Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 42
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(5): 947-958, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668704

RESUMO

Human-specific duplications at chromosome 16p11.2 mediate recurrent pathogenic 600 kbp BP4-BP5 copy-number variations, which are among the most common genetic causes of autism. These copy-number polymorphic duplications are under positive selection and include three to eight copies of BOLA2, a gene involved in the maturation of cytosolic iron-sulfur proteins. To investigate the potential advantage provided by the rapid expansion of BOLA2, we assessed hematological traits and anemia prevalence in 379,385 controls and individuals who have lost or gained copies of BOLA2: 89 chromosome 16p11.2 BP4-BP5 deletion carriers and 56 reciprocal duplication carriers in the UK Biobank. We found that the 16p11.2 deletion is associated with anemia (18/89 carriers, 20%, p = 4e-7, OR = 5), particularly iron-deficiency anemia. We observed similar enrichments in two clinical 16p11.2 deletion cohorts, which included 6/63 (10%) and 7/20 (35%) unrelated individuals with anemia, microcytosis, low serum iron, or low blood hemoglobin. Upon stratification by BOLA2 copy number, our data showed an association between low BOLA2 dosage and the above phenotypes (8/15 individuals with three copies, 53%, p = 1e-4). In parallel, we analyzed hematological traits in mice carrying the 16p11.2 orthologous deletion or duplication, as well as Bola2+/- and Bola2-/- animals. The Bola2-deficient mice and the mice carrying the deletion showed early evidence of iron deficiency, including a mild decrease in hemoglobin, lower plasma iron, microcytosis, and an increased red blood cell zinc-protoporphyrin-to-heme ratio. Our results indicate that BOLA2 participates in iron homeostasis in vivo, and its expansion has a potential adaptive role in protecting against iron deficiency.

2.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526516

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Variants disruptive to CHD8 (which codes for the protein CHD8 [chromodomain-helicase-DNA-binding protein 8]) are among the most common mutations revealed by exome sequencing in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recent work has indicated that CHD8 plays a role in the regulation of other ASD-risk genes. However, it is unclear whether a possible shared genetic ontology extends to the phenotype. METHODS: This study (N = 143; 42.7% female participants) investigated clinical and behavioral features of individuals ascertained for the presence of a known disruptive ASD-risk mutation that is 1) CHD8 (CHD8 group) (n = 15), 2) a gene targeted by CHD8 (target group) (n = 22), or 3) a gene without confirmed evidence of being targeted by CHD8 (other gene group) (n = 106). RESULTS: Results indicated shared features between the CHD8 and target groups that included less severe adaptive deficits in communication skills, similar functional language, more social motivation challenges in those with ASD, larger head circumference, higher weight, and lower seizure prevalence relative to the other gene group. CONCLUSIONS: These similarities suggest broader genetic ontology accounts for aspects of phenotypic heterogeneity. Improved understanding of the relationships between related disruptive gene events may lead us to improved understanding of shared mechanisms and lead to more focused treatments for individuals with known genetic mutations.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3094, 2019 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300657

