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1.
Support Care Cancer ; 2022 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35538327

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Dysgeusia and taste alterations (TAs) are side effects of cytotoxic chemotherapy and affect patients' quality of life; however, the prevalence, types, and duration of TAs and their potential relationship with other clinical disturbances are not well-described. Our primary aim was to prospectively evaluate the characteristics of TAs in early breast cancer (EBC) patients during (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy and up to 1 year after its completion. METHODS: From April 2014 to June 2018, 182 EBC patients entered the study and received (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy, mostly with taxane and anthracycline-containing regimens (65% of cases). A dietitian performed TAs assessment through the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Event v4.0 (CTCAE) and the Chemotherapy-induced Taste Alteration Scale (CiTAS) questionnaire during chemotherapy and follow-up according to defined time points: at baseline (T0, before starting chemotherapy); at the first follow-up visit, (T1, 2 months after starting chemotherapy); at the final follow-up visit (T2, 1 week after completing chemotherapy); after that, every 3 months up to 12 months. RESULTS: Dysgeusia was reported by 69.8% of patients at T1 and declined subsequently; salty flavor distortion was the most frequently reported TA (51.6% of cases). CiTAS was significantly different between T0 and T2 (p < 0.001). Dysgeusia occurred more frequently in patients reporting nausea, mucositis, diarrhea, and appetite modification. CONCLUSIONS: TAs are common but transient during chemotherapy and occurred frequently with other distressing gastrointestinal side effects. The assessment of these side effects is crucial in managing EBC patients during (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy.

2.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 871210, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35528006

RESUMO

Background: Ovarian strumal carcinoid is a rare tumor in which thyroid (struma) and carcinoid components coexist. The disease is generally considered to be a borderline malignancy, however, cases with metastatic disease have been described. No data in the literature are available to guide diagnosis and therapy. Methods: We performed a pooled analysis and a systematic review of histopathological-confirmed strumal carcinoid cases published in the literature using the following keywords: "strumal carcinoid of the ovary", "strumal carcinoid case report". A case of strumal carcinoid tumor diagnosed and followed-up at the Medical Oncology Unit of Spedali Civili (Brescia, Italy) was also described and included. Results: Sixty-six eligible publications were identified, providing data from one hundred and seventeen patients, plus a case diagnosed at our institution. At presentation, among the eighty-eight patients with symptomatic disease, 37% of patients suffered from abdominal distention and 49% from pain due to a growing abdominal tumor mass, 37% from constipation (peptide YY was analyzed in only nine of them, resulting above the physiologic range). Surgery was the primary therapy in 99% of the patients. Three patients had metastatic disease at diagnosis and five patients underwent recurrence after radical surgery. Histology at disease recurrence concerned the thyroid component in two patients, the carcinoid component in two patients, both histologies in one patient. Median disease-free survival and overall survival in this series were not attained. Conclusion: Strumal carcinoid of the ovary generally presents a benign behavior and surgery is curative in most cases. However, a small group of patients with this disease can undergo disease recurrence due to both the thyroid and the neuroendocrine (carcinoid) components. A follow-up in radically operated patients is therefore needed, particularly in those with a voluminous disease at diagnosis.


Assuntos
Tumor Carcinoide , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Estruma Ovariano , Tumor Carcinoide/diagnóstico , Tumor Carcinoide/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/cirurgia , Estruma Ovariano/diagnóstico , Estruma Ovariano/patologia , Estruma Ovariano/cirurgia
3.
J Bone Oncol ; 33: 100421, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35310388

