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1.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 41(1): 10-18, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31888778

RESUMO

Background: Hereditary prekallikrein (Fletcher factor) deficiency is a rare condition characterized by a prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time. Inhibitors of plasma kallikrein have recently been approved for prophylaxis of hereditary angioedema and are under investigation for use in other indications. Objective: We attempted to conservatively assess the impact of long-term inhibition of this pathway by reviewing reported comorbidities in patients with hereditary prekallikrein deficiency. Methods: We searched several medical literature databases for publications that reported data from patients with hereditary prekallikrein deficiency (<10% of normal and/or shortening of activated partial thromboplastin time on increased incubation time). Data reporting of cardiovascular, bleeding, and autoimmune-related diseases were extracted. Results: Of 1966 publications screened, 45 publications (which represented 53 patients with prekallikrein deficiency) were included. Among 53 identified patients with prekallikrein deficiency, 25 were explicitly defined as asymptomatic, with no comorbidities mentioned in another three cases. Another 16 of the 53 patients were described as having undergone surgery or dental extractions with no complications. Cardiovascular comorbidities were reported in 19 patients, mainly hypertension (9 patients) and cerebrovascular ischemia or stroke (5 patients). Excessive bleeding episodes after surgery were reported in four patients. Autoimmune-related diseases were reported for three patients (two with Graves disease and one with systemic lupus erythematosus). Conclusion: This review identified patients with hereditary prekallikrein deficiency who reported a spectrum of health outcomes from asymptomatic to infrequent reports of cardiovascular, bleeding, and autoimmune comorbidities. The majority of the reports did not indicate any association between prekallikrein deficiency and comorbidities; however, additional observation is required to confirm the long-term safety of plasma kallikrein inhibition.

2.
Acta Neuropathol ; 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820119

RESUMO

Developmental and/or epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs) are a group of devastating genetic disorders, resulting in early-onset, therapy-resistant seizures and developmental delay. Here we report on 22 individuals from 15 families presenting with a severe form of intractable epilepsy, severe developmental delay, progressive microcephaly, visual disturbance and similar minor dysmorphisms. Whole exome sequencing identified a recurrent, homozygous variant (chr2:64083454A > G) in the essential UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGP2) gene in all probands. This rare variant results in a tolerable Met12Val missense change of the longer UGP2 protein isoform but causes a disruption of the start codon of the shorter isoform, which is predominant in brain. We show that the absence of the shorter isoform leads to a reduction of functional UGP2 enzyme in neural stem cells, leading to altered glycogen metabolism, upregulated unfolded protein response and premature neuronal differentiation, as modeled during pluripotent stem cell differentiation in vitro. In contrast, the complete lack of all UGP2 isoforms leads to differentiation defects in multiple lineages in human cells. Reduced expression of Ugp2a/Ugp2b in vivo in zebrafish mimics visual disturbance and mutant animals show a behavioral phenotype. Our study identifies a recurrent start codon mutation in UGP2 as a cause of a novel autosomal recessive DEE syndrome. Importantly, it also shows that isoform-specific start-loss mutations causing expression loss of a tissue-relevant isoform of an essential protein can cause a genetic disease, even when an organism-wide protein absence is incompatible with life. We provide additional examples where a similar disease mechanism applies.