RESUMO

AMPA receptors (AMPARs) are tetrameric ligand-gated channels made up of combinations of GluA1-4 subunits encoded by GRIA1-4 genes. GluA2 has an especially important role because, following post-transcriptional editing at the Q607 site, it renders heteromultimeric AMPARs Ca2+-impermeable, with a linear relationship between current and trans-membrane voltage. Here, we report heterozygous de novo GRIA2 mutations in 28 unrelated patients with intellectual disability (ID) and neurodevelopmental abnormalities including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), Rett syndrome-like features, and seizures or developmental epileptic encephalopathy (DEE). In functional expression studies, mutations lead to a decrease in agonist-evoked current mediated by mutant subunits compared to wild-type channels. When GluA2 subunits are co-expressed with GluA1, most GRIA2 mutations cause a decreased current amplitude and some also affect voltage rectification. Our results show that de-novo variants in GRIA2 can cause neurodevelopmental disorders, complementing evidence that other genetic causes of ID, ASD and DEE also disrupt glutamatergic synaptic transmission.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Receptores de AMPA/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Mutação com Perda de Função , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
4.
Biol Psychiatry ; 86(4): 294-305, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although habituation is one of the most ancient and fundamental forms of learning, its regulators and its relevance for human disease are poorly understood. METHODS: We manipulated the orthologs of 286 genes implicated in intellectual disability (ID) with or without comorbid autism spectrum disorder (ASD) specifically in Drosophila neurons, and we tested these models in light-off jump habituation. We dissected neuronal substrates underlying the identified habituation deficits and integrated genotype-phenotype annotations, gene ontologies, and interaction networks to determine the clinical features and molecular processes that are associated with habituation deficits. RESULTS: We identified >100 genes required for habituation learning. For 93 of these genes, a role in habituation learning was previously unknown. These genes characterize ID disorders with macrocephaly and/or overgrowth and comorbid ASD. Moreover, individuals with ASD from the Simons Simplex Collection carrying damaging de novo mutations in these genes exhibit increased aberrant behaviors associated with inappropriate, stereotypic speech. At the molecular level, ID genes required for normal habituation are enriched in synaptic function and converge on Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (Ras/MAPK) signaling. Both increased Ras/MAPK signaling in gamma-aminobutyric acidergic (GABAergic) neurons and decreased Ras/MAPK signaling in cholinergic neurons specifically inhibit the adaptive habituation response. CONCLUSIONS: Our work supports the relevance of habituation learning to ASD, identifies an unprecedented number of novel habituation players, supports an emerging role for inhibitory neurons in habituation, and reveals an opposing, circuit-level-based mechanism for Ras/MAPK signaling. These findings establish habituation as a possible, widely applicable functional readout and target for pharmacologic intervention in ID/ASD.

5.
Biol Psychol ; 146: 107712, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163191

RESUMO

Animal models of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) contribute to understanding of the role of genetics and the biological mechanisms underlying behavioral phenotypes and inform the development of potential treatments. Translational biomarkers are needed that can both validate these models and facilitate behavioral testing paradigms for ASD in humans. Automated video tracking of movement patterns and positions recorded from overhead cameras is routinely applied in behavioral paradigms designed to elicit core behavioral manifestations of ASD in rodent models. In humans, laboratory-based observations are a common semi-naturalistic context for assessing a variety of behaviors relevant to ASD such as social engagement, play, and attention. We present information learned and suggest guidelines for designing, recording, acquiring, and evaluating video tracking data of human movement patterns based on our experience in a multi-site video tracking study of children with ASD in the context of a parent-child, laboratory-based play interaction.

6.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1063, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31143190

RESUMO

Neuroinflammation in utero may result in lifelong neurological disabilities. Astrocytes play a pivotal role in this process, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. No early postnatal treatment strategies exist to enhance neuroprotective potential of astrocytes. We hypothesized that agonism on α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) in fetal astrocytes will augment their neuroprotective transcriptome profile, while the inhibition of α7nAChR will achieve the opposite. Using an in vivo-in vitro model of developmental programming of neuroinflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), we validated this hypothesis in primary fetal sheep astrocytes cultures re-exposed to LPS in the presence of a selective α7nAChR agonist or antagonist. Our RNAseq findings show that a pro-inflammatory astrocyte transcriptome phenotype acquired in vitro by LPS stimulation is reversed with α7nAChR agonistic stimulation. Conversely, α7nAChR inhibition potentiates the pro-inflammatory astrocytic transcriptome phenotype. Furthermore, we conducted a secondary transcriptome analysis against the identical α7nAChR experiments in fetal sheep primary microglia cultures. Similar to findings in fetal microglia, in fetal astrocytes we observed a memory effect of in vivo exposure to inflammation, expressed in a perturbation of the iron homeostasis signaling pathway (hemoxygenase 1, HMOX1), which persisted under pre-treatment with α7nAChR antagonist but was reversed with α7nAChR agonist. For both glia cell types, common pathways activated due to LPS included neuroinflammation signaling and NF-κB signaling in some, but not all comparisons. However, overall, the overlap on the level of signaling pathways was rather minimal. Astrocytes, not microglia-the primary immune cells of the brain, were characterized by unique inhibition patterns of STAT3 pathway due to agonistic stimulation of α7nAChR prior to LPS exposure. Lastly, we discuss the implications of our findings for fetal and postnatal brain development.