RESUMO

Background and Objective: Prediction of fractures in cancer survivors exposed to hormone-deprivation therapies (HDTs) is a challenge since bone loss is rapid and severe, and determinants of fractures in this setting are still largely unknown. In this study we investigated reliability of the WHO Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) and bone mineral density (BMD) to identify subjects developing vertebral fractures during HDTs. Design: Five-hundred-twenty-seven consecutive subjects (429 females with breast cancer, 98 males with prostate cancer; median age 61 years), under HDTs for at least 6 months, were evaluated for vertebral fractures by a radiological and morphometric approach, in relationship with FRAX score, body mass index (BMI), BMD, age and duration of HDTs. Results: Vertebral fractures were found in 140 subjects (26.6%) and spine deformity index was significantly associated with duration of HDTs (rho 0.38; p < 0.001). Only in females, vertebral fractures were significantly associated with FRAX score for major fractures [OR 1.08; P < 0.001]. The best cut-off of FRAX score for major fractures, as calculated by receiving operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was 6.35%. In males, however, vertebral fractures were significantly and independently associated with BMI ≥ 25 Kg/m2 (OR 17.63; P < 0.001), BMD T-score below -1.0 SD at any skeletal site (OR 7.79; P < 0.001) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) plus abiraterone treatment (OR 11.51; P = 0.001). Conclusions: FRAX and BMD may be useful for predicting vertebral fractures in subjects undergoing HDTs, but the thresholds seem to be lower than those used in the general population. High BMI is a determinant of vertebral fractures in males under HDT.

5.
AIDS Behav ; 2022 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35249178

RESUMO

People living with chronic disease (PLWCD) are the frailest category, both for the risk of severe COVID-19 illness and for the impact on the care continuum. Aim of this study was to analyze coping strategies and resilience in people living with HIV (PLWH) compared to people living with oncological diseases (PLWOD) during COVID-19 pandemic. We administrated an anonymous questionnaire, which explored the emotional experience, the demographic factors linked to a COVID-19-related stress syndrome, the patient's perception about the adequacy of clinical undertaking from the hospital and the resilience. We analyzed 324 questionnaires. There were no significant differences in prevalence of psychological distress among the whole cohort; however, PLWOD were calmer, less troubled, and more serene than PLWH. Moreover, PLWH smoked more, ate more, and gained more weight than PLWOD. Most patients didn't feel lonely and continued to take pleasure from their activities. No differences in resilience were found between the groups. In the whole cohort lower levels of resilience were found in patients that were unemployed, with history of psychological disorders and in those who experienced more feelings of anger, anxiety and concern. In our study, patients seemed to preserve their well-being, and to activate adaptive coping during the pandemic.

6.
Oral Oncol ; 126: 105764, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35158286

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) is a rare disease, with indolent behavior and poor long-term survival. Many studies have evaluated the role of clinical and pathological factors at presentation on the risk of recurrence. In this study we investigated whether baseline demographic, clinical, and pathological characteristics at the time of primary curative treatment could influence the prognosis of patients once local and/or distant recurrence occurred. METHODS: All patients affected by primary salivary gland AdCC and treated with curative surgery from January 1997 to June 2016 were reviewed, evaluating those who later developed loco-regional recurrence and/or distant metastasis. Time from the first relapse to death (recurrent/metastatic overall survival, RMOS) was considered the outcome of interest. RESULTS: Out of 87 surgically treated AdCC patients, 36 relapsing lesions were included. Median ages at first presentation and recurrence were 55 and 60-year-old, respectively; 58% were females. Median disease-free-interval (DFI) was 22.0 months. Five-year RMOS was 47%. At univariate analysis, age ≥ 60-year-old (HR:2.67, p = 0.030), primary tumor lympho-vascular invasion (LVI) (HR:5.38, p = 0.003), adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) in the primary setting (HR:0.37, p = 0.043), and DFI < 30 months (HR:3.94, p = 0.008) significantly affected RMOS. Multivariable analysis confirmed the presence of LVI and shorter DFI as independent risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge of baseline clinicopathological features is helpful in the prognostic stratification of patients with recurrent AdCC, with LVI as the most relevant baseline factor. Adjuvant RT demonstrated its protective role on survival even once recurrence occurred, further supporting its adoption in the primary setting.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Adenoide Cístico , Neoplasias das Glândulas Salivares , Carcinoma Adenoide Cístico/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias das Glândulas Salivares/patologia , Glândulas Salivares/patologia , Taxa de Sobrevida
8.
Endocrinology ; 163(2)2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34875044

RESUMO

Mitotane is the only approved drug for treating adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). The regimen added to mitotane is chemotherapy with etoposide, doxorubicin, and cisplatin. This pharmacological approach, however, has a limited efficacy and significant toxicity. Target-therapy agents represent a new promising approach to cancer therapy. Among these, a preeminent role is played by agents that interfere with cell-cycle progression, such as CDK4/6-inhibitors. Here, we investigate whether ribociclib could induce a cytotoxic effect both in ACC cell line and patient-derived primary cell cultures, alone or in combined settings. Cell viability was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazol)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay, whereas cell proliferation was evaluated by direct count. Binary combination experiments were performed using Chou and Talalay method. Gene expression was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR, whereas protein expression was evaluated by immunofluorescence. A double staining assay revealed that ribociclib induced a prevalent apoptotic cell death. Cell-cycle analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of ribociclib treatment on cell-cycle progression in ACC cell models. Our results indicate that ribociclib was cytotoxic and reduced the cell proliferation rate. The effect on cell viability was enhanced when ribociclib was combined with progesterone and/or mitotane. The effect of ribociclib on cell-cycle progression revealed a drug-induced cell accumulation in G2 phase. The positive relationship underlined by our results between ribociclib, progesterone, and mitotane strengthen the clinical potential of this combination.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/tratamento farmacológico , Aminopiridinas/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Mitotano/administração & dosagem , Progesterona/administração & dosagem , Purinas/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/patologia , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/patologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Humanos
9.
Curr Opin Oncol ; 34(1): 19-28, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669649

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: comprehensive molecular characterization of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) through next-generation sequencing and bioinformatics analyses is expanding the number of targets with potential prognostic and therapeutic value. We performed a critical review of recent published literature on genotyping of ACC. RECENT FINDINGS: 423 studies were published between 2019 and 2021. After manual curation we summarized selected evidence in two thematic areas: germline deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) variations, genomic alterations and prognosis. SUMMARY: the evolving genomic landscape of ACC requires target validation in terms of prognostic and predictive value within scientific consortia. Although the existing multiple driver genes are difficult targets in the perspective of precision oncology, alterations in DNA damage repair genes or in promoter hypermethylation could open new venues for repurposing of existing drugs in ACC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal , Carcinoma Adrenocortical , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/tratamento farmacológico , Genótipo , Humanos , Medicina de Precisão , Prognóstico
10.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 107(5): e2167-e2176, 2022 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34905056

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Patients with adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) are frequently on mitotane therapy for a long time period. The drug exerts adrenolytic activity requiring glucocorticoid supplementation, which can be potentially detrimental for bone. OBJECTIVE: To explore whether mitotane with/without chemotherapy is associated with an increased proportion of morphometric vertebral fractures (VFs) in ACC patients. Secondary objectives were proportion of patients with VF progression, or worsening of the spinal deformity index (SDI) during mitotane therapy; and to explore predictive factors of VF progression and a prognostic role of VF progression. METHODS: Multicenter, retrospective cohort study of patients with ACC who received mitotane alone or in association to chemotherapy, recruited from January 2010 to January 2020 in 2 reference centers in Italy and France. RESULTS: A significant increase in the frequency of VFs before and after mitotane therapy was seen both in Italian (28.3% vs 47.8%, P = .04) and French (17.8% vs 35.6%, P = .04) series. VF progression was observed in 39.1%, and 28.9% of patients, respectively. Baseline VFs and increased patient body mass index, but not the dose of cortisol supplementation, showed an independent association with VF progression at multivariate analysis. Among the 72 advanced ACC patients, progression of VFs was associated with a poorer survival. CONCLUSION: The administration of mitotane with/without chemotherapy in ACC patients impairs bone health independently from cortisol supplementation. Appropriate preventive measures to decrease the fracture risk should be implemented in these patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal , Carcinoma Adrenocortical , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/complicações , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/complicações , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/uso terapêutico , Mitotano/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
World J Clin Oncol ; 12(11): 1037-1046, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34909398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-clear cell (ncc) metastatic renal-cell carcinoma (RCC) has dismal results with standard systemic therapies and a generally worse prognosis when compared to its clear-cell counterpart. New systemic combination therapies have emerged for metastatic RCC (mRCC), but the pivotal phase III trials excluded patients with nccRCC, which constitute about 30% of metastatic RCC cases. AIM: To provide a piece of real-life evidence on the use of pazopanib in this patient subgroup. METHODS: The present study is a multicenter retrospective observational analysis aiming to assess the activity, efficacy, and safety of pazopanib as first-line therapy for advanced nccRCC patients treated in a real-life setting. RESULTS: Overall, 48 patients were included. At the median follow-up of 40.6 mo, the objective response rate was 27.1%, the disease control rate was 83.3%, and the median progression-free survival and overall survival were 12.3 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.6-20.9) and 27.7 (95%CI: 18.2-37.1) mo, respectively. Grade 3 adverse events occurred in 20% of patients, and no grade 4 or 5 toxicities were found. CONCLUSION: Pazopanib should be considered as a good first-line option for metastatic RCC with variant histology.

