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1.
J Hum Hypertens ; 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595025

RESUMO

Sustained and inadequately controlled hypertension can promote the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) through multiple biologic pathways. Epidemiologic studies of high blood pressure, antihypertensive therapies, and the risk of AMD thus far have been inconclusive. However, few studies evaluated risks according to the use of different classes of antihypertensive drugs or took combinations of use into account. We performed a prospective cohort study by linking the California Teachers Study (CTS) cohort (N = 88 481) to statewide hospital discharge records up to December 31, 2012. History of high blood pressure, regular use of antihypertensive medications, and comprehensive risk factor information was collected via self-administered questionnaires at baseline in 1995-1996, and information on specific classes of antihypertensive drugs was provided by a subsample of CTS participants who completed a follow-up questionnaire in 2000. We identified 1762 female teachers with AMD during 14.8 years of follow-up on average. Applying Cox proportional hazard regression, we estimated increased risks of AMD among women treated for hypertension at baseline (HR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.30); the magnitude of the association increased with longer duration of antihypertensive treatment. In the subsample with more specific information on type of medication use, we estimated a 45% increased risk of AMD among women receiving diuretics as monotherapy compared to women with medications more potent than diuretics (HR = 1.45, 95% CI 1.10, 1.90). In women treated with a combination of antihypertensive drugs, we observed no increased risk of AMD for any individual class of drugs.

2.
Cancer ; 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes is positively associated with various cancers, but its relationship with tumors of the esophagus/esophagogastric junction remains unclear. METHODS: Data were harmonized across 13 studies in the International Barrett's and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium, comprising 2309 esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) cases, 1938 esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma (EGJA) cases, 1728 Barrett's esophagus (BE) cases, and 16,354 controls. Logistic regression was used to estimate study-specific odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs for self-reported diabetes in association with EA, EGJA, and BE. Adjusted ORs were then combined using random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Diabetes was associated with a 34% increased risk of EA (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.00-1.80; I2  = 48.8% [where 0% indicates no heterogeneity, and larger values indicate increasing heterogeneity between studies]), 27% for EGJA (OR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.05-1.55; I2  = 0.0%), and 30% for EA/EGJA combined (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.06-1.58; I2  = 34.9%). Regurgitation symptoms modified the diabetes-EA/EGJA association (P for interaction = .04) with a 63% increased risk among participants with regurgitation (OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.19-2.22), but not among those without regurgitation (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.74-1.43). No consistent association was found between diabetes and BE. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes was associated with increased EA and EGJA risk, which was confined to individuals with regurgitation symptoms. Lack of an association between diabetes and BE suggests that diabetes may influence progression of BE to cancer.

3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(9): e1912259, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560388