7.
Dev Psychopathol ; 31(3): 931-943, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30957732

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with pervasive social deficits as well as marked emotion dysregulation across the life span. Decreased social motivation accounts in part for social difficulties, but factors moderating its influence are not fully understood. In this paper, we (a) characterize social and emotional functioning among children and adolescents with ASD, (b) explore contributions of social motivation and emotion dysregulation to social skill, and (c) consider biological sex and intellectual functioning as moderators of these associations. In a sample of 2,079 children and adolescents with ASD from the Simons Simplex Collection, we document direct effects of social motivation, internalizing symptoms, aggression, attention problems, irritability, and self-injurious behavior on children's social skills. Furthermore, dysregulation in several domains moderated the association between social motivation and social skill, suggesting a blunting effect on social motivation in the context of emotional difficulties. Moreover, when considering only individuals with intellectual skills in the average range or higher, biological sex further moderated these associations. Findings add to our understanding of social-emotional processes in ASD, suggest emotion dysregulation as a target of intervention in the service of social skill improvements, and build on efforts to understand sources of individual difference that contribute to heterogeneity among individuals with ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Motivação , Habilidades Sociais , Adolescente , Agressão/psicologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Criança , Mecanismos de Defesa , Feminino , Humanos , Humor Irritável/fisiologia , Masculino , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia
8.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 107, 2019 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30837452

RESUMO

One of the co-authors, Marianne B.M. van den Bree has had her name incorrectly abbreviated by citation manager. It was stated as "Bree MBMVD14", but has been updated to "van den Bree, M.B.M." in the HTML, PDF, and XML versions of this article.

9.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 8, 2019 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30664628

RESUMO

Deletion and duplication of 16p11.2 (BP4-BP5) have been associated with an increased risk of intellectual disability and psychiatric disorder. This is the first study to compare the frequency of a broad spectrum of psychiatric disorders in children with 16p11.2 deletion and duplication. We aimed to evaluate (1) the nature and prevalence of psychopathology associated with copy number variation (CNV) in children with 16p11.2 by comparing deletion and duplication carriers with family controls; (2) whether deletion and duplication carriers differ in frequency of psychopathology. 217 deletion carriers, 77 deletion family controls, 114 duplication carriers, and 32 duplication family controls participated in the study. Measures included standardized research diagnostic instruments. Deletion carriers had a higher frequency of any psychiatric disorder (OR = 8.9, p < 0.001), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (OR = 4.0, p = 0.01), and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (OR = 39.9, p = 0.01) than controls. Duplication carriers had a higher frequency of any psychiatric diagnosis (OR = 5.3, p = 0.01) and ADHD (OR = 7.0, p = 0.02) than controls. The prevalence of ASD in child carriers of deletions and duplications was similar (22% versus 26%). Comparison of the two CNV groups indicated a higher frequency of ADHD in children with the duplication than deletion (OR = 2.7, p = 0.04) as well as a higher frequency of overall psychiatric disorders (OR = 2.8, p = 0.02) and psychotic symptoms (OR = 4.7, p = 0.02). However, no differences between deletion and duplications carriers in the prevalence of ASD were found. Both deletion and duplication are associated with an increased risk of psychiatric disorder, supporting the importance of early recognition, diagnosis, and intervention in these groups.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Duplicação Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16/genética , Deleção de Sequência , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino
10.
Nat Genet ; 51(1): 106-116, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30559488

