gate, enacted by a novel, fast protocol involving only global coupling of two qubits to Rydberg states. We benchmark this operation by preparing Bell states with fidelity F≥95.0(2)%, and extract gate fidelity ≥97.4(3)%, averaged across five atom pairs. In addition, we report a proof-of-principle implementation of the three-qubit Toffoli gate, in which two control atoms simultaneously constrain the behavior of one target atom. These experiments demonstrate key ingredients for high-fidelity quantum information processing in a scalable neutral-atom platform.

5.
Opt Lett ; 44(12): 3178-3181, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199410

RESUMO

In this Letter, to the best of our knowledge, we report a new method to generate uniform large-scale optical focus arrays (LOFAs). By identifying and removing undesired phase rotation in the iterative Fourier transform algorithm (IFTA), our approach rapidly produces computer-generated holograms of highly uniform LOFAs. The new algorithm also shows a faster compensation of system-induced LOFA intensity inhomogeneity than the conventional IFTA. After only three adaptive correction steps, we demonstrate LOFAs consisting of O(103) optical foci with an intensity uniformity greater than 98%.

6.
Nature ; 568(7751): 207-211, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30936552

RESUMO

Quantum phase transitions (QPTs) involve transformations between different states of matter that are driven by quantum fluctuations1. These fluctuations play a dominant part in the quantum critical region surrounding the transition point, where the dynamics is governed by the universal properties associated with the QPT. Although time-dependent phenomena associated with classical, thermally driven phase transitions have been extensively studied in systems ranging from the early Universe to Bose-Einstein condensates2-5, understanding critical real-time dynamics in isolated, non-equilibrium quantum systems remains a challenge6. Here we use a Rydberg atom quantum simulator with programmable interactions to study the quantum critical dynamics associated with several distinct QPTs. By studying the growth of spatial correlations when crossing the QPT, we experimentally verify the quantum Kibble-Zurek mechanism (QKZM)7-9 for an Ising-type QPT, explore scaling universality and observe corrections beyond QKZM predictions. This approach is subsequently used to measure the critical exponents associated with chiral clock models10,11, providing new insights into exotic systems that were not previously understood and opening the door to precision studies of critical phenomena, simulations of lattice gauge theories12,13 and applications to quantum optimization14,15.

7.
Phys Rev Lett ; 121(12): 123603, 2018 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30296143

RESUMO

Individual neutral atoms excited to Rydberg states are a promising platform for quantum simulation and quantum information processing. However, experimental progress to date has been limited by short coherence times and relatively low gate fidelities associated with such Rydberg excitations. We report progress towards high-fidelity quantum control of Rydberg-atom qubits. Enabled by a reduction in laser phase noise, our approach yields a significant improvement in coherence properties of individual qubits. We further show that this high-fidelity control extends to the multi-particle case by preparing a two-atom entangled state with a fidelity exceeding 0.97(3), and extending its lifetime with a two-atom dynamical decoupling protocol. These advances open up new prospects for scalable quantum simulation and quantum computation with neutral atoms.

8.
Nature ; 551(7682): 579-584, 2017 11 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29189778

RESUMO

Controllable, coherent many-body systems can provide insights into the fundamental properties of quantum matter, enable the realization of new quantum phases and could ultimately lead to computational systems that outperform existing computers based on classical approaches. Here we demonstrate a method for creating controlled many-body quantum matter that combines deterministically prepared, reconfigurable arrays of individually trapped cold atoms with strong, coherent interactions enabled by excitation to Rydberg states. We realize a programmable Ising-type quantum spin model with tunable interactions and system sizes of up to 51 qubits. Within this model, we observe phase transitions into spatially ordered states that break various discrete symmetries, verify the high-fidelity preparation of these states and investigate the dynamics across the phase transition in large arrays of atoms. In particular, we observe robust many-body dynamics corresponding to persistent oscillations of the order after a rapid quantum quench that results from a sudden transition across the phase boundary. Our method provides a way of exploring many-body phenomena on a programmable quantum simulator and could enable realizations of new quantum algorithms.

9.
Science ; 354(6315): 1024-1027, 2016 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27811284

RESUMO

The realization of large-scale fully controllable quantum systems is an exciting frontier in modern physical science. We use atom-by-atom assembly to implement a platform for the deterministic preparation of regular one-dimensional arrays of individually controlled cold atoms. In our approach, a measurement and feedback procedure eliminates the entropy associated with probabilistic trap occupation and results in defect-free arrays of more than 50 atoms in less than 400 milliseconds. The technique is based on fast, real-time control of 100 optical tweezers, which we use to arrange atoms in desired geometric patterns and to maintain these configurations by replacing lost atoms with surplus atoms from a reservoir. This bottom-up approach may enable controlled engineering of scalable many-body systems for quantum information processing, quantum simulations, and precision measurements.