3.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; : 1-9, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare C1-inhibitor (C1-INH) deficiency disease. Low levels of functional C1-INH can lead to recurrent attacks of severe swelling occurring in areas such as the limbs, face, gastrointestinal tract, and throat. These attacks are both painful and disabling and, if not treated promptly and effectively, can result in hospitalization or death. Agents targeting the specific physiologic pathway of HAE attacks can offer improved outcomes with limited side effects compared with nonspecific therapies. However, these treatments display varying efficacy in HAE patients, including the need to redose or seek additional care if the treatment does not resolve symptoms effectively. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the expected cost and utility per HAE attack when treated on-demand with HAE therapies indicated for the treatment of acute attacks. METHODS: A decision-tree model was developed using TreeAge Pro software. Four on-demand HAE treatments were included: ecallantide, icatibant, plasma-derived (pd)C1-INH, and recombinant human (rh)C1-INH. The model uses probabilities for redosing, self-administration versus health care provider administration, and risk of hospitalization. Costs within the model consisted of the HAE treatments and associated health care system expenses. Nonattack baseline utility and attack utility were implemented for effectiveness calculations; time to attack resolution was considered as well. Effectiveness and overall costs per attack were calculated and used to estimate cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). Variability and ranges in cost-effectiveness were determined using probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Finally, a budget impact model for a health plan with 1 million covered lives was also developed. RESULTS: The base case model outputs show costs and calculated effectiveness per attack at $12,905 and 0.806 for rhC1-INH, $14,806 and 0.765 for icatibant, $14,668 and 0.769 for pdC1-INH, and $21,068 and 0.792 for ecallantide, respectively. Cost per QALY was calculated using 26.9 attacks per person-year, leading to results of $420,941 for rhC1-INH, $488,349 for icatibant, $483,892 for pdC1-INH, and $689,773 for ecallantide. Sensitivity analyses demonstrate that redose rates (from 3% for rhC1-INH to 44% for icatibant) are a primary driver of variability in cost-effectiveness. Annual health plan costs from the budget impact model are calculated as $6.94 million for rhC1-INH, $7.97 million for icatibant, $7.90 million for pdC1-INH, and $11.33 million for ecallantide. CONCLUSIONS: Accounting for patient well-being and additional cost components of HAE attacks generates a better estimation of cost-effectiveness than drug cost alone. Results from this model indicate that rhC1-INH is the dominant treatment option with lower expected costs and higher calculated effectiveness than comparators. Further analyses reinforce the idea that low redose rates contribute to improved cost-effectiveness. DISCLOSURES: Funding support was contributed by Pharming Healthcare. Relan and Adams are employed by Pharming Healthcare. Tyson and Magar are employed by AHRM, which received fees to perform the analysis and develop the manuscript. Bernstein reports grants, personal fees, and nonfinancial support from Shire, CSL Behring, and Pharming Healthcare; grants and personal fees from Biocryst; and nonfinancial support from HAEA, unrelated to this study.

4.
Curr Allergy Asthma Rep ; 19(12): 54, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776689

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Occupational rhinitis (OR), an inflammatory disease of the nose, refers to any nasal symptoms reported to be work-related. The purpose of this review is to provide a current overview of the classification, diagnosis, and treatment of OR. RECENT FINDINGS: Occupational rhinitis (OR) can further be classified into allergic or non-allergic depending on the causative agent(s) and pathogenesis. Presenting symptoms are similar to non-OR including nasal congestion, anterior and posterior rhinorrhea, sneezing, and nasal itching. Despite its high prevalence in a spectrum of workplaces, OR is under reported as it is often considered a nuisance rather than a potential precursor to occupational asthma (OA). The diagnosis of OR is obfuscated as it is difficult to determine if this condition was caused by environmental determinants in or outside the workplace. Furthermore, workers may have a pre-existing history of allergic or non-allergic rhinitis leading the clinician and worker to overlook inciting agents in the workplace. In this case, a diagnosis of OR is still possible depending on the exposures but must be differentiated from work-exacerbated rhinitis. Further complicating the diagnosis of OR is the lack of evidence-based research focused on this condition as it is often trivialized due to the perception that it has an insignificant impact on the worker's health. The reality is that OR can have a significant impact on the worker's quality of life and is associated with a number of comorbidities including occupational asthma, recurrent sinusitis, headaches, eustachian tube dysfunction, and sleep disorders similar to non-occupational rhinitis. However, one significant difference between these disorders is that workers diagnosed with OR are eligible for worker's compensation. Treatment of OR involves avoidance of the inciting agent(s) and medications similar to those used to treat non-OR conditions. This review summarizes recent progresses on the etiology, risk factors, diagnosis, and therapy of OR. In addition, suggested areas of further research with potential targets for modifications in the workplace environment as well as therapeutic interventions will be discussed.

6.
J Clin Med ; 8(11)2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752308

RESUMO

Chronic rhinitis (CR) is divided into two main categories: allergic rhinitis (AR) and nonallergic rhinitis (NAR). These conditions are more recognizable to an experienced clinician, as they can be more clearly demarcated diagnostically. However, an additional 30% to 50% of patients with CR might have an overlap of NAR and AR, referred to as mixed rhinitis (MR). Progress in elucidating the pathophysiologic mechanisms behind MR and NAR has been made in the past several years, and there are now several guidelines published to assist the clinician in accurately diagnosing AR, NAR, and MR. Clinical history and subjective symptoms can provide clues for differentiating AR from MR and NAR, but allergy testing is recommended to confirm these conditions. Progress in accurately diagnosing patients with CR will be made as studies incorporate subjective (i.e., validated questionnaires such as the irritant index questionnaire (IIQ), medication responsiveness, and quality-of-life tools) and objective (i.e., nasal cytologic testing, nasal provocation, and biomarkers) methods characterizing rhinitis subtypes.

