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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1078, 2021 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597508

RESUMO

Breast cancer (BC) risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers varies by genetic and familial factors. About 50 common variants have been shown to modify BC risk for mutation carriers. All but three, were identified in general population studies. Other mutation carrier-specific susceptibility variants may exist but studies of mutation carriers have so far been underpowered. We conduct a novel case-only genome-wide association study comparing genotype frequencies between 60,212 general population BC cases and 13,007 cases with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. We identify robust novel associations for 2 variants with BC for BRCA1 and 3 for BRCA2 mutation carriers, P < 10-8, at 5 loci, which are not associated with risk in the general population. They include rs60882887 at 11p11.2 where MADD, SP11 and EIF1, genes previously implicated in BC biology, are predicted as potential targets. These findings will contribute towards customising BC polygenic risk scores for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

2.
N Engl J Med ; 384(5): 440-451, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Population-based estimates of the risk of breast cancer associated with germline pathogenic variants in cancer-predisposition genes are critically needed for risk assessment and management in women with inherited pathogenic variants. METHODS: In a population-based case-control study, we performed sequencing using a custom multigene amplicon-based panel to identify germline pathogenic variants in 28 cancer-predisposition genes among 32,247 women with breast cancer (case patients) and 32,544 unaffected women (controls) from population-based studies in the Cancer Risk Estimates Related to Susceptibility (CARRIERS) consortium. Associations between pathogenic variants in each gene and the risk of breast cancer were assessed. RESULTS: Pathogenic variants in 12 established breast cancer-predisposition genes were detected in 5.03% of case patients and in 1.63% of controls. Pathogenic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 were associated with a high risk of breast cancer, with odds ratios of 7.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.33 to 11.27) and 5.23 (95% CI, 4.09 to 6.77), respectively. Pathogenic variants in PALB2 were associated with a moderate risk (odds ratio, 3.83; 95% CI, 2.68 to 5.63). Pathogenic variants in BARD1, RAD51C, and RAD51D were associated with increased risks of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer and triple-negative breast cancer, whereas pathogenic variants in ATM, CDH1, and CHEK2 were associated with an increased risk of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Pathogenic variants in 16 candidate breast cancer-predisposition genes, including the c.657_661del5 founder pathogenic variant in NBN, were not associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides estimates of the prevalence and risk of breast cancer associated with pathogenic variants in known breast cancer-predisposition genes in the U.S. population. These estimates can inform cancer testing and screening and improve clinical management strategies for women in the general population with inherited pathogenic variants in these genes. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Breast Cancer Research Foundation.).


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Razão de Chances , Risco , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
3.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(2): 351-363, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited studies have investigated racial/ethnic survival disparities for breast cancer defined by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status in a multiethnic population. METHODS: Using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, we assessed associations of race/ethnicity with ER/PR-specific breast cancer mortality in 10,366 California women diagnosed with breast cancer from 1993 to 2009. We evaluated joint associations of race/ethnicity, health care, sociodemographic, and lifestyle factors with mortality. RESULTS: Among women with ER/PR+ breast cancer, breast cancer-specific mortality was similar among Hispanic and Asian American women, but higher among African American women [HR, 1.31; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05-1.63] compared with non-Hispanic White (NHW) women. Breast cancer-specific mortality was modified by surgery type, hospital type, education, neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES), smoking history, and alcohol consumption. Among African American women, breast cancer-specific mortality was higher among those treated at nonaccredited hospitals (HR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.21-2.04) and those from lower SES neighborhoods (HR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.16-1.88) compared with NHW women without these characteristics. Breast cancer-specific mortality was higher among African American women with at least some college education (HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.11-1.82) compared with NHW women with similar education. For ER-/PR- disease, breast cancer-specific mortality did not differ by race/ethnicity and associations of race/ethnicity with breast cancer-specific mortality varied only by neighborhood SES among African American women. CONCLUSIONS: Racial/ethnic survival disparities are more striking for ER/PR+ than ER-/PR- breast cancer. Social determinants and lifestyle factors may explain some of the survival disparities for ER/PR+ breast cancer. IMPACT: Addressing these factors may help reduce the higher mortality of African American women with ER/PR+ breast cancer.