RESUMO

Importance: Radiation therapy for breast cancer is associated with increased risk of a second primary contralateral breast cancer, but the genetic factors modifying this association are not well understood. Objective: To determine whether a genetic risk score comprising single nucleotide polymorphisms in the nonhomologous end-joining DNA repair pathway is associated with radiation-associated contralateral breast cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case-control study included a case group of women with contralateral breast cancer that was diagnosed at least 1 year after a first primary breast cancer who were individually matched to a control group of women with unilateral breast cancer. Inclusion criteria were receiving a first invasive breast cancer diagnosis prior to age 55 years between 1985 and 2008. Women were recruited through 8 population-based cancer registries in the United States, Canada, and Denmark as part of the Women's Environment, Cancer, and Radiation Epidemiology Studies I (November 2000 to August 2004) and II (March 2010 to December 2012). Data analysis was conducted from July 2017 to August 2019. Exposures: Stray radiation dose to the contralateral breast during radiation therapy for the first breast cancer. A novel genetic risk score comprised of genetic variants in the nonhomologous end-joining DNA repair pathway was considered the potential effect modifier, dichotomized as high risk if the score was above the median of 74 and low risk if the score was at or below the median. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was risk of contralateral breast cancer associated with stray radiation dose stratified by genetic risk score, age, and latency. Results: A total of 5953 women were approached for study participation, and 3732 women (62.7%) agreed to participate. The median (range) age at first diagnosis was 46 (23-54) years. After 5 years of latency or more, among women who received the first diagnosis when they were younger than 40 years, exposure to 1.0 Gy (to convert to rad, multiply by 100) or more of stray radiation was associated with a 2-fold increased risk of contralateral breast cancer compared with women who were not exposed (rate ratio, 2.0 [95% CI, 1.1-3.6]). The risk was higher among women with a genetic risk score above the median (rate ratio, 3.0 [95% CI, 1.1-8.1]), and there was no association among women with a genetic risk score below the median (rate ratio, 1.3 [95% CI, 0.5-3.7]). Among younger women with a high genetic risk score, the attributable increased risk for contralateral breast cancer associated with stray radiation dose was 28%. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found an increased risk of contralateral breast cancer that was attributable to stray radiation exposure among women with a high genetic risk score and who received a first breast cancer diagnosis when they were younger than 40 years after 5 years or more of latency. This genetic risk score may help guide treatment and surveillance for women with breast cancer.

4.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 800, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of breast cancer; however, its association with subsequent risk of breast cancer death is unclear. METHODS: We followed 4523 women with complete information on relevant risk factors for mortality; these women were 35 to 64 years of age when diagnosed with incident invasive breast cancer between 1994 and 1998. During follow up (median, 8.6 years), 1055 women died; 824 died from breast cancer. The information on alcohol consumption before diagnosis was collected shortly after breast cancer diagnosis (average: 5.1 months) during an in-person interview which used a structured questionnaire. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models provided hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for breast cancer-specific mortality, mortality due to causes other than breast cancer, and all-cause mortality associated with alcohol consumption from age 15 years until breast cancer diagnosis and during recent periods of time prior to breast cancer diagnosis. RESULTS: Average weekly alcohol consumption from age 15 years until breast cancer diagnosis was inversely associated with breast cancer-specific mortality (Ptrend = 0.01). Compared to non-drinkers, women in the highest average weekly alcohol consumption category (≥7 drinks/week) had 25% lower risk of breast cancer-specific mortality (HR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.56-1.00). Breast cancer mortality risk was also reduced among women in the highest average weekly alcohol consumption category in two recent time periods (5-year period ending 2-years prior to breast cancer diagnosis, HR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.57-0.95; 2-year period immediately prior to breast cancer diagnosis: HR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.56-0.95). Furthermore, analyses of average weekly alcohol consumption by beverage type from age 15 years until breast cancer diagnosis suggested that wine consumption was inversely associated with breast cancer-specific mortality risk (wine Ptrend = 0.06, beer Ptrend = 0.24, liquor Ptrend = 0.74). No association with any of these alcohol consumption variables was observed for mortality risk due to causes other than breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we found no evidence that alcohol consumption before breast cancer diagnosis increases subsequent risk of death from breast cancer.