RESUMO

We combined de novo mutation (DNM) data from 10,927 individuals with developmental delay and autism to identify 253 candidate neurodevelopmental disease genes with an excess of missense and/or likely gene-disruptive (LGD) mutations. Of these genes, 124 reach exome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10-7) for DNM. Intersecting these results with copy number variation (CNV) morbidity data shows an enrichment for genomic disorder regions (30/253, likelihood ratio (LR) +1.85, P = 0.0017). We identify genes with an excess of missense DNMs overlapping deletion syndromes (for example, KIF1A and the 2q37 deletion) as well as duplication syndromes, such as recurrent MAPK3 missense mutations within the chromosome 16p11.2 duplication, recurrent CHD4 missense DNMs in the 12p13 duplication region, and recurrent WDFY4 missense DNMs in the 10q11.23 duplication region. Network analyses of genes showing an excess of DNMs highlights functional networks, including cell-specific enrichments in the D1+ and D2+ spiny neurons of the striatum.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Mutação/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Animais , Transtorno Autístico/genética , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Exoma/genética , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Complexo Mi-2 de Remodelação de Nucleossomo e Desacetilase/genética , Camundongos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
11.
Neuroimage ; 184: 925-931, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30312807

RESUMO

There is large individual variability in human neural responses and perceptual abilities. The factors that give rise to these individual differences, however, remain largely unknown. To examine these factors, we measured fMRI responses to moving gratings in the motion-selective region MT, and perceptual duration thresholds for motion direction discrimination. Further, we acquired MR spectroscopy data, which allowed us to quantify an index of neurotransmitter levels in the region of area MT. These three measurements were conducted in separate experimental sessions within the same group of male and female subjects. We show that stronger Glx (glutamate + glutamine) signals in the MT region are associated with both higher fMRI responses and superior psychophysical task performance. Our results suggest that greater baseline levels of glutamate within MT facilitate motion perception by increasing neural responses in this region.


Assuntos
Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Percepção de Movimento/fisiologia , Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Psicofísica , Córtex Visual/metabolismo , Vias Visuais/metabolismo , Vias Visuais/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Genet Med ; 2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30504930

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To maximize the discovery of potentially pathogenic variants to better understand the diagnostic utility of genome sequencing (GS) and to assess how the presence of multiple risk events might affect the phenotypic severity in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). METHODS: GS was applied to 180 simplex and multiplex ASD families (578 individuals, 213 patients) with exome sequencing and array comparative genomic hybridization further applied to a subset for validation and cross-platform comparisons. RESULTS: We found that 40.8% of patients carried variants with evidence of disease risk, including a de novo frameshift variant in NR4A2 and two de novo missense variants in SYNCRIP, while 21.1% carried clinically relevant pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants. Patients with more than one risk variant (9.9%) were more severely affected with respect to cognitive ability compared with patients with a single or no-risk variant. We observed no instance among the 27 multiplex families where a pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant was transmitted to all affected members in the family. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrates the diagnostic utility of GS, especially for multiple risk variants that contribute to the phenotypic severity, shows the genetic heterogeneity in multiplex families, and provides evidence for new genes for follow up.

13.
Mol Autism ; 9: 64, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30564305

RESUMO

Background: We previously performed targeted sequencing of autism risk genes in probands from the Autism Clinical and Genetic Resources in China (ACGC) (phase I). Here, we expand this analysis to a larger cohort of patients (ACGC phase II) to better understand the prevalence, inheritance, and genotype-phenotype correlations of likely gene-disrupting (LGD) mutations for autism candidate genes originally identified in cohorts of European descent. Methods: We sequenced 187 autism candidate genes in an additional 784 probands and 85 genes in 599 probands using single-molecule molecular inversion probes. We tested the inheritance of potentially pathogenic mutations, performed a meta-analysis of phase I and phase II data and combined our results with existing exome sequence data to investigate the phenotypes of carrier parents and patients with multiple hits in different autism risk genes. Results: We validated recurrent, LGD, de novo mutations (DNMs) in 13 genes. We identified a potential novel risk gene (ZNF292), one novel gene with recurrent LGD DNMs (RALGAPB), as well as genes associated with macrocephaly (GIGYF2 and WDFY3). We identified the transmission of private LGD mutations in genes predominantly associated with DNMs and showed that parental carriers tended to share milder autism-related phenotypes. Patients that carried DNMs in two or more candidate genes show more severe phenotypes. Conclusions: We identify new risk genes and transmission of deleterious mutations in genes primarily associated with DNMs. The fact that parental carriers show milder phenotypes and patients with multiple hits are more severe supports a multifactorial model of risk.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Herança Multifatorial , Mutação , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Locos de Características Quantitativas
14.
Front Psychiatry ; 9: 515, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30405456