4.
Carcinogenesis ; 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33300568

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and its precursor, Barrett's esophagus (BE), have uncovered significant genetic components of risk, but most heritability remains unexplained. Targeted assessment of genetic variation in biologically relevant pathways using novel analytical approaches may identify missed susceptibility signals. Central obesity, a key BE/EAC risk factor, is linked to systemic inflammation, altered hormonal signaling, and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis dysfunction. Here, we assessed IGF-related genetic variation and risk of BE and EAC. Principal components analysis (PCA) was employed to evaluate pathway-level and gene-level associations with BE/EAC, using genotypes for 270 SNPs in or near 12 IGF-related genes, ascertained from 3295 BE cases, 2515 EAC cases, and 3207 controls in the Barrett's and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium (BEACON) GWAS. Gene-level signals were assessed using Multi-marker Analysis of GenoMic Annotation (MAGMA) and SNP summary statistics from BEACON and an expanded GWAS meta-analysis (6167 BE cases, 4112 EAC cases, 17,159 controls). Global variation in the IGF pathway was associated with risk of BE (P=0.0015). Gene-level associations with BE were observed for GHR (growth hormone receptor; p=0.00046, FDR q=0.0056) and IGF1R (IGF1 receptor; p=0.0090, q=0.0542). These gene-level signals remained significant at q<0.1 when assessed using data from the largest available BE/EAC GWAS meta-analysis. No significant associations were observed for EAC. This study represents the most comprehensive evaluation to date of inherited genetic variation in the IGF pathway and BE/EAC risk, providing novel evidence that variation in two genes encoding cell-surface receptors, GHR and IGF1R, may influence risk of BE.

5.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 148(6): 3481, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33379873

RESUMO

Empirical data are reported demonstrating how binaural detection is affected by joint variation of masker bandwidth, masker interaural correlation, and interaural time delay (ITD) of both masker and tonal signal. Most of the data were obtained with stimuli centered at 500 Hz; supplemental measures were obtained with stimuli centered at 4 kHz. The results indicate that as the interaural correlation of the masker (ρ) is decreased there is (1) an overall increase in threshold signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and (2) a progressively smaller effect on threshold S/N as ITD is increased. All of the data were accounted for quite accurately using the same quantitative, interaural cross-correlation-based model that was recently shown to account for binaural detection and discrimination data obtained in previous experiments. Importantly, the new data were predicted and explained using values of model parameters that were identical or very close to those found to predict accurately the earlier data. The success of the enterprise attests to the robustness of the approach and the generality of the model's ability to make accurate predictions of binaural performance over a wide range of historically important stimulus conditions.

6.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128203

RESUMO

Associations between anthropometric factors and breast cancer (BC) risk have varied inconsistently by estrogen and/or progesterone receptor (ER/PR) status. Associations between prediagnostic anthropometric factors and risk of premenopausal and postmenopausal BC overall and ER/PR status subtypes were investigated in a pooled analysis of 20 prospective cohorts, including 36,297 BC cases among 1,061,915 women, using multivariable Cox regression analyses, controlling for reproductive factors, diet and other risk factors. We estimated dose-response relationships and tested for nonlinear associations using restricted cubic splines. Height showed positive, linear associations for premenopausal and postmenopausal BC risk (6-7% RR increase per 5 cm increment), with stronger associations for receptor-positive subtypes. Body mass index (BMI) at cohort baseline was strongly inversely associated with premenopausal BC risk, and strongly positively-and nonlinearly-associated with postmenopausal BC (especially among women who never used hormone replacement therapy). This was primarily observed for receptor-positive subtypes. Early adult BMI (at 18-20 years) showed inverse, linear associations for premenopausal and postmenopausal BC risk (21% and 11% RR decrease per 5 kg/m2, respectively) with stronger associations for receptor-negative subtypes. Adult weight gain since 18-20 years was positively associated with postmenopausal BC risk, stronger for receptor-positive subtypes, and among women who were leaner in early adulthood. Women heavier in early adulthood generally had reduced premenopausal BC risk, independent of later weight gain. Positive associations between height, baseline (adult) BMI, adult weight gain and postmenopausal BC risk were substantially stronger for hormone receptor-positive versus negative subtypes. Premenopausal BC risk was positively associated with height, but inversely with baseline BMI and weight gain (mostly in receptor-positive subtypes). Inverse associations with early adult BMI seemed stronger in receptor-negative subtypes of premenopausal and postmenopausal BC.