5.
Phys Ther ; 99(10): 1334-1345, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adverse upper limb musculoskeletal effects occur after surgical procedures and radiotherapy for breast cancer and can interfere with activities of daily living. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a 16-week exercise intervention on shoulder function in women who are overweight or obese and have breast cancer. DESIGN: This study was a randomized controlled trial. SETTING: The study was performed at the Division of Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy at the University of Southern California. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred women with breast cancer were randomly allocated to exercise or usual-care groups. The mean (SD) age of the women was 53.5 (10.4) years, 55% were Hispanic white, and their mean (SD) body mass index was 33.5 (5.5) kg/m2. INTERVENTION: The 16-week exercise intervention consisted of supervised, progressive, moderate to vigorous aerobic and resistance exercise 3 times per week. MEASUREMENTS: Shoulder active range of motion, isometric muscular strength, and patient-reported outcome measures (including Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand and the Penn Shoulder Scale) were assessed at baseline, after the intervention, and at the 3-month follow-up (exercise group only). Differences in mean changes for outcomes were evaluated using mixed-model repeated-measures analysis. RESULTS: Compared with the usual-care group, the exercise group experienced significant increases in shoulder active range of motion (the mean between-group differences and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were as follows: shoulder flexion = 36.6° [95% CI = 55.2-20.7°], external rotation at 0° = 23.4° [95% CI = 31.1-12.5°], and external rotation at 90° = 34.3° [95% CI = 45.9-26.2°]), improved upper extremity isometric strength, and improved Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand and Penn Shoulder Scale scores. LIMITATIONS: Limitations include a lack of masking of assessors after the intervention, an attention control group, and statistical robustness (shoulder function was a secondary end point). CONCLUSIONS: A 16-week exercise intervention effectively improved shoulder function following breast cancer treatment in women who were overweight or obese, who were ethnically diverse, and who had breast cancer.

6.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(8): 889-900, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165419

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To conduct a pooled analysis assessing the association of blood transfusion with risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). METHODS: We used harmonized data from 13 case-control studies (10,805 cases, 14,026 controls) in the InterLymph Consortium. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression, adjusted for study design variables. RESULTS: Among non-Hispanic whites (NHW), history of any transfusion was inversely associated with NHL risk for men (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.65-0.83) but not women (OR 0.92; 95% CI 0.83-1.03), pheterogeneity = 0.014. Transfusion history was not associated with risk in other racial/ethnic groups. There was no trend with the number of transfusions, time since first transfusion, age at first transfusion, or decade of first transfusion, and further adjustment for socioeconomic status, body mass index, smoking, alcohol use, and HCV seropositivity did not alter the results. Associations for NHW men were stronger in hospital-based (OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.45-0.70) but still apparent in population-based (OR 0.84; 95% CI 0.72-0.98) studies. CONCLUSIONS: In the setting of a literature reporting mainly null and some positive associations, and the lack of a clear methodologic explanation for our inverse association restricted to NHW men, the current body of evidence suggests that there is no association of blood transfusion with risk of NHL.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue , Linfoma não Hodgkin/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Assoc Res Otolaryngol ; 20(4): 305-311, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089846

RESUMO

This commentary provides an alternate interpretation of the fMRI data that were presented in a communication to the journal Nature Neuroscience (Thompson et al., Nat. Neurosci. 9: 1096-1098, 2006 ). The authors argued that their observations demonstrated that traditional models of binaural hearing which incorporate "internal delays," such as the coincidence-counting mechanism proposed by Jeffress and quantified by Colburn, are invalid, and that a new model for human interaural time delay processing must be developed. We argue that the fMRI data presented do not strongly favor either the refutation or the retention of the traditional models, although they may be useful in constraining the physiological sites of various processing stages. The conclusions of Thompson et al. are based on the locations of maximal activity in the midbrain in response to selected binaural signals. These locations are inconsistent with well-known perceptual attributes of the stimuli under consideration, as is noted by the authors, which suggests that further processing is involved in forming the percept of subjective lateral position.

8.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 145(4): 2094, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046341

RESUMO

Listeners having, at most, "slight" hearing loss may exhibit substantial deficits in binaural detection [Bernstein and Trahiotis. (2016). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 140, 3540-3548; (2018). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 144, 292-307]. This study assessed whether such listeners also exhibit deficits discriminating interaural temporal disparities (ITDs) or interaural intensitive disparities (IIDs) and whether any deficits observed in those discrimination tasks would be accounted for by the interaural cross-correlation based model that successfully accounts for binaural detection. Thresholds were measured for detection of tones masked by noise in the NoSπ configuration and discrimination of ITD or IID. Gaussian noises (100 Hz-wide), served as maskers in the detection task and as reference and target stimuli in the discrimination tasks. Stimuli were centered at 500 Hz or 4 kHz. The latter were transpositions of stimuli centered at 125 Hz. Results demonstrate that listeners having, at most, slight hearing loss and who exhibit deficits in binaural detection, also exhibit deficits in ITD- and IID-discrimination. Coupled with appropriate decision variables, the cross-correlation-based model that accounts for elevated binaural detection thresholds among such listeners also accounted for their elevated ITD- and IID-thresholds. The deficits in all three tasks appear to stem from increased levels of stimulus-dependent, additive internal noise.

9.
Environ Int ; 127: 412-419, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954728

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are among the most persistent and pervasive global environmental contaminants. Their toxic and endocrine-disrupting properties have made them a focus of concern for breast cancer. Our objective was to evaluate the risk of breast cancer associated with serum PBDE levels in a case-control study nested within the California Teachers Study. METHODS: Participants were 902 women with invasive breast cancer (cases) and 936 with no such diagnosis (controls) who provided 10 mL of blood and were interviewed between 2011 and 2015. Blood samples were collected from cases an average of 35 months after diagnosis. PBDEs were measured in serum using automated solid phase extraction and gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry. Statistical analyses were restricted to the three congeners with detection frequencies ≥75%: 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), 2,2',4,4',6-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-100), and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-153). Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for each BDE congener, adjusting for serum lipids and other potential confounders. RESULTS: The OR for each of the three BDE congeners was close to unity with a CI that included one. Analyses stratified by menopausal status, tumor hormone responsiveness, BMI, and changes in body weight yielded similarly null results. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide no evidence that serum levels of BDE-47, BDE-100 or BDE-153 are associated with breast cancer risk. These results should be interpreted in the context of study limitations which include the reliance on PBDE measurements that may not represent pre-diagnostic, early-life or chronic exposures and a lack of information on genetic polymorphisms and other factors which may affect endogenous estrogen levels.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Disruptores Endócrinos/sangue , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/sangue , Adulto , California/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Extração em Fase Sólida
10.
JAMA Oncol ; 5(5): 710-714, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30920602

RESUMO

Importance: The Framingham Risk Score (FRS) is a valid method for predicting the 10-year risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Higher FRS is reported in patients with early-stage breast cancer who are overweight than in healthy, age-matched women, but whether exercise reduces FRS in this patient population is unclear. Objective: To examine the effects of a 16-week aerobic and resistance exercise intervention on the FRS in women with early-stage breast cancer and with overweight condition or obesity. Design, Setting, and Participants: This single-center, prospective randomized clinical trial included 100 women with stage I to III breast cancer who were sedentary, with overweight condition or obesity (body mass index of ≥25.0 or body fat of ≥30%), and completed cancer treatment within 6 months prior to enrollment. Participants were randomized to either the usual care or exercise group. Differences in mean changes for outcomes were evaluated using mixed-model repeated-measures analyses. Data were collected from August 1, 2012, through July 1, 2017. Data analysis, which followed the intention-to-treat approach, was performed from May 24 to October 2, 2018. Interventions: The exercise group underwent supervised aerobic and resistance exercise sessions thrice weekly for 16 weeks. Main Outcomes and Measures: The FRS was calculated for each participant using preset points for each of the 6 FRS categories: age, systolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, diabetes presence, and smoking status. Results: In total, 100 women were randomized to either the exercise group (n = 50) or usual care group (n = 50). Of these women, 55 (55%) were of Hispanic white race/ethnicity and the mean (SD) age was 53.5 (10.4) years. The mean (SD) total FRS scores postintervention were 2.0 (1.5) in the exercise group and 13.0 (3.0) in the usual care group. The postintervention FRS was significantly reduced in the exercise group compared with the usual care group (mean, -9.5; 95% CI, -13.0 to -6.0), which corresponds to an 11% (95% CI, -15.0 to -5.0) decrease on the FRS-predicted 10-year risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Conclusions and Relevance: A 16-week supervised aerobic and resistance exercise intervention appeared to reduce the FRS-predicted 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease in women with early-stage breast cancer with overweight condition or obesity. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01140282.

11.
Ann Epidemiol ; 32: 35-42, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30846276

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine if secondhand smoke (SHS) is associated with elevated risk of type II diabetes among California teachers. We also aim to determine if overall and central obesity are mediators or effect modifiers of this association. METHODS: Using data from the California Teachers Study, conducted in 1995-2013 in California public schools, we obtained information on SHS exposure among 39,887 lifetime nonsmokers. The association between SHS and incident diabetes after 17 years of follow-up was assessed using Cox regression models. The mediation and modification effects of BMI and waist circumference on this association were tested. RESULTS: At baseline, 70.2% of the nonsmokers reported exposure to SHS. Higher intensity, duration, and intensity-years of exposure to SHS were associated with higher multivariate adjusted risk of incident diabetes in a dose-response manner (hazard ratio = 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.48 for highest quartile vs. lowest quartile of exposure; P = .001 for trend). Participant's waist circumference (measured 2 years after baseline) could explain greater than 50% of the association between SHS and diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: SHS exposure is associated with increased risk of type II diabetes among nonsmokers of California teachers with obesity being a potentially important mediator but not an effect modifier for this association.

12.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 17(11): 2227-2235.e1, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30716477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Epidemiology studies of circulating concentrations of 25 hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) and risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) have produced conflicting results. We conducted a Mendelian randomization study to determine the associations between circulating concentrations of 25(OH)D and risks of EAC and its precursor, Barrett's esophagus (BE). METHODS: We conducted a Mendelian randomization study using a 2-sample (summary data) approach. Six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs3755967, rs10741657, rs12785878, rs10745742, rs8018720, and rs17216707) associated with circulating concentrations of 25(OH)D were used as instrumental variables. We collected data from 6167 patients with BE, 4112 patients with EAC, and 17,159 individuals without BE or EAC (controls) participating in the Barrett's and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium, as well as studies from Bonn, Germany, and Cambridge and Oxford, United Kingdom. Analyses were performed separately for BE and EAC. RESULTS: Overall, we found no evidence for an association between genetically estimated 25(OH)D concentration and risk of BE or EAC. The odds ratio per 20 nmol/L increase in genetically estimated 25(OH)D concentration for BE risk estimated by combining the individual SNP association using inverse variance weighting was 1.21 (95% CI, 0.77-1.92; P = .41). The odds ratio for EAC risk, estimated by combining the individual SNP association using inverse variance weighting, was 0.68 (95% CI, 0.39-1.19; P = .18). CONCLUSIONS: In a Mendelian randomization study, we found that low genetically estimated 25(OH)D concentrations were not associated with risk of BE or EAC.

13.
Br J Cancer ; 120(6): 647-657, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30787463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We examined the associations between germline variants and breast cancer mortality using a large meta-analysis of women of European ancestry. METHODS: Meta-analyses included summary estimates based on Cox models of twelve datasets using ~10.4 million variants for 96,661 women with breast cancer and 7697 events (breast cancer-specific deaths). Oestrogen receptor (ER)-specific analyses were based on 64,171 ER-positive (4116) and 16,172 ER-negative (2125) patients. We evaluated the probability of a signal to be a true positive using the Bayesian false discovery probability (BFDP). RESULTS: We did not find any variant associated with breast cancer-specific mortality at P < 5 × 10-8. For ER-positive disease, the most significantly associated variant was chr7:rs4717568 (BFDP = 7%, P = 1.28 × 10-7, hazard ratio [HR] = 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.84-0.92); the closest gene is AUTS2. For ER-negative disease, the most significant variant was chr7:rs67918676 (BFDP = 11%, P = 1.38 × 10-7, HR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.16-1.39); located within a long intergenic non-coding RNA gene (AC004009.3), close to the HOXA gene cluster. CONCLUSIONS: We uncovered germline variants on chromosome 7 at BFDP < 15% close to genes for which there is biological evidence related to breast cancer outcome. However, the paucity of variants associated with mortality at genome-wide significance underpins the challenge in providing genetic-based individualised prognostic information for breast cancer patients.

14.
Int J Cancer ; 145(1): 58-69, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30561796

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer risk factors differ by histotype; however, within subtype, there is substantial variability in outcomes. We hypothesized that risk factor profiles may influence tumor aggressiveness, defined by time between diagnosis and death, independent of histology. Among 1.3 million women from 21 prospective cohorts, 4,584 invasive epithelial ovarian cancers were identified and classified as highly aggressive (death in <1 year, n = 864), very aggressive (death in 1 to < 3 years, n = 1,390), moderately aggressive (death in 3 to < 5 years, n = 639), and less aggressive (lived 5+ years, n = 1,691). Using competing risks Cox proportional hazards regression, we assessed heterogeneity of associations by tumor aggressiveness for all cases and among serous and endometrioid/clear cell tumors. Associations between parity (phet = 0.01), family history of ovarian cancer (phet = 0.02), body mass index (BMI; phet ≤ 0.04) and smoking (phet < 0.01) and ovarian cancer risk differed by aggressiveness. A first/single pregnancy, relative to nulliparity, was inversely associated with highly aggressive disease (HR: 0.72; 95% CI [0.58-0.88]), no association was observed for subsequent pregnancies (per pregnancy, 0.97 [0.92-1.02]). In contrast, first and subsequent pregnancies were similarly associated with less aggressive disease (0.87 for both). Family history of ovarian cancer was only associated with risk of less aggressive disease (1.94 [1.47-2.55]). High BMI (≥35 vs. 20 to < 25 kg/m2 , 1.93 [1.46-2.56] and current smoking (vs. never, 1.30 [1.07-1.57]) were associated with increased risk of highly aggressive disease. Results were similar within histotypes. Ovarian cancer risk factors may be directly associated with subtypes defined by tumor aggressiveness, rather than through differential effects on histology. Studies to assess biological pathways are warranted.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Paridade , Gravidez , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia
15.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(1): 21-34, 2019 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30554720

RESUMO

Stratification of women according to their risk of breast cancer based on polygenic risk scores (PRSs) could improve screening and prevention strategies. Our aim was to develop PRSs, optimized for prediction of estrogen receptor (ER)-specific disease, from the largest available genome-wide association dataset and to empirically validate the PRSs in prospective studies. The development dataset comprised 94,075 case subjects and 75,017 control subjects of European ancestry from 69 studies, divided into training and validation sets. Samples were genotyped using genome-wide arrays, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected by stepwise regression or lasso penalized regression. The best performing PRSs were validated in an independent test set comprising 11,428 case subjects and 18,323 control subjects from 10 prospective studies and 190,040 women from UK Biobank (3,215 incident breast cancers). For the best PRSs (313 SNPs), the odds ratio for overall disease per 1 standard deviation in ten prospective studies was 1.61 (95%CI: 1.57-1.65) with area under receiver-operator curve (AUC) = 0.630 (95%CI: 0.628-0.651). The lifetime risk of overall breast cancer in the top centile of the PRSs was 32.6%. Compared with women in the middle quintile, those in the highest 1% of risk had 4.37- and 2.78-fold risks, and those in the lowest 1% of risk had 0.16- and 0.27-fold risks, of developing ER-positive and ER-negative disease, respectively. Goodness-of-fit tests indicated that this PRS was well calibrated and predicts disease risk accurately in the tails of the distribution. This PRS is a powerful and reliable predictor of breast cancer risk that may improve breast cancer prevention programs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/classificação , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Anamnese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco
16.
Cancer ; 2018 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30500981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MSY) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and recurrence in breast cancer survivors (BCS). MSY is 1.5 times more common in Hispanic women compared with non-Hispanic women. Although exercise mitigates MSY in BCS, to the best of the authors' knowledge, few studies to date have focused on minorities. This secondary analysis examined ethnicity as a moderator of the effects of a 16-week aerobic and resistance exercise intervention on MSY, sarcopenic obesity, and serum biomarkers in BCS. METHODS: A total of 100 eligible BCS were randomized to exercise (50 BCS) or usual care (50 BCS). The exercise intervention promoted moderate to vigorous aerobic and resistance exercise 3 times a week for 16 weeks. MSY z scores, sarcopenic obesity, and serum biomarkers were measured at baseline, after the intervention, and at the 28-week follow-up (exercise group only). Linear mixed models adjusted for baseline values of the outcome, age, disease stage, adjuvant treatment, and recent physical activity were used to evaluate effect modification by ethnicity. RESULTS: The study sample was 57% Hispanic BCS (HBCS) and 43% non-Hispanic BCS (NHBCS). HBCS were younger, of greater adiposity, and had been diagnosed with more advanced cancers compared with NHBCS (P<.001). Ethnicity was found to moderate the mean differences in exercise training on triglycerides (-36.4 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval [95% CI],-64.1 to -18.8 mg/dL), glucose (-8.6 mg/dL; 95% CI, -19.1 to -3.0 mg/dL), and C-reactive protein (-3.3 mg/L; 95% CI, -7.3 to -0.9 mg/L). CONCLUSIONS: HBCS appear to have poorer metabolic profiles and therefore may derive relatively larger metabolic changes from exercise compared with NHBCS. Clinical exercise interventions may attenuate existing health disparities across diverse groups of BCS.

17.
Breast Cancer Res ; 20(1): 149, 2018 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30526633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tamoxifen treatment greatly reduces a woman's risk of developing a second primary breast cancer. There is, however, substantial variability in treatment response, some of which may be attributed to germline genetic variation. CYP2D6 is a key enzyme in the metabolism of tamoxifen to its active metabolites, and variants in this gene have been associated with reduced tamoxifen metabolism. The impact of variation on risk of contralateral breast cancer (CBC) is unknown. METHODS: Germline DNA from 1514 CBC cases and 2203 unilateral breast cancer controls was genotyped for seven single nucleotide polymorphisms, one three-nucleotide insertion-deletion, and a full gene deletion. Each variant has an expected impact on enzyme activity, which in combination allows for the classification of women as extensive, intermediate, and poor metabolizers (EM, IM, and PM respectively). Each woman was assigned one of six possible diplotypes and a corresponding CYP2D6 activity score (AS): EM/EM (AS = 2), EM/IM (AS = 1.5), EM/PM (AS = 1), IM/IM (AS = 0.75), IM/PM (AS = 0.5), and PM/PM (AS = 0). We also collapsed categories of the AS to generate an overall phenotype (EM, AS ≥ 1; IM, AS = 0.5-0.75; PM, AS = 0). Rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between tamoxifen treatment and risk of CBC in our study population were estimated using conditional logistic regression, stratified by AS. RESULTS: Among women with AS ≥ 1 (i.e., EM), tamoxifen treatment was associated with a 20-55% reduced RR of CBC (AS = 2, RR = - 0.81, 95% CI 0.62-1.06; AS = 1.5, RR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.30-0.68; and AS = 1, RR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.40-0.74). Among women with no EM alleles and at least one PM allele (i.e., IM and PM), tamoxifen did not appear to impact the RR of CBC in this population (AS = 0.5, RR = 1.08, 95% CI 0.59-1.96; and AS = 0, RR = 1.17, 95% CI 0.58-2.35) (p for homogeneity = - 0.02). CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the CYP2D6 phenotype may contribute to some of the observed variability in the impact of tamoxifen treatment for a first breast cancer on risk of developing CBC.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Citocromo P-450 CYP2D6/genética , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/genética , Tamoxifeno/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/epidemiologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/prevenção & controle , Variantes Farmacogenômicos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Tamoxifeno/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Environ Health ; 17(1): 83, 2018 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30482205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Per- and poly- fluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a large family of synthetic chemicals, some of which are mammary toxicants and endocrine disruptors. Their potential as breast carcinogens is unclear. Our objective was to evaluate the risk of breast cancer associated with serum PFAS concentrations in a nested case-control study within the California Teachers Study. METHODS: Participants were 902 women with invasive breast cancer (cases) and 858 with no such diagnosis (controls) who provided 10 mL of blood and were interviewed during 2011-2015, an average of 35 months after case diagnosis. PFASs were measured using automated online SPE-HPLC-MS/MS methods. Statistical analyses were restricted to six PFASs with detection frequencies ≥ 95%: PFOA (Perfluorooctanoic acid), PFNA (Perfluorononanoic acid), PFUnDA (Perfluoroundecanoic acid), PFHxS (Perfluorohexane sulfonic acid), PFOS (Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid), and MeFOSAA (2-(N-Methyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamido) acetic acid. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (ORs), estimating the breast cancer risk associated with each PFAS. RESULTS: For all cases of invasive breast cancer, none of the adjusted ORs were statistically significant but marginally significant ORs < 1.0 were observed for PFUnDA and PFHxS (p-trend = 0.08). Adjusted ORs < 1.0 for PFUnDA and PFHxS were statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) among the 107 cases with hormone-negative tumors but not the 743 with hormone-positive tumors. CONCLUSION: Overall, these findings do not provide evidence that serum PFAS levels measured after diagnosis are related to breast cancer risk. The few inverse associations found may be due to chance or may be artifacts of study design. Future studies should incorporate information about genetic susceptibility, endogenous estrogen levels, and measurements of PFASs prior to diagnosis and treatment.

19.
BMC Cancer ; 18(1): 1072, 2018 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30400783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The contribution of genetic polymorphisms to the large inter-individual variation in mammographic density (MD) changes following starting and stopping use of estrogen and progestin combined therapy (EPT) has not been well-studied. Previous studies have shown that circulating levels of insulin-like growth factors are associated with MD and cross-talk between estrogen signaling and growth factors is necessary for cell proliferation in the breast. We evaluated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in growth factor genes in association with MD changes after women stop EPT use. METHODS: We genotyped 191 SNPs in 13 growth factor pathway genes in 284 non-Hispanic white California Teachers Study participants who previously used EPT and collected their mammograms before and after quitting EPT. Percent MD was assessed using a computer-assisted method. Change in percent MD was calculated by subtracting percent MD of an 'off-EPT' mammogram from percent MD of an 'on-EPT' (i.e. baseline) mammogram. We used multivariable linear regression analysis to investigate the association between SNPs and change in percent MD. We calculated P-values corrected for multiple testing within a gene (Padj). RESULTS: Rs1983210 in INHA and rs35539615 in IGFBP1/3 showed the strongest associations. Per minor allele of rs1983210, the absolute change in percent MD after stopping EPT use decreased by 1.80% (a difference in absolute change in percent MD) (Padj= 0.021). For rs35539615, change in percent MD increased by 1.79% per minor allele (Padj= 0.042). However, after applying a Bonferroni correction for the number of genes tested, these associations were no longer statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variation in growth factor pathway genes INHA and IGFBP1/3 may predict longitudinal MD change after women quit EPT. The observed differences in EPT-associated changes in percent MD in association with these genetic polymorphisms are modest but may be clinically significant considering that the magnitude of absolute increase in percent MD reported from large clinical trials of EPT ranged from 3% to 7%.

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