RESUMO

Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at heightened risk of psychiatric comorbidities across the lifespan, including elevated rates of internalizing, externalizing, and self-injurious behaviors. Identification of medical comorbidities that contribute to these concerns may elucidate mechanisms through which psychiatric concerns arise, as well as offer additional avenues for intervention. Gastrointestinal (GI) conditions are of particular interest, as they are prevalent among those with ASD, may share genetic or neurobiological etiologies with the core features of ASD, and are linked with psychiatric difficulties in the general population. In this paper, we draw on data from nearly 2,800 children and adolescents with ASD within the Simons Simplex Collection to characterize the unique contributions of (1) autism symptoms, (2) psychosocial factors (child's age, sex, verbal and nonverbal IQ, adaptive behavior, race, and household income), and (3) GI concerns with respect to multiple psychiatric outcomes. Multiple regression models revealed unique contributions of ASD symptoms and multiple psychosocial factors such as verbal IQ, adaptive behavior, and family income to internalizing, externalizing, and self-injurious behavior. In general, higher levels of psychiatric symptoms were associated with more ASD symptoms, higher verbal IQ, lower adaptive behavior skills, and lower family income. Furthermore, levels of GI symptoms accounted for unique variance in psychiatric outcomes over and above these other factors, linking increased GI problems with increased psychiatric symptoms in children with ASD. Taken together, results indicate that the presence and quantity of GI symptoms should be considered when evaluating psychiatric and behavioral concerns among children with ASD, and that treatment of GI conditions may be an important component in alleviating a broad array of mental health concerns in this group.

15.
Elife ; 72018 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30362457

RESUMO

Adaptation is a fundamental property of cortical neurons and has been suggested to be altered in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We used fMRI to measure adaptation induced by repeated audio-visual stimulation in early sensory cortical areas in individuals with ASD and neurotypical (NT) controls. The initial transient responses were equivalent between groups in both visual and auditory cortices and when stimulation occurred with fixed-interval and randomized-interval timing. However, in auditory but not visual cortex, the post-transient sustained response was greater in individuals with ASD than NT controls in the fixed-interval timing condition, reflecting reduced adaptation. Further, individual differences in the sustained response in auditory cortex correlated with ASD symptom severity. These findings are consistent with hypotheses that ASD is associated with increased neural responsiveness but that responsiveness differences only manifest after repeated stimulation, are specific to the temporal pattern of stimulation, and are confined to specific cortical regions.

16.
Brain Lang ; 187: 1-8, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30312833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with language impairment as well as atypical auditory sensory processing. The current study investigated associations among auditory perception, implicit language learning and receptive language ability in youth with ASD. METHODS: We measured auditory event related potentials (ERP) during an artificial language statistical learning task in 76 youth with ASD and 27 neurotypical (NT) controls. Participants with ASD had a broad range of cognitive and language abilities. RESULTS: NT youth showed evidence of implicit learning via attenuated P1 amplitude in the left hemisphere. In contrast, among youth with ASD, implicit learning elicited bilateral attenuation that was increasingly evident with greater receptive language skill. CONCLUSIONS: Efficient early auditory perception reflects language learning and is a marker of language ability among youth with ASD. Atypical lateralization of word learning is evident in ASD across a broad range of receptive language abilities.