7.
Breast ; 54: 62-69, 2020 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927238

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examined the impact of reproductive factors on the relationship between radiation treatment (RT) for a first breast cancer and risk of contralateral breast cancer (CBC). METHODS: The Women's Environmental Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology (WECARE) Study is a multi-center, population-based case-control study where cases are women with asynchronous CBC (N = 1521) and controls are women with unilateral breast cancer (N = 2211). Rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using conditional logistic regression to assess the independent and joint effects of RT (ever/never and location-specific stray radiation dose to the contralateral breast [0, >0-<1Gy, ≥1Gy]) and reproductive factors (e.g., parity). RESULTS: Nulliparous women treated with RT (≥1Gy dose) were at increased risk of CBC compared with nulliparous women not treated with RT, although this relationship did not reach statistical significance (RR = 1.34, 95% CI 0.87, 2.07). Women treated with RT who had an interval pregnancy (i.e., pregnancy after first diagnosis and before second diagnosis [in cases]/reference date [in controls]) had an increased risk of CBC compared with those who had an interval pregnancy with no RT (RR = 4.60, 95% CI 1.16, 18.28). This was most apparent for women with higher radiation doses to the contralateral breast. CONCLUSION: Among young female survivors of breast cancer, we found some evidence suggesting that having an interval pregnancy could increase a woman's risk of CBC following RT for a first breast cancer. While sampling variability precludes strong interpretations, these findings suggest a role for pregnancy and hormonal factors in radiation-associated CBC.

8.
Gastroenterology ; 159(6): 2065-2076.e1, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) and its premalignant lesion, Barrett's esophagus (BE), are characterized by a strong and yet unexplained male predominance (with a male-to-female ratio in EA incidence of up to 6:1). Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 20 susceptibility loci for these conditions. However, potential sex differences in genetic associations with BE/EA remain largely unexplored. METHODS: Given strong genetic overlap, BE and EA cases were combined into a single case group for analysis. These were compared with population-based controls. We performed sex-specific GWAS of BE/EA in 3 separate studies and then used fixed-effects meta-analysis to provide summary estimates for >9 million variants for male and female individuals. A series of downstream analyses were conducted separately in male and female individuals to identify genes associated with BE/EA and the genetic correlations between BE/EA and other traits. RESULTS: We included 6758 male BE/EA cases, 7489 male controls, 1670 female BE/EA cases, and 6174 female controls. After Bonferroni correction, our meta-analysis of sex-specific GWAS identified 1 variant at chromosome 6q11.1 (rs112894788, KHDRBS2-MTRNR2L9, PBONF = .039) that was statistically significantly associated with BE/EA risk in male individuals only, and 1 variant at chromosome 8p23.1 (rs13259457, PRSS55-RP1L1, PBONF = 0.057) associated, at borderline significance, with BE/EA risk in female individuals only. We also observed strong genetic correlations of BE/EA with gastroesophageal reflux disease in male individuals and obesity in female individuals. CONCLUSIONS: The identified novel sex-specific variants associated with BE/EA could improve the understanding of the genetic architecture of the disease and the reasons for the male predominance.

9.
J Cancer Surviv ; 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681303

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exercise can profoundly affect physical fitness and quality of life in breast cancer survivors; however, few studies have focused on minorities. This secondary analysis examines Hispanic ethnicity as a moderator of the effects of a 16-week aerobic and resistance exercise intervention on physical fitness and quality of life in breast cancer survivors. METHODS: Eligible breast cancer survivors (n = 100) were randomized to exercise (n = 50) or usual care (n = 50). The exercise intervention consisted of supervised moderate-vigorous aerobic and resistance exercise thrice weekly for 16 weeks. Physical fitness and quality of life were measured at baseline, post-intervention, and 28-week follow-up (exercise only). Linear mixed-models adjusted for baseline value of the outcome, age, disease stage, adjuvant treatment, and recent physical activity were used to evaluate effect modification by ethnicity. RESULTS: The study sample included 57% Hispanic and 43% non-Hispanic breast cancer survivors. Hispanic breast cancer survivors were younger, less fit, and diagnosed with more advanced cancers compared with non-Hispanic breast cancer survivors (p < 0.001). Ethnicity was found to moderate the effects of exercise training on all physical fitness and quality-of-life measures including VO2max (8.4 mL/kg/min; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 3.2 to 13.4), physical well-being (12.3; 95% CI 4.2 to 18.4), and emotional well-being (11.4; 95% CI 5.9 to 15.5). In all cases, Hispanics experienced larger benefits than non-Hispanics. CONCLUSIONS: Hispanic breast cancer survivors have poorer cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength, and quality-of-life and therefore may derive larger benefits from exercise than non-Hispanic breast cancer survivors. Clinical exercise interventions may attenuate existing health disparities among minority breast cancer survivors. IMPLICATION OF CANCER SURVIVORS: Here we report psychosocial and fitness-related disparities among Hispanic breast cancer survivors when compared with their non-Hispanic counterparts. Our exercise intervention highlights the importance of exercise for minority cancer survivors and the need for distinct, culturally tailored exercise intervention approaches to reduce psychosocial and fitness-related disparities among this understudied population of cancer survivors.

10.
JCO Oncol Pract ; 16(6): e517-e528, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521220

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Racial/ethnic disparities in breast cancer survival are well documented, but the influence of health care institutions is unclear. We therefore examined the effect of hospital characteristics on survival. METHODS: Harmonized data pooled from 5 case-control and prospective cohort studies within the California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium were linked to the California Cancer Registry and the California Neighborhoods Data System. The study included 9,701 patients with breast cancer who were diagnosed between 1993 and 2007. First reporting hospitals were classified by hospital type-National Cancer Institute (NCI) -designated cancer center, American College of Surgeons (ACS) Cancer Program, other-and hospital composition of the neighborhood socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity of patients with cancer. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for clinical and patient-level prognostic factors were used to examine the influence of hospital characteristics on survival. RESULTS: Fewer than one half of women received their initial care at an NCI-designated cancer center (5%) or ACS program (38%) hospital. Receipt of initial care in ACS program hospitals varied by race/ethnicity-highest among non-Latina White patients (45%), and lowest among African Americans (21%). African-American women had superior breast cancer survival when receiving initial care in ACS hospitals versus other hospitals (non-ACS program and non-NCI-designated cancer center; hazard ratio, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.55 to 0.83). Other hospital characteristics were not associated with survival. CONCLUSION: African American women may benefit significantly from breast cancer care in ACS program hospitals; however, most did not receive initial care at such facilities. Future research should identify the aspects of ACS program hospitals that are associated with higher survival and evaluate strategies by which to enhance access to and use of high-quality hospitals, particularly among African American women.

11.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 147(5): 3188, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32486817

RESUMO

Listeners having, at most, "slight" hearing loss may exhibit deficits in binaural detection which appear to stem from increased levels of stimulus-dependent, additive internal noise [Bernstein and Trahiotis, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 140, 3540-3548 (2016); J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 144, 292-307 (2018)]. This study reports that a small crew of such listeners also exhibits increased levels of low-level, stimulus-independent, additive internal noise. Detection thresholds were measured in: (1) the NoSπ configuration as a function of masker level; (2) the NρSπ configuration as a function of masker interaural correlation (ρ); (3) "the quiet" for So and Sπ tonal signals. Those measures were combined suitably to yield estimates of stimulus-independent, additive internal noise, separately, at center frequencies of 250, 500, and 4000 Hz. Derived levels of internal noise were found to be elevated, by about 5 dB at 250 and 500 Hz, and by about 9 dB at 4 kHz, for the group of listeners having no more than slight hearing loss and who exhibited deficits in binaural detection. The new findings, taken together with earlier investigations by the authors (which included data obtained from dozens of listeners), provide evidence that such listeners have greater levels of both stimulus-dependent and stimulus-independent, additive internal noise.

12.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 9688, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546843

RESUMO

In breast cancer, high levels of homeobox protein Hox-B13 (HOXB13) have been associated with disease progression of ER-positive breast cancer patients and resistance to tamoxifen treatment. Since HOXB13 p.G84E is a prostate cancer risk allele, we evaluated the association between HOXB13 germline mutations and breast cancer risk in a previous study consisting of 3,270 familial non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer cases and 2,327 controls from the Netherlands. Although both recurrent HOXB13 mutations p.G84E and p.R217C were not associated with breast cancer risk, the risk estimation for p.R217C was not very precise. To provide more conclusive evidence regarding the role of HOXB13 in breast cancer susceptibility, we here evaluated the association between HOXB13 mutations and increased breast cancer risk within 81 studies of the international Breast Cancer Association Consortium containing 68,521 invasive breast cancer patients and 54,865 controls. Both HOXB13 p.G84E and p.R217C did not associate with the development of breast cancer in European women, neither in the overall analysis (OR = 1.035, 95% CI = 0.859-1.246, P = 0.718 and OR = 0.798, 95% CI = 0.482-1.322, P = 0.381 respectively), nor in specific high-risk subgroups or breast cancer subtypes. Thus, although involved in breast cancer progression, HOXB13 is not a material breast cancer susceptibility gene.

13.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359158

RESUMO

We evaluated the joint associations between a new 313-variant PRS (PRS313) and questionnaire-based breast cancer risk factors for women of European ancestry, using 72,284 cases and 80,354 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Interactions were evaluated using standard logistic regression, and a newly developed case-only method, for breast cancer risk overall and by estrogen receptor status. After accounting for multiple testing, we did not find evidence that per-standard deviation PRS313 odds ratio differed across strata defined by individual risk factors. Goodness-of-fit tests did not reject the assumption of a multiplicative model between PRS313 and each risk factor. Variation in projected absolute lifetime risk of breast cancer associated with classical risk factors was greater for women with higher genetic risk (PRS313 and family history), and on average 17.5% higher in the highest vs lowest deciles of genetic risk. These findings have implications for risk prevention for women at increased risk of breast cancer.

14.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32427313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The risks of breast cancer in African American (AA) women associated with inherited mutations in breast cancer predisposition genes are not well defined. Thus, whether multigene germline hereditary cancer testing panels are applicable to this population is unknown. We assessed associations between mutations in panel-based genes and breast cancer risk in 5054 AA women with breast cancer and 4993 unaffected AA women drawn from 10 epidemiologic studies. METHODS: Germline DNA samples were sequenced for mutations in 23 cancer predisposition genes using a QIAseq multiplex amplicon panel. Prevalence of mutations and odds ratios (ORs) for associations with breast cancer risk were estimated with adjustment for study design, age, and family history of breast cancer. RESULTS: Pathogenic mutations were identified in 10.3% of women with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer, 5.2% of women with ER-positive breast cancer, and 2.3% of unaffected women. Mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, and PALB2 were associated with high risks of breast cancer (OR = 47.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 10.43 to >100; OR = 7.25, 95% CI = 4.07 to 14.12; OR = 8.54, 95% CI = 3.67 to 24.95, respectively). RAD51D mutations were associated with high risk of ER-negative disease (OR = 7.82, 95% CI = 1.61 to 57.42). Moderate risks were observed for CHEK2, ATM, ERCC3, and FANCC mutations with ER-positive cancer, and RECQL mutations with all breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The study identifies genes that predispose to breast cancer in the AA population, demonstrates the validity of current breast cancer testing panels for use in AA women, and provides a basis for increased referral of AA patients for cancer genetic testing.

15.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32119081

RESUMO

Whether radiation therapy (RT) affects contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk in women with pathogenic germline variants in moderate- to high-penetrance breast cancer-associated genes is unknown. In a population-based case-control study, we examined the association between RT, variants in ATM, BRCA1/2, or CHEK2*1100delC, and CBC risk. We analyzed 708 cases of women with CBC, and 1,399 controls with unilateral breast cancer, all diagnosed with first invasive breast cancer between 1985-2000, <55 years of age at diagnosis, and screened for variants in breast cancer-associated genes. Rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using multivariable conditional logistic regression. RT did not modify the association between known pathogenic variants and CBC risk (e.g., BRCA1/2 pathogenic variant carriers without RT, RR: 3.52, 95% CI: 1.76-7.01; BRCA1/2 pathogenic variant carriers with RT, RR: 4.46, 95% CI: 2.96-6.71), suggesting that modifying RT plans for young women with breast cancer is unwarranted. Rare ATM missense variants, not currently identified as pathogenic, were associated with increased risk of RT-associated CBC (carriers of ATM rare missense variants of uncertain significance without RT, RR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.09-1.55; carriers of ATM rare missense variants of uncertain significance with RT, RR: 2.98, 95% CI: 1.31-6.80). Further mechanistic studies will aid clinical decision-making related to RT.

16.
Int J Cancer ; 147(5): 1306-1314, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012248

RESUMO

Early-adulthood body size is strongly inversely associated with risk of premenopausal breast cancer. It is unclear whether subsequent changes in weight affect risk. We pooled individual-level data from 17 prospective studies to investigate the association of weight change with premenopausal breast cancer risk, considering strata of initial weight, timing of weight change, other breast cancer risk factors and breast cancer subtype. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained using Cox regression. Among 628,463 women, 10,886 were diagnosed with breast cancer before menopause. Models adjusted for initial weight at ages 18-24 years and other breast cancer risk factors showed that weight gain from ages 18-24 to 35-44 or to 45-54 years was inversely associated with breast cancer overall (e.g., HR per 5 kg to ages 45-54: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.95-0.98) and with oestrogen-receptor(ER)-positive breast cancer (HR per 5 kg to ages 45-54: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.94-0.98). Weight gain from ages 25-34 was inversely associated with ER-positive breast cancer only and weight gain from ages 35-44 was not associated with risk. None of these weight gains were associated with ER-negative breast cancer. Weight loss was not consistently associated with overall or ER-specific risk after adjusting for initial weight. Weight increase from early-adulthood to ages 45-54 years is associated with a reduced premenopausal breast cancer risk independently of early-adulthood weight. Biological explanations are needed to account for these two separate factors.

17.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0226157, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106268

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to identify germline single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that optimally predict radiation-associated contralateral breast cancer (RCBC) and to provide new biological insights into the carcinogenic process. Fifty-two women with contralateral breast cancer and 153 women with unilateral breast cancer were identified within the Women's Environmental Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology (WECARE) Study who were at increased risk of RCBC because they were ≤ 40 years of age at first diagnosis of breast cancer and received a scatter radiation dose > 1 Gy to the contralateral breast. A previously reported algorithm, preconditioned random forest regression, was applied to predict the risk of developing RCBC. The resulting model produced an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.62 (p = 0.04) on hold-out validation data. The biological analysis identified the cyclic AMP-mediated signaling and Ephrin-A as significant biological correlates, which were previously shown to influence cell survival after radiation in an ATM-dependent manner. The key connected genes and proteins that are identified in this analysis were previously identified as relevant to breast cancer, radiation response, or both. In summary, machine learning/bioinformatics methods applied to genome-wide genotyping data have great potential to reveal plausible biological correlates associated with the risk of RCBC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/genética , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Genótipo , Células Germinativas , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
18.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(5): 936-941, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We assessed the ability to supplement existing epidemiologic/etiologic studies with data on treatment and clinical outcomes by linking to publicly available cancer registry and administrative databases. METHODS: Medical records were retrieved and abstracted for cases enrolled in a Los Angeles County case-control study of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Cases were linked to the Los Angeles County cancer registry (CSP), the California state hospitalization discharge database (OSHPD), and the SEER-Medicare database. We assessed sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV) of cancer treatment in linked databases, compared with medical record abstraction. RESULTS: We successfully retrieved medical records for 918 of 1,004 participating NHL cases and abstracted treatment for 698. We linked 59% of cases (96% of cases >65 years old) to SEER-Medicare and 96% to OSHPD. Chemotherapy was the most common treatment and best captured, with the highest sensitivity in SEER-Medicare (80%) and CSP (74%); combining all three data sources together increased sensitivity (92%), at reduced specificity (56%). Sensitivity for radiotherapy was moderate: 77% with aggregated data. Sensitivity of BMT was low in the CSP (42%), but high for the administrative databases, especially OSHPD (98%). Sensitivity for surgery reached 83% when considering all three datasets in aggregate, but PPV was 60%. In general, sensitivity and PPV for chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma were low. CONCLUSIONS: Chemotherapy was accurately captured by all data sources. Hospitalization data yielded the highest performance values for BMTs. Performance measures for radiotherapy and surgery were moderate. IMPACT: Various administrative databases can supplement epidemiologic studies, depending on treatment type and NHL subtype of interest.

19.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 65: 101688, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092486

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although clinical prognostic indicators exist for follicular lymphoma(FL), patient outcomes remain heterogeneous. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We evaluated the association between survival and a polygenic risk score(PRS) composed of five previously identified FL susceptibility loci(rs12195582, rs13254990, rs17749561, rs4245081, rs4938573) among women who participated in a case-control study of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Los Angeles County between 2004-2008. Risk associations were estimated through logistic regression, calculating the odds ratios(OR) and 95 % confidence intervals(95 % CI). Survival was estimated under a Cox proportional hazards model and hazard ratios(HR) and 95 % CI were calculated. RESULTS: Among 437 non-Hispanic White controls and 100 non-Hispanic White FL patients, we confirmed a 2.6-fold increased risk of FL associated with the highest PRS tertile (95 % CI:1.35-4.86). After accounting for clinical indicators, the PRS was associated with improved overall survival in non-Hispanic women (HR:0.31; 95 % CI:0.10-0.96). CONCLUSION: PRS was associated with increased risk of FL, but improved overall survival.


Assuntos
Linfoma Folicular/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Linfoma Folicular/mortalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
20.
Cancer Res ; 80(5): 1210-1218, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932455

RESUMO

Repeated exposure to the acute proinflammatory environment that follows ovulation at the ovarian surface and distal fallopian tube over a woman's reproductive years may increase ovarian cancer risk. To address this, analyses included individual-level data from 558,709 naturally menopausal women across 20 prospective cohorts, among whom 3,246 developed invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (2,045 serous, 319 endometrioid, 184 mucinous, 121 clear cell, 577 other/unknown). Cox models were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted HRs between lifetime ovulatory cycles (LOC) and its components and ovarian cancer risk overall and by histotype. Women in the 90th percentile of LOC (>514 cycles) were almost twice as likely to be diagnosed with ovarian cancer than women in the 10th percentile (<294) [HR (95% confidence interval): 1.92 (1.60-2.30)]. Risk increased 14% per 5-year increase in LOC (60 cycles) [(1.10-1.17)]; this association remained after adjustment for LOC components: number of pregnancies and oral contraceptive use [1.08 (1.04-1.12)]. The association varied by histotype, with increased risk of serous [1.13 (1.09-1.17)], endometrioid [1.20 (1.10-1.32)], and clear cell [1.37 (1.18-1.58)], but not mucinous [0.99 (0.88-1.10), P-heterogeneity = 0.01] tumors. Heterogeneity across histotypes was reduced [P-heterogeneity = 0.15] with adjustment for LOC components [1.08 serous, 1.11 endometrioid, 1.26 clear cell, 0.94 mucinous]. Although the 10-year absolute risk of ovarian cancer is small, it roughly doubles as the number of LOC rises from approximately 300 to 500. The consistency and linearity of effects strongly support the hypothesis that each ovulation leads to small increases in the risk of most ovarian cancers, a risk that cumulates through life, suggesting this as an important area for identifying intervention strategies. SIGNIFICANCE: Although ovarian cancer is rare, risk of most ovarian cancers doubles as the number of lifetime ovulatory cycles increases from approximately 300 to 500. Thus, identifying an important area for cancer prevention research.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Ovário/imunologia , Ovulação/imunologia , Idoso , Anticoncepcionais/administração & dosagem , Tubas Uterinas/imunologia , Tubas Uterinas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/imunologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/prevenção & controle , Ovário/patologia , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , História Reprodutiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
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