7.
N Engl J Med ; 381(14): 1321-1332, 2019 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the majority of patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria, most currently available therapies do not result in complete symptom control. Ligelizumab is a next-generation high-affinity humanized monoclonal anti-IgE antibody. Data are limited regarding the dose-response relationship of ligelizumab and the efficacy and safety of ligelizumab as compared with omalizumab and placebo in patients who have moderate-to-severe chronic spontaneous urticaria that is inadequately controlled with H1-antihistamines at approved or increased doses, alone or in combination with H2-antihistamines or leukotriene-receptor antagonists. METHODS: In a phase 2b dose-finding trial, we randomly assigned patients to receive ligelizumab at a dose of 24 mg, 72 mg, or 240 mg, omalizumab at a dose of 300 mg, or placebo, administered subcutaneously every 4 weeks for a period of 20 weeks, or a single 120-mg dose of ligelizumab. Disease symptoms of hives, itch, and angioedema were monitored by means of weekly activity scores. The main objective was to determine a dose-response relationship for the complete control of hives (indicated by a weekly hives-severity score of 0, on a scale from 0 to 21, with higher scores indicating greater severity); the primary end point of this response was assessed at week 12. Complete symptom control was indicated by a weekly urticaria activity score of 0 (on a scale from 0 to 42, with higher scores indicating greater severity). Safety was analyzed throughout the trial. RESULTS: A total of 382 patients underwent randomization. At week 12, a total of 30%, 51%, and 42% of the patients treated with 24 mg, 72 mg, and 240 mg, respectively, of ligelizumab had complete control of hives, as compared with 26% of the patients in the omalizumab group and no patients in the placebo group. A dose-response relationship was established. At week 12, a total of 30%, 44%, and 40% of the patients treated with 24 mg, 72 mg, and 240 mg, respectively, of ligelizumab had complete control of symptoms, as compared with 26% of the patients in the omalizumab group and no patients in the placebo group. In this small and short trial, no safety concerns regarding ligelizumab or omalizumab emerged. CONCLUSIONS: A higher percentage of patients had complete control of symptoms of chronic spontaneous urticaria with ligelizumab therapy of 72 mg or 240 mg than with omalizumab or placebo. (Funded by Novartis Pharma; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02477332.).


Assuntos
Antialérgicos/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Anti-Idiotípicos/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Omalizumab/administração & dosagem , Urticária/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Antialérgicos/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Anti-Idiotípicos/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Doença Crônica , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Omalizumab/efeitos adversos , Gravidade do Paciente , Indução de Remissão , Urticária/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Genet Couns ; 28(6): 1107-1118, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite growing evidence of diagnostic yield and clinical utility of whole exome sequencing (WES) in patients with undiagnosed diseases, there remain significant cost and reimbursement barriers limiting access to such testing. The diagnostic yield and resulting clinical actions of WES for patients who previously faced insurance coverage barriers have not yet been explored. METHODS: We performed a retrospective descriptive analysis of clinical WES outcomes for patients facing insurance coverage barriers prior to clinical WES and who subsequently enrolled in the Undiagnosed Diseases Network (UDN). Clinical WES was completed as a result of participation in the UDN. Payer type, molecular diagnostic yield, and resulting clinical actions were evaluated. RESULTS: Sixty-six patients in the UDN faced insurance coverage barriers to WES at the time of enrollment (67% public payer, 26% private payer). Forty-two of 66 (64%) received insurance denial for clinician-ordered WES, 19/66 (29%) had health insurance through a payer known not to cover WES, and 5/66 (8%) had previous payer denial of other genetic tests. Clinical WES results yielded a molecular diagnosis in 23 of 66 patients (35% [78% pediatric, 65% neurologic indication]). Molecular diagnosis resulted in clinical actions in 14 of 23 patients (61%). CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that a substantial proportion of patients who encountered insurance coverage barriers to WES had a clinically actionable molecular diagnosis, supporting the notion that WES has value as a covered benefit for patients who remain undiagnosed despite objective clinical findings.

10.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 7(7): 2105-2114, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495420

RESUMO

Cephalosporins are commonly used antibiotics both in hospitalized patients and in outpatients. Hypersensitivity reactions to cephalosporins are becoming increasingly common with a wide range of immunopathologic mechanisms. Cephalosporins are one of the leading causes for perioperative anaphylaxis and severe cutaneous adverse reactions. Patients allergic to cephalosporins tend to tolerate cephalosporins with disparate R1 side chains but may react to other beta-lactams with common R1 side chains. Skin testing for cephalosporins has not been well validated but appears to have a good negative predictive value for cephalosporins with disparate R1 side chains. In vitro tests including basophil activation tests have lower sensitivity when compared with skin testing. Rapid drug desensitization procedures are safe and effective and have been used successfully for immediate and some nonimmediate cephalosporin reactions. Many gaps in knowledge still exist regarding cephalosporin hypersensitivity.

11.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hereditary prekallikrein (Fletcher factor) deficiency is a rare condition characterized by a prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time. Inhibitors of plasma kallikrein have recently been approved for prophylaxis of hereditary angioedema and are under investigation for use in other indications. OBJECTIVE: We attempted to conservatively assess the impact of long-term inhibition of this pathway by reviewing reportedcomorbidities in patients with hereditary prekallikrein deficiency. METHODS: We searched several medical literature databases for publications that reported data from patients with hereditaryprekallikrein deficiency (<10% of normal and/or shortening of activated partial thromboplastin time on increased incubationtime). Data reporting of cardiovascular, bleeding, and autoimmune-related diseases were extracted. RESULTS: Of 1966 publications screened, 45 publications (which represented 53 patients with prekallikrein deficiency) wereincluded. Among 53 identified patients with prekallikrein deficiency, 25 were explicitly defined as asymptomatic, with no comorbidities mentioned in another three cases. Another 16 of the 53 patients were described as having undergone surgery or dental extractions with no complications. Cardiovascular comorbidities were reported in 19 patients, mainly hypertension (9 patients) and cerebrovascular ischemia or stroke (5 patients). Excessive bleeding episodes after surgery were reported in four patients. Autoimmune-related diseases were reported for three patients (two with Graves disease and onewith systemic lupus erythematosus). CONCLUSION: This review identified patients with hereditary prekallikrein deficiency who reported a spectrum of health outcomes from asymptomatic to infrequent reports of cardiovascular, bleeding, and autoimmune comorbidities. The majority of the reports did not indicate any association between prekallikrein deficiency and comorbidities; however, additional observation is required to confirm the long-term safety of plasma kallikrein inhibition.

12.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 144(4): 883-896, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476322

RESUMO

Our current recommendations for diagnosing and treating primary mast cell (MC) activation syndrome make use of the latest studies and consensus guidelines for clinically recognizing systemic anaphylaxis in real time, regardless of whether allergen-triggered or other pathways are involved; our current understanding of the biomarkers secreted by activated MCs that best discriminate this disorder from other conditions; and the therapeutic drugs that might selectively affect those mediators or MCs themselves. Finding familial or somatic mutations of genes that cause MCs to be hyperactivatable would extend our diagnostic tools and potentially indicate new therapeutic interventions, targeting either the mutated gene product or the associated molecular pathway. In conclusion, we trust that the clinical, laboratory, and therapeutic criteria for primary MC activation syndromes described herein will provide clinicians with practical criteria of sufficient sensitivity and specificity to diagnose most cases without overdiagnosing the disorder in patients who likely have other conditions.

13.
Genet Med ; 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467448

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Both monogenic pathogenic variant cataloging and clinical patient diagnosis start with variant-level evidence retrieval followed by expert evidence integration in search of diagnostic variants and genes. Here, we try to accelerate pathogenic variant evidence retrieval by an automatic approach. METHODS: Automatic VAriant evidence DAtabase (AVADA) is a novel machine learning tool that uses natural language processing to automatically identify pathogenic genetic variant evidence in full-text primary literature about monogenic disease and convert it to genomic coordinates. RESULTS: AVADA automatically retrieved almost 60% of likely disease-causing variants deposited in the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), a 4.4-fold improvement over the current best open source automated variant extractor. AVADA contains over 60,000 likely disease-causing variants that are in HGMD but not in ClinVar. AVADA also highlights the challenges of automated variant mapping and pathogenicity curation. However, when combined with manual validation, on 245 diagnosed patients, AVADA provides valuable evidence for an additional 18 diagnostic variants, on top of ClinVar's 21, versus only 2 using the best current automated approach. CONCLUSION: AVADA advances automated retrieval of pathogenic monogenic variant evidence from full-text literature. Far from perfect, but much faster than PubMed/Google Scholar search, careful curation of AVADA-retrieved evidence can aid both database curation and patient diagnosis.