17.
Autism Res ; 11(9): 1300-1310, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30107084

RESUMO

Pathogenic disruptions to the activity-dependent neuroprotector homeobox (ADNP) gene are among the most common heterozygous genetic mutations associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Individuals with ADNP disruptions share a constellation of medical and psychiatric features, including ASD, intellectual disability (ID), dysmorphic features, and hypotonia. However, the profile of ASD symptoms associated with ADNP may differ from that of individuals with another ASD-associated single gene disruption or with ASD without a known genetic cause. The current study examined the ASD phenotype in a sample of representative youth with ADNP disruptions. Participants (N = 116, ages 4-22 years) included a cohort with ADNP mutations (n = 11) and three comparison groups with either a mutation to CHD8 (n = 11), a mutation to another ASD-associated gene (other mutation; n = 53), or ASD with no known genetic etiology (idiopathic ASD; n = 41). As expected, individuals with ADNP disruptions had higher rates of ID but less severe social affect symptoms compared to the CHD8 and Idiopathic ASD groups. In addition, verbal intelligence explained more variance in social impairment in the ADNP group compared to CHD8, other mutation, and idiopathic ASD comparison groups. Restricted and repetitive behaviors in the ADNP group were characterized by high levels of stereotyped motor behaviors, whereas the idiopathic ASD group showed high levels of restricted interests. Taken together, these results underscore the role of ADNP in cognitive functioning and suggest that social impairments in ADNP syndrome are consistent with severity of verbal deficits. Autism Res 2018, 11: 1300-1310. © 2018 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY: Disruptions to the ADNP gene (i.e., ADNP syndrome) have been associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This article describes intellectual disability, mild social difficulties, and severe repetitive motor movements in a group of 11 youth with ADNP Syndrome. We found lower rates of ASD than previously reported. Verbal skills explained individual variability in social impairment. This pattern suggests that the ADNP gene is primarily associated with learning and memory, and level of social difficulties is consistent with level of verbal impairment.

18.
Curr Biol ; 28(17): 2794-2799.e3, 2018 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30122530

RESUMO

The importance of sex as a biological variable has recently been emphasized by major funding organizations [1] and within the neuroscience community [2]. Critical sex-based neural differences are indicated by, for example, conditions such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) that have a strong sex bias with a higher prevalence among males [51, 3]. Motivated by this broader context, we report a marked sex difference in a visual motion perception task among neurotypical adults. Motion duration thresholds [4, 5]-the minimum duration needed to accurately perceive motion direction-were considerably shorter for males than females. We replicated this result across three laboratories and 263 total participants. This type of enhanced performance has previously been observed only in special populations including ASD, depression, and senescence [6-8]. The observed sex difference cannot be explained by general differences in speed of visual processing, overall visual discrimination abilities, or potential motor-related differences. We also show that while individual differences in motion duration thresholds are associated with differences in fMRI responsiveness of human MT+, surprisingly, MT+ response magnitudes did not differ between males and females. Thus, we reason that sex differences in motion perception are not captured by an MT+ fMRI measure that predicts within-sex individual differences in perception. Overall, these results show how sex differences can manifest unexpectedly, highlighting the importance of sex as a factor in the design and analysis of perceptual and cognitive studies.

19.
Curr Opin Psychol ; 27: 1-5, 2018 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30059871

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a behaviorally heterogeneous disorder with a strong genetic component, as evidenced by decades of twin and family studies. In recent years, enhanced methods of genomic sequencing have revealed that structural variation and mutations to both coding and non-coding regions of single, candidate genes may account for more than 30% of ASD cases. The current review highlights a genotype-first approach that builds upon these molecular findings to parse the heterogeneity of ASD. Advantages of this approach include strong potential for precision medicine diagnosis and treatment, as well as opportunity to advance basic science research on neurodevelopmental disorders. Psychosocial benefits of identifying genetic subtypes of ASD have already been realized through social networking, comprehensive clinical phenotyping, and increased awareness among providers of rare genetic mutations.

20.
Trends Neurosci ; 41(7): 442-456, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29691040

RESUMO

Advances in gene discovery for neurodevelopmental disorders have identified SCN2A dysfunction as a leading cause of infantile seizures, autism spectrum disorder, and intellectual disability. SCN2A encodes the neuronal sodium channel NaV1.2. Functional assays demonstrate strong correlation between genotype and phenotype. This insight can help guide therapeutic decisions and raises the possibility that ligands that selectively enhance or diminish channel function may improve symptoms. The well-defined function of sodium channels makes SCN2A an important test case for investigating the neurobiology of neurodevelopmental disorders more generally. Here, we discuss the progress made, through the concerted efforts of a diverse group of academic and industry scientists as well as policy advocates, in understanding and treating SCN2A-related disorders.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA