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3.
Nitric Oxide ; 116: 7-13, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inhaled nitric oxide (NO) is a selective pulmonary vasodilator. In-vitro studies report that NO donors can inhibit replication of SARS-CoV-2. This multicenter study evaluated the feasibility and effects of high-dose inhaled NO in non-intubated spontaneously breathing patients with Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: This is an interventional study to determine whether NO at 160 parts-per-million (ppm) inhaled for 30 min twice daily might be beneficial and safe in non-intubated COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: Twenty-nine COVID-19 patients received a total of 217 intermittent inhaled NO treatments for 30 min at 160 ppm between March and June 2020. Breathing NO acutely decreased the respiratory rate of tachypneic patients and improved oxygenation in hypoxemic patients. The maximum level of nitrogen dioxide delivered was 1.5 ppm. The maximum level of methemoglobin (MetHb) during the treatments was 4.7%. MetHb decreased in all patients 5 min after discontinuing NO administration. No adverse events during treatment, such as hypoxemia, hypotension, or acute kidney injury during hospitalization occurred. In our NO treated patients, one patient of 29 underwent intubation and mechanical ventilation, and none died. The median hospital length of stay was 6 days [interquartile range 4-8]. No discharged patients required hospital readmission nor developed COVID-19 related long-term sequelae within 28 days of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: In spontaneous breathing patients with COVID-19, the administration of inhaled NO at 160 ppm for 30 min twice daily promptly improved the respiratory rate of tachypneic patients and systemic oxygenation of hypoxemic patients. No adverse events were observed. None of the subjects was readmitted or had long-term COVID-19 sequelae.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitalização , Óxido Nítrico/administração & dosagem , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Respiração/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração por Inalação , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/virologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Óxido Nítrico/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/complicações
4.
Respir Care ; 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34413210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-dose (≥ 80 ppm) inhaled nitric oxide (INO) has antimicrobial effects. We designed a trial to test the preventive effects of high-dose NO on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in health care providers working with patients with COVID-19. The study was interrupted prematurely due to the introduction of COVID-19 vaccines for health care professionals. We thereby present data on safety and feasibility of breathing 160 ppm NO using 2 different NO sources, namely pressurized nitrogen/NO cylinders (INO) and electric NO (eNO) generators. METHODS: NO gas was inhaled at 160 ppm in air for 15 min twice daily, before and after each work shift, over 14 d by health care providers (NCT04312243). During NO administration, vital signs were continuously monitored. Safety was assessed by measuring transcutaneous methemoglobinemia (SpMet) and the inhaled nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentration. RESULTS: Twelve healthy health care professionals received a collective total of 185 administrations of high-dose NO (160 ppm) for 15 min twice daily. One-hundred and seventy-one doses were delivered by INO and 14 doses by eNO. During NO administration, SpMet increased similarly in both groups (P = .82). Methemoglobin decreased in all subjects at 5 min after discontinuing NO administration. Inhaled NO2 concentrations remained between 0.70 ppm (0.63-0.79) and 0.75 ppm (0.67-0.83) in the INO group and between 0.74 ppm (0.68-0.78) and 0.88 ppm (0.70-0.93) in the eNO group. During NO administration, peripheral oxygen saturation and heart rate did not change. No adverse events occurred. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study testing high-dose INO (160 ppm) for 15 min twice daily using eNO seems feasible and similarly safe when compared with INO.

5.
J Clin Med ; 10(13)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279453

RESUMO

Hypoxemia of the acute respiratory distress syndrome can be reduced by turning patients prone. Prone positioning (PP) is labor intensive, risks unplanned tracheal extubation, and can result in facial tissue injury. We retrospectively examined prolonged, repeated, and early versus later PP for 20 patients with COVID-19 respiratory failure. Blood gases and ventilator settings were collected before PP, at 1, 7, 12, 24, 32, and 39 h after PP, and 7 h after completion of PP. Analysis of variance was used for comparisons with baseline values at supine positions before turning prone. PP for >39 h maintained PaO2/FiO2 (P/F) ratios when turned supine; the P/F decrease at 7 h was not significant from the initial values when turned supine. Patients turned prone a second time, when again turned supine at 7 h, had significant decreased P/F. When PP started for an initial P/F ≤ 150 versus P/F > 150, the P/F increased throughout the PP and upon return to supine. Our results show that a single turn prone for >39 h is efficacious and saves the burden of multiple prone turns, and there is no significant advantage to initiating PP when P/F > 150 compared to P/F ≤ 150.

6.
Crit Care Explor ; 3(7): e0461, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34235455

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether individualized optimization of mechanical ventilation through the implementation of a lung rescue team could reduce the need for venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in patients with obesity and acute respiratory distress syndrome and decrease ICU and hospital length of stay and mortality. DESIGN: Single-center, retrospective study at the Massachusetts General Hospital from June 2015 to June 2019. PATIENTS: All patients with obesity and acute respiratory distress syndrome who were referred for venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation evaluation due to hypoxemic respiratory failure. INTERVENTION: Evaluation and individualized optimization of mechanical ventilation by the lung rescue team before the decision to proceed with venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The control group was those patients managed according to hospital standard of care without lung rescue team evaluation. MEASUREMENT AND MAIN RESULTS: All 20 patients (100%) allocated in the control group received venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, whereas 10 of 13 patients (77%) evaluated by the lung rescue team did not receive venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Patients who underwent lung rescue team evaluation had a shorter duration of mechanical ventilation (p = 0.03) and shorter ICU length of stay (p = 0.03). There were no differences between groups in in-hospital, 30-day, or 1-year mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In this hypothesis-generating study, individualized optimization of mechanical ventilation of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome and obesity by a lung rescue team was associated with a decrease in the utilization of venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, duration of mechanical ventilation, and ICU length of stay. Mortality was not modified by the lung rescue team intervention.

7.
Crit Care Explor ; 3(6): e0471, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34151287

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Prone positioning improves clinical outcomes in moderate-to-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and has been widely adopted for the treatment of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome due to coronavirus disease 2019. Little is known about the effects of prone positioning among patients with less severe acute respiratory distress syndrome, obesity, or those treated with pulmonary vasodilators. OBJECTIVES: We characterize the change in oxygenation, respiratory system compliance, and dead-space-to-tidal-volume ratio in response to prone positioning in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome with a range of severities. A subset analysis of patients treated with inhaled nitric oxide and subsequent prone positioning explored the influence of pulmonary vasodilation on the physiology of prone positioning. DESIGN SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Retrospective cohort study of all consecutively admitted adult patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome due to coronavirus disease 2019 treated with mechanical ventilation and prone positioning in the ICUs of an academic hospital between March 11, 2020, and May 1, 2020. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Respiratory system mechanics and gas exchange during the first episode of prone positioning. RESULTS: Among 122 patients, median (interquartile range) age was 60 years (51-71 yr), median body mass index was 31.5 kg/m2 (27-35 kg/m2), and 50 patients (41%) were female. The ratio of Pao2 to Fio2 improved with prone positioning in 90% of patients. Prone positioning was associated with a significant increase in the ratio of Pao2 to Fio2 (from median 149 [123-170] to 226 [169-268], p < 0.001) but no change in dead-space-to-tidal-volume ratio or respiratory system compliance. Supine ratio of Pao2 to Fio2, respiratory system compliance, positive end-expiratory pressure, and body mass index did not correlate with absolute change in the ratio of Pao2 to Fio2 with prone positioning. However, patients with ratio of Pao2 to Fio2 less than 150 experienced a greater relative improvement in oxygenation with prone positioning than patients with ratio of Pao2 to Fio2 greater than or equal to 150 (median percent change in ratio of Pao2 to Fio2 62 [29-107] vs 30 [10-70], p = 0.002). Among 12 patients, inhaled nitric oxide prior to prone positioning was associated with a significant increase in the ratio of Pao2 to Fio2 (from median 136 [77-168] to 170 [138-213], p = 0.003) and decrease in dead-space-to-tidal-volume ratio (0.54 [0.49-0.58] to 0.46 [0.44-0.53], p = 0.001). Subsequent prone positioning in this subgroup further improved the ratio of Pao2 to Fio2 (from 145 [122-183] to 205 [150-232], p = 0.017) but did not change dead-space-to-tidal-volume ratio. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Prone positioning improves oxygenation across the acute respiratory distress syndrome severity spectrum, irrespective of supine respiratory system compliance, positive end-expiratory pressure, or body mass index. There was a greater relative benefit among patients with more severe disease. Prone positioning confers an additive benefit in oxygenation among patients treated with inhaled nitric oxide.

8.
Chest ; 159(6): 2373-2383, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased pleural pressure affects the mechanics of breathing of people with class III obesity (BMI > 40 kg/m2). RESEARCH QUESTION: What are the acute effects of CPAP titrated to match pleural pressure on cardiopulmonary function in spontaneously breathing patients with class III obesity? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We enrolled six participants with BMI within normal range (control participants, group I) and 12 patients with class III obesity (group II) divided into subgroups: IIa, BMI of 40 to 50 kg/m2; and IIb, BMI of ≥ 50 kg/m2. The study was performed in two phases: in phase 1, participants were supine and breathing spontaneously at atmospheric pressure, and in phase 2, participants were supine and breathing with CPAP titrated to match their end-expiratory esophageal pressure in the absence of CPAP. Respiratory mechanics, esophageal pressure, and hemodynamic data were collected, and right heart function was evaluated by transthoracic echocardiography. RESULTS: The levels of CPAP titrated to match pleural pressure in group I, subgroup IIa, and subgroup IIb were 6 ± 2 cmH2O, 12 ± 3 cmH2O, and 18 ± 4 cmH2O, respectively. In both subgroups IIa and IIb, CPAP titrated to match pleural pressure decreased minute ventilation (IIa, P = .03; IIb, P = .03), improved peripheral oxygen saturation (IIa, P = .04; IIb, P = .02), improved homogeneity of tidal volume distribution between ventral and dorsal lung regions (IIa, P = .22; IIb, P = .03), and decreased work of breathing (IIa, P < .001; IIb, P = .003) with a reduction in both the work spent to initiate inspiratory flow as well as tidal ventilation. In five hypertensive participants with obesity, BP decreased to normal range, without impairment of right heart function. INTERPRETATION: In ambulatory patients with class III obesity, CPAP titrated to match pleural pressure decreased work of breathing and improved respiratory mechanics while maintaining hemodynamic stability, without impairing right heart function. TRIAL REGISTRY: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT02523352; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.


Assuntos
Resistência das Vias Respiratórias/fisiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Cavidade Pleural/fisiopatologia , Respiração , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar/fisiologia , Esôfago/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Pressão , Troca Gasosa Pulmonar
9.
Respir Care ; 66(6): 1021-1028, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34039761

RESUMO

Nitric oxide (NO) is a biologically active molecule approved for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension in newborn patients. Commercially available NO delivery systems use pressurized cylinders as the source of NO and a sensor to control the concentrations of NO and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) delivered. Cylinder-based delivery systems are safe and widely used around the world, but they are bulky, expensive, and reliant on a robust supply chain. In the past few years, novel NO generators and delivery systems have been developed to overcome these limitations. Electric NO generators produce NO from ambient air using high-voltage electrical discharge to ionize air, which leads to the formation of NO, NO2, and ozone (O3). A scavenging system is incorporated to reduce the concentration of the toxic byproducts generated in this type of system. NO can also be generated by the reduction of NO2 by ascorbic acid or released from liquid solutions or solid nanoparticles. The development of easy-to-use, safe, and portable NO delivery systems may enable the delivery of NO in the out-patient setting or at home. Furthermore, non-cylinder-based NO generators reduce the cost of NO production and storage and may therefore make NO delivery feasible in low-resource settings. Here we review commercially available systems that can generate and administer inhalable NO.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Pulmonar , Óxido Nítrico , Administração por Inalação , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Recém-Nascido , Óxido Nítrico/uso terapêutico , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Respiração Artificial
10.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 34(4): 530-536, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34039847

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Severe bleeding events, which require blood transfusions, are a challenge faced by many critical care physicians on a daily basis. Current transfusion guidelines generally recommend rather strict transfusion thresholds and strategies, which can appear opposing to a patient in need for urgent transfusion at first sight. Moreover, applied guidelines are lacking evidence and specificity for the typical ICU patient population and its comorbidities. Transfusion decisions, which are pivotal for clinical outcome, are often unsatisfactorily based on hemoglobin levels only. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent publications generally support previous studies that a strict transfusion regimen is superior to a liberal one for the majority of cases. Newly developed and easily feasible techniques are currently in clinical trials and have the potential to become a valuable supplementation to hemoglobin-guided decision-making. In addition to the choice of the ideal transfusion strategy, physiological status and comorbidities were found to have a major impact on the outcome of severe bleedings in the ICU. SUMMARY: The body of evidence for ICU-specific transfusion guidelines is scarce. Critical care physicians should properly evaluate their patient's comorbidities and consider extended point-of-care testing for transfusion decisions in indistinct anemic situations. A strict transfusion strategy should, however, be applied whenever possible.


Assuntos
Anemia , Transfusão de Eritrócitos , Hemoglobinas/análise , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemorragia/terapia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva
11.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 21(1): 155, 2021 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The surge of critically ill patients due to the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) overwhelmed critical care capacity in areas of northern Italy. Anesthesia machines have been used as alternatives to traditional ICU mechanical ventilators. However, the outcomes for patients with COVID-19 respiratory failure cared for with Anesthesia Machines is currently unknow. We hypothesized that COVID-19 patients receiving care with Anesthesia Machines would have worse outcomes compared to standard practice. METHODS: We designed a retrospective study of patients admitted with a confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis at a large tertiary urban hospital in northern Italy. Two care units were included: a 27-bed standard ICU and a 15-bed temporary unit emergently opened in an operating room setting. Intubated patients assigned to Anesthesia Machines (AM group) were compared to a control cohort treated with standard mechanical ventilators (ICU-VENT group). Outcomes were assessed at 60-day follow-up. A multivariable Cox regression analysis of risk factors between survivors and non-survivors was conducted to determine the adjusted risk of death for patients assigned to AM group. RESULTS: Complete daily data from 89 mechanically ventilated patients consecutively admitted to the two units were analyzed. Seventeen patients were included in the AM group, whereas 72 were in the ICU-VENT group. Disease severity and intensity of treatment were comparable between the two groups. The 60-day mortality was significantly higher in the AM group compared to the ICU-vent group (12/17 vs. 27/72, 70.6% vs. 37.5%, respectively, p = 0.016). Allocation to AM group was associated with a significantly increased risk of death after adjusting for covariates (HR 4.05, 95% CI: 1.75-9.33, p = 0.001). Several incidents and complications were reported with Anesthesia Machine care, raising safety concerns. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the hypothesis that care associated with the use of Anesthesia Machines is inadequate to provide long-term critical care to patients with COVID-19. Added safety risks must be considered if no other option is available to treat severely ill patients during the ongoing pandemic. CLINICAL TRIAL NUMBER: Not applicable.


Assuntos
Anestesiologia/instrumentação , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/terapia , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal/terapia , Respiração Artificial/instrumentação , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10231, 2021 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33986390

RESUMO

Children and adolescents account for ~ 13% of total COVID-19 cases in the United States. However, little is known about the nature of the illness in children. The reopening of schools underlines the importance of understanding the epidemiology of pediatric COVID-19 infections. We sought to assess the clinical characteristics and outcomes in pediatric COVID-19 patients. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of pediatric patients diagnosed with COVID-19 from healthcare organizations in the United States. The study outcomes (hospitalization, mechanical ventilation, critical care) were assessed using logistic regression. The subgroups of sex and race were compared after propensity score matching. Among 12,306 children with lab-confirmed COVID-19, 16.5% presented with respiratory symptoms (cough, dyspnea), 13.9% had gastrointestinal symptoms (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain), 8.1% had dermatological symptoms (rash), 4.8% had neurological (headache), and 18.8% had other non-specific symptoms (fever, malaise, myalgia, arthralgia and disturbances of smell or taste). In the study cohort, the hospitalization frequency was 5.3%, with 17.6% needing critical care services and 4.1% requiring mechanical ventilation. Following propensity score matching, the risk of all outcomes was similar between males and females. Following propensity score matching, the risk of hospitalization was greater in non-Hispanic Black (RR 1.97 [95% CI 1.49-2.61]) and Hispanic children (RR 1.31 [95% CI 1.03-1.78]) compared with non-Hispanic Whites. In the pediatric population infected with COVID-19, a substantial proportion were hospitalized due to the illness and developed adverse clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Adolescente , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pontuação de Propensão , Respiração Artificial , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
J Vis Exp ; (171)2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34028428

RESUMO

Nitric Oxide (NO) is administered as gas for inhalation to induce selective pulmonary vasodilation. It is a safe therapy, with few potential risks even if administered at high concentration. Inhaled NO gas is routinely used to increase systemic oxygenation in different disease conditions. The administration of high concentrations of NO also exerts a virucidal effect in vitro. Owing to its favorable pharmacodynamic and safety profiles, the familiarity in its use by critical care providers, and the potential for a direct virucidal effect, NO is clinically used in patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Nevertheless, no device is currently available to easily administer inhaled NO at concentrations higher than 80 parts per million (ppm) at various inspired oxygen fractions, without the need for dedicated, heavy, and costly equipment. The development of a reliable, safe, inexpensive, lightweight, and ventilator-free solution is crucial, particularly for the early treatment of non-intubated patients outside of the intensive care unit (ICU) and in a limited-resource scenario. To overcome such a barrier, a simple system for the non-invasive NO gas administration up to 250 ppm was developed using standard consumables and a scavenging chamber. The method has been proven safe and reliable in delivering a specified NO concentration while limiting nitrogen dioxide levels. This paper aims to provide clinicians and researchers with the necessary information on how to assemble or adapt such a system for research purposes or clinical use in COVID-19 or other diseases in which NO administration might be beneficial.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Óxido Nítrico/uso terapêutico , Ventiladores Mecânicos , Administração por Inalação , Cuidados Críticos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Óxido Nítrico/administração & dosagem , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Crit Care Med ; 49(10): e1015-e1024, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938714

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: It is not known how lung injury progression during mechanical ventilation modifies pulmonary responses to prone positioning. We compared the effects of prone positioning on regional lung aeration in late versus early stages of lung injury. DESIGN: Prospective, longitudinal imaging study. SETTING: Research imaging facility at The University of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, PA) and Medical and Surgical ICUs at Massachusetts General Hospital (Boston, MA). SUBJECTS: Anesthetized swine and patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (acute respiratory distress syndrome). INTERVENTIONS: Lung injury was induced by bronchial hydrochloric acid (3.5 mL/kg) in 10 ventilated Yorkshire pigs and worsened by supine nonprotective ventilation for 24 hours. Whole-lung CT was performed 2 hours after hydrochloric acid (Day 1) in both prone and supine positions and repeated at 24 hours (Day 2). Prone and supine images were registered (superimposed) in pairs to measure the effects of positioning on the aeration of each tissue unit. Two patients with early acute respiratory distress syndrome were compared with two patients with late acute respiratory distress syndrome, using electrical impedance tomography to measure the effects of body position on regional lung mechanics. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Gas exchange and respiratory mechanics worsened over 24 hours, indicating lung injury progression. On Day 1, prone positioning reinflated 18.9% ± 5.2% of lung mass in the posterior lung regions. On Day 2, position-associated dorsal reinflation was reduced to 7.3% ± 1.5% (p < 0.05 vs Day 1). Prone positioning decreased aeration in the anterior lungs on both days. Although prone positioning improved posterior lung compliance in the early acute respiratory distress syndrome patients, it had no effect in late acute respiratory distress syndrome subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The effects of prone positioning on lung aeration may depend on the stage of lung injury and duration of prior ventilation; this may limit the clinical efficacy of this treatment if applied late.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar/complicações , Decúbito Ventral/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Boston , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Lesão Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pennsylvania , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
EClinicalMedicine ; 34: 100829, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875978

RESUMO

Background: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) secondary to coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by substantial heterogeneity in clinical, biochemical, and physiological characteristics. However, the pathophysiology of severe COVID-19 infection is poorly understood. Previous studies established clinical and biological phenotypes among classical ARDS cohorts, with important therapeutic implications. The phenotypic profile of COVID-19 associated ARDS remains unknown. Methods: We used latent class modeling via a multivariate mixture model to identify phenotypes from clinical and biochemical data collected from 263 patients admitted to Massachusetts General Hospital intensive care unit with COVID-19-associated ARDS between March 13 and August 2, 2020. Findings: We identified two distinct phenotypes of COVID-19-associated ARDS, with substantial differences in biochemical profiles despite minimal differences in respiratory dynamics. The minority phenotype (class 2, n = 70, 26·6%) demonstrated increased markers of coagulopathy, with mild relative hyper-inflammation and dramatically increased markers of end-organ dysfunction (e.g., creatinine, troponin). The odds of 28-day mortality among the class 2 phenotype was more than double that of the class 1 phenotype (40·0% vs.· 23·3%, OR = 2·2, 95% CI [1·2, 3·9]). Interpretation: We identified distinct phenotypic profiles in COVID-19 associated ARDS, with little variation according to respiratory physiology but with important variation according to systemic and extra-pulmonary markers. Phenotypic identity was highly associated with short-term mortality. The class 2 phenotype exhibited prominent signatures of coagulopathy, suggesting that vascular dysfunction may play an important role in the clinical progression of severe COVID-19-related disease.

16.
Curr Opin Crit Care ; 27(3): 311-319, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797429

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity prevalence is increasing in most countries in the world. In the United States, 42% of the population is obese (body mass index (BMI) > 30) and 9.2% is obese class III (BMI > 40). One of the greatest challenges in critically ill patients with obesity is the optimization of mechanical ventilation. The goal of this review is to describe respiratory physiologic changes in patients with obesity and discuss possible mechanical ventilation strategies to improve respiratory function. RECENT FINDINGS: Individualized mechanical ventilation based on respiratory physiology after a decremental positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) trial improves oxygenation and respiratory mechanics. In a recent study, mortality of patients with respiratory failure and obesity was reduced by about 50% when mechanical ventilation was associated with the use of esophageal manometry and electrical impedance tomography (EIT). SUMMARY: Obesity greatly alters the respiratory system mechanics causing atelectasis and prolonged duration of mechanical ventilation. At present, novel strategies to ventilate patients with obesity based on individual respiratory physiology showed to be superior to those based on standard universal tables of mechanical ventilation. Esophageal manometry and EIT are essential tools to systematically assess respiratory system mechanics, safely adjust relatively high levels of PEEP, and improve chances for successful weaning.


Assuntos
Respiração com Pressão Positiva , Atelectasia Pulmonar , Impedância Elétrica , Humanos , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/terapia , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos
17.
Immunity ; 54(6): 1186-1199.e7, 2021 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33915108

RESUMO

A cardinal feature of COVID-19 is lung inflammation and respiratory failure. In a prospective multi-country cohort of COVID-19 patients, we found that increased Notch4 expression on circulating regulatory T (Treg) cells was associated with disease severity, predicted mortality, and declined upon recovery. Deletion of Notch4 in Treg cells or therapy with anti-Notch4 antibodies in conventional and humanized mice normalized the dysregulated innate immunity and rescued disease morbidity and mortality induced by a synthetic analog of viral RNA or by influenza H1N1 virus. Mechanistically, Notch4 suppressed the induction by interleukin-18 of amphiregulin, a cytokine necessary for tissue repair. Protection by Notch4 inhibition was recapitulated by therapy with Amphiregulin and, reciprocally, abrogated by its antagonism. Amphiregulin declined in COVID-19 subjects as a function of disease severity and Notch4 expression. Thus, Notch4 expression on Treg cells dynamically restrains amphiregulin-dependent tissue repair to promote severe lung inflammation, with therapeutic implications for COVID-19 and related infections.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Imunidade Celular , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Receptor Notch4/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Anfirregulina/farmacologia , Animais , Biomarcadores , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Imunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Vírus da Influenza A/fisiologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Receptor Notch4/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor Notch4/genética , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
18.
J Intensive Care Med ; 36(8): 900-909, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33783269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction is common and associated with worse outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In non-COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome, RV dysfunction develops due to pulmonary hypoxic vasoconstriction, inflammation, and alveolar overdistension or atelectasis. Although similar pathogenic mechanisms may induce RV dysfunction in COVID-19, other COVID-19-specific pathology, such as pulmonary endothelialitis, thrombosis, or myocarditis, may also affect RV function. We quantified RV dysfunction by echocardiographic strain analysis and investigated its correlation with disease severity, ventilatory parameters, biomarkers, and imaging findings in critically ill COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We determined RV free wall longitudinal strain (FWLS) in 32 patients receiving mechanical ventilation for COVID-19-associated respiratory failure. Demographics, comorbid conditions, ventilatory parameters, medications, and laboratory findings were extracted from the medical record. Chest imaging was assessed to determine the severity of lung disease and the presence of pulmonary embolism. RESULTS: Abnormal FWLS was present in 66% of mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients and was associated with higher lung compliance (39.6 vs 29.4 mL/cmH2O, P = 0.016), lower airway plateau pressures (21 vs 24 cmH2O, P = 0.043), lower tidal volume ventilation (5.74 vs 6.17 cc/kg, P = 0.031), and reduced left ventricular function. FWLS correlated negatively with age (r = -0.414, P = 0.018) and with serum troponin (r = 0.402, P = 0.034). Patients with abnormal RV strain did not exhibit decreased oxygenation or increased disease severity based on inflammatory markers, vasopressor requirements, or chest imaging findings. CONCLUSIONS: RV dysfunction is common among critically ill COVID-19 patients and is not related to abnormal lung mechanics or ventilatory pressures. Instead, patients with abnormal FWLS had more favorable lung compliance. RV dysfunction may be secondary to diffuse intravascular micro- and macro-thrombosis or direct myocardial damage. TRIAL REGISTRATION: National Institutes of Health #NCT04306393. Registered 10 March 2020, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04306393.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Insuficiência Respiratória/virologia , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/virologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Ventrículos do Coração , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Respiração Artificial , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/diagnóstico por imagem , Função Ventricular Direita
19.
Res Sq ; 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594358

RESUMO

BackgroundThe surge of critically ill patients due to the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) overwhelmed critical care capacity in areas of northern Italy. Anesthesia machines have been used as alternatives to traditional ICU mechanical ventilators. However, the outcomes for patients with COVID-19 respiratory failure cared for with Anesthesia Machines is currently unknow. We hypothesized that COVID-19 patients receiving care with Anesthesia Machines would have worse outcomes compared to standard practice.MethodsWe designed a retrospective study of patients admitted with a confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis at a large tertiary urban hospital in northern Italy. Two care units were included: a 27-bed standard ICU and a 15-bed temporary unit emergently opened in an operating room setting. Intubated patients assigned to Anesthesia Machines (AM group) were compared to a control cohort treated with standard mechanical ventilators (ICU-VENT group). Outcomes were assessed at 60-day follow-up. A multivariable Cox regression analysis of risk factors between survivors and non-survivors was conducted to determine the adjusted risk of death for patients assigned to AM group.ResultsComplete daily data from 89 mechanically ventilated patients consecutively admitted to the two units were analyzed. Seventeen patients were included in the AM group, whereas 72 were in the ICU-VENT group. Disease severity and intensity of treatment were comparable between the two groups. The 60-day mortality was significantly higher in the AM group compared to the ICU-vent group (12/17 vs. 27/72, 70.6% vs. 37.5%, respectively, p = 0.016). Allocation to AM group was associated with a significantly increased risk of death after adjusting for covariates (HR 4.05, 95% CI: 1.75-9.33, p = 0.001). Several incidents and complications were reported with Anesthesia Machine care, raising safety concerns.ConclusionsOur results support the hypothesis that care associated with the use of Anesthesia Machines is inadequate to provide long-term critical care to patients with COVID-19. Added safety risks must be considered if no other option is available to treat severely ill patients during the ongoing pandemic.Clinical Trial NumberNot applicable.

20.
Anesth Analg ; 132(6): 1548-1558, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is associated with a high risk of postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI). Due to limitations of current diagnostic strategies, we sought to determine whether free hemoglobin (fHb) ratio (ie, levels of fHb at the end of CPB divided by baseline fHb) could predict AKI after on-pump cardiac surgery. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial comparing the effect of nitric oxide (intervention) versus nitrogen (control) on AKI after cardiac surgery (NCT01802619). A total of 110 adult patients in the control arm were included. First, we determined whether fHb ratio was associated with AKI via multivariable analysis. Second, we verified whether fHb ratio could predict AKI and incorporation of fHb ratio could improve predictive performance at an early stage, compared with prediction using urinary biomarkers alone. We conducted restricted cubic spline in logistic regression for model development. We determined the predictive performance, including area under the receiver-operating-characteristics curve (AUC) and calibration (calibration plot and accuracy, ie, number of correct predictions divided by total number of predictions). We also used AUC test, likelihood ratio test, and net reclassification index (NRI) to compare the predictive performance between competing models (ie, fHb ratio versus neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [NGAL], N-acetyl-ß-d-glucosaminidase [NAG], and kidney injury molecule-1 [KIM-1], respectively, and incorporation of fHb ratio with NGAL, NAG, and KIM-1 versus urinary biomarkers alone), if applicable. RESULTS: Data stratified by median fHb ratio showed that subjects with an fHb ratio >2.23 presented higher incidence of AKI (80.0% vs 49.1%; P = .001), more need of renal replacement therapy (10.9% vs 0%; P = .036), and higher in-hospital mortality (10.9% vs 0%; P = .036) than subjects with an fHb ratio ≤2.23. fHb ratio was associated with AKI after adjustment for preestablished factors. fHb ratio outperformed urinary biomarkers with the highest AUC of 0.704 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.592-0.804) and accuracy of 0.714 (95% CI, 0.579-0.804). Incorporation of fHb ratio achieved better discrimination (AUC test, P = .012), calibration (likelihood ratio test, P < .001; accuracy, 0.740 [95% CI, 0.617-0.832] vs 0.632 [95% CI, 0.477-0.748]), and significant prediction increment (NRI, 0.638; 95% CI, 0.269-1.008; P < .001) at an early stage, compared with prediction using urinary biomarkers alone. CONCLUSIONS: Results from this exploratory, hypothesis-generating retrospective, observational study shows that fHb ratio at the end of CPB might be used as a novel, widely applicable biomarker for AKI. The use of fHb ratio might help for an early detection of AKI, compared with prediction based only on urinary biomarkers.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/sangue , Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/efeitos adversos , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Injúria Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/tendências , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óxido Nítrico/administração & dosagem , Nitrogênio/administração & dosagem , Estudos Retrospectivos
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