14.
Postgrad Med J ; 95(1128): 569-572, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439813

RESUMO

It is well recognised that medical training globally and at all levels lacks sufficient incorporation of genetics and genomics education to keep up with the rapid advances and growing application of genomics to clinical care. However, the best strategy to implement these desired changes into postgraduate medical training and engage learners is still unclear. We developed a novel elective rotation in 'Genomic Medicine and Undiagnosed Diseases' for categorical Internal Medicine Residents to address this educational gap and serve as an adaptable model for training that can be applied broadly across different specialties and at other institutions. Key curriculum goals achieved include increased understanding about genetic testing modalities and tools available for diagnosis and risk analysis, the role of genetics-trained allied health professionals, and indications and limitations of genetic and genomic testing in both rare and common conditions.

15.
Respir Med ; 154: 47-55, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31212121

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Tiotropium is a long-acting muscarinic antagonist approved for maintenance treatment of asthma in children, adolescents, and adults in the United States, and recommended as add-on treatment for uncontrolled asthma despite treatment with inhaled corticosteroids and/or long-acting beta-2 agonists. This review traces the journey of tiotropium from its historical origins through early preclinical testing to human clinical trials and real-life studies. DATA SOURCES: A search was performed in PubMed using search terms 'tiotropium' and 'asthma.' Relevant references cited in those articles were reviewed. STUDY SELECTIONS: English language articles published from December 2008-December 2018 were screened. Articles evaluating the efficacy, cost-effectiveness, real-life evidence, and steroid-sparing effect of tiotropium with inadequately controlled asthma were included. RESULTS: Anticholinergics have a long history of use in the treatment of obstructive airway diseases. Evidence indicates that tiotropium's mechanism of action consists of bronchodilation and diminished mucus secretion, with preclinical evidence suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect as well. Phase 2 and 3 clinical trials have demonstrated that tiotropium is efficacious and safe, resulting in significant improvements in lung function in adults, adolescents, and children across asthma severities. Emerging evidence suggests that add-on tiotropium might potentially enable reductions in inhaled corticosteroid dose in patients with uncontrolled asthma. Further, tiotropium is a cost-effective treatment option that is also effective in the clinical practice setting. CONCLUSIONS: An increasing body of evidence indicates that tiotropium can play a significant role in the treatment of patients with uncontrolled asthma.

17.
Nat Med ; 25(6): 911-919, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160820

RESUMO

It is estimated that 350 million individuals worldwide suffer from rare diseases, which are predominantly caused by mutation in a single gene1. The current molecular diagnostic rate is estimated at 50%, with whole-exome sequencing (WES) among the most successful approaches2-5. For patients in whom WES is uninformative, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has shown diagnostic utility in specific tissues and diseases6-8. This includes muscle biopsies from patients with undiagnosed rare muscle disorders6,9, and cultured fibroblasts from patients with mitochondrial disorders7. However, for many individuals, biopsies are not performed for clinical care, and tissues are difficult to access. We sought to assess the utility of RNA-seq from blood as a diagnostic tool for rare diseases of different pathophysiologies. We generated whole-blood RNA-seq from 94 individuals with undiagnosed rare diseases spanning 16 diverse disease categories. We developed a robust approach to compare data from these individuals with large sets of RNA-seq data for controls (n = 1,594 unrelated controls and n = 49 family members) and demonstrated the impacts of expression, splicing, gene and variant filtering strategies on disease gene identification. Across our cohort, we observed that RNA-seq yields a 7.5% diagnostic rate, and an additional 16.7% with improved candidate gene resolution.


Assuntos
Doenças Raras/genética , Ceramidase Ácida/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Genéticos , Mutação , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-CH/genética , Canais de Potássio/genética , RNA/sangue , RNA/genética , Processamento de RNA/genética , Doenças Raras/sangue , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
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