10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 110(10): 3777-81, 2013 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23412336

RESUMO

One of the most striking features of quantum mechanics is the profound effect exerted by measurements alone. Sophisticated quantum control is now available in several experimental systems, exposing discrepancies between quantum and classical mechanics whenever measurement induces disturbance of the interrogated system. In practice, such discrepancies may frequently be explained as the back-action required by quantum mechanics adding quantum noise to a classical signal. Here, we implement the "three-box" quantum game [Aharonov Y, et al. (1991) J Phys A Math Gen 24(10):2315-2328] by using state-of-the-art control and measurement of the nitrogen vacancy center in diamond. In this protocol, the back-action of quantum measurements adds no detectable disturbance to the classical description of the game. Quantum and classical mechanics then make contradictory predictions for the same experimental procedure; however, classical observers are unable to invoke measurement-induced disturbance to explain the discrepancy. We quantify the residual disturbance of our measurements and obtain data that rule out any classical model by ≳7.8 standard deviations, allowing us to exclude the property of macroscopic state definiteness from our system. Our experiment is then equivalent to the test of quantum noncontextuality [Kochen S, Specker E (1967) J Math Mech 17(1):59-87] that successfully addresses the measurement detectability loophole.

11.
Phys Rev Lett ; 108(4): 043604, 2012 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22400844

RESUMO

We report on the observation of quantum interference of the emission from two separate nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in diamond. Taking advantage of optically induced spin polarization in combination with polarization filtering, we isolate a single transition within the zero-phonon line of the nonresonantly excited NV centers. The time-resolved two-photon interference contrast of this filtered emission reaches 66%. Furthermore, we observe quantum interference from dissimilar NV centers tuned into resonance through the dc Stark effect. These results pave the way towards measurement-based entanglement between remote NV centers and the realization of quantum networks with solid-state spins.

12.
Opt Express ; 19(22): 21211-5, 2011 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22108973

RESUMO

We demonstrate an active metamaterial device that allows to electrically control terahertz transmission over more than one order of magnitude. Our device consists of a lithographically defined gold nano antenna array fabricated on a thin film of vanadium dioxide (VO(2)), a material that possesses an insulator to metal transition. The nano antennas let terahertz (THz) radiation funnel through when the VO(2) film is in the insulating state. By applying a dc-bias voltage through our device, the VO(2) becomes metallic. This electrically shorts the antennas and therefore switches off the transmission in two distinct regimes: reversible and irreversible switching.

13.
Nature ; 477(7366): 574-8, 2011 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21937989

RESUMO

Initialization and read-out of coupled quantum systems are essential ingredients for the implementation of quantum algorithms. Single-shot read-out of the state of a multi-quantum-bit (multi-qubit) register would allow direct investigation of quantum correlations (entanglement), and would give access to further key resources such as quantum error correction and deterministic quantum teleportation. Although spins in solids are attractive candidates for scalable quantum information processing, their single-shot detection has been achieved only for isolated qubits. Here we demonstrate the preparation and measurement of a multi-spin quantum register in a low-temperature solid-state system by implementing resonant optical excitation techniques originally developed in atomic physics. We achieve high-fidelity read-out of the electronic spin associated with a single nitrogen-vacancy centre in diamond, and use this read-out to project up to three nearby nuclear spin qubits onto a well-defined state. Conversely, we can distinguish the state of the nuclear spins in a single shot by mapping it onto, and subsequently measuring, the electronic spin. Finally, we show compatibility with qubit control: we demonstrate initialization, coherent manipulation and single-shot read-out in a single experiment on a two-qubit register, using techniques suitable for extension to larger registers. These results pave the way for a test of Bell's inequalities on solid-state spins and the implementation of measurement-based quantum information protocols.

14.
Nano Lett ; 10(6): 2064-8, 2010 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20469898

RESUMO

Unusual performances of metamaterials such as negative index of refraction, memory effect, and cloaking originate from the resonance features of the metallic composite atom(1-6). Indeed, control of metamaterial properties by changing dielectric environments of thin films below the metallic resonators has been demonstrated(7-11). However, the dynamic control ranges are still limited to less than a factor of 10,(7-11) with the applicable bandwidth defined by the sharp resonance features. Here, we present ultra-broad-band metamaterial thin film with colossal dynamic control range, fulfilling present day research demands. Hybridized with thin VO(2) (vanadium dioxide) (12-18) films, nanoresonator supercell arrays designed for one decade of spectral width in terahertz frequency region show an unprecedented extinction ratio of over 10000 when the underlying thin film experiences a phase transition. Our nanoresonator approach realizes the full potential of the thin film technology for long wavelength applications.

15.
Phys Rev Lett ; 105(17): 177403, 2010 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21231079

RESUMO

We demonstrate coherent control of the optical transition of single nitrogen-vacancy defect centers in diamond. On applying short resonant laser pulses, we observe optical Rabi oscillations with a half period as short as 1 ns, an order of magnitude shorter than the spontaneous emission time. By studying the decay of Rabi oscillations, we find that the decoherence is dominated by laser-induced spectral jumps. By using a low-power probe pulse as a detuning sensor and applying postselection, we demonstrate that spectral diffusion can be overcome in this system to generate coherent photons.

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