14.
Front Oncol ; 11: 707346, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722252

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of clinical triage of oncological patients for safe continuation of cancer therapy implemented during the first SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. METHODS: Between 25 February and 21 April 2020, patients attending the Medical Oncology Unit, Spedali Civili Hospital, Brescia (Italy) for cancer therapy underwent triage to identify those with no signs and symptoms suspicious for SARS-CoV-2 infection in which antineoplastic treatment could be continued as scheduled. Triage questions investigated common symptoms (e.g., fever, cough, dyspnea, anosmia, dysgeusia, headache, nasal congestion, conjunctival congestion, sore throat, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting); body temperature and pulse oximetry were also recorded. All patients were followed-up for overt SARS-CoV-2 through to 18th May 2020. RESULTS: Overall, 1180 patients (median age 65 years) underwent triage during the study period. The most frequent primary malignances were breast (32%), gastrointestinal (18%), and lung (16.5%) cancer. Thirty-one (2.5%) presented with clinically evident SARS-CoV-2 infection and tested positive on nasopharyngeal swab testing and/or radiological imaging. Triage identified 69 (6%) grey zone patients with symptoms suspicious for SARS-CoV-2; 5 (7.2%) subsequently developed symptomatic disease. Neither the symptomatic nor the grey zone patients received their scheduled treatment; instead, they were referred for hospitalization or home quarantine. CONCLUSION: Triage of oncological patients at our Unit provided for safe continuation of scheduled cancer treatment in 91.5% of patients during the initial SARS-CoV-2 outbreak.

15.
Front Immunol ; 12: 720748, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34616395

RESUMO

Background: Rare cancers, as defined by the European Union, occur in fewer than 15 out of 100,000 people each year. The International Rare Cancer Consortium defines rare cancer incidence as less than six per 100,000 per year. There is a growing number of reports of the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy in patients with rare tumours, and hence, we conducted a comprehensive review to summarise and analyse the available literature. Methods: A literature search of PubMed was performed on January 31, 2021, using the following ICI names as keywords: ipilimumab, tremelimumab, cemiplimab, nivolumab, pembrolizumab, avelumab, atezolizumab, and durvalumab. Studies on patients with rare tumours who were being treated with ICIs were included. We plotted the overall response rate against the corresponding median survival across a variety of cancer types using linear regression. Results: From 1,255 publications retrieved during the primary search, 62 publications were selected (with a total of 4,620 patients). Only four were randomised trials. A minority were first-line studies, while the remaining were studies in which ICIs were delivered as salvage therapy in pretreated patients. There was a good correlation between response rate and overall survival (Spearman R2 >0.9) in skin cancers, mesothelioma, and sarcomas. Conclusions: Treatment of advanced-stage rare tumours with ICI therapy was found to be associated with significant activity in some orphan diseases (e.g., Merkel cell carcinoma) and hepatocellular carcinoma. Several ongoing prospective clinical trials will expand the knowledge on the safety and efficacy of ICI therapy in patients with these rare cancers.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Gerenciamento Clínico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Proteínas de Checkpoint Imunológico/genética , Proteínas de Checkpoint Imunológico/metabolismo , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/efeitos adversos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Especificidade de Órgãos , Prognóstico , Doenças Raras , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Endocrine ; 74(3): 475-477, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559356

RESUMO

Pediatric and adult adrenocortical carcinomas differ in many respects but treatment is often similar in both age groups. The Journal of Clinical Oncology recently published the results of a risk-stratified single-arm interventional trial conducted by the Children's Oncology Group in which 77 patients were treated in three different interventional cohorts. In this Point of View paper we comment on the treatment strategies adopted within the ARAR0332 trial in terms of surgery approach, duration of adjuvant therapies, and palliative chemotherapy. We focus on the differences in the treatment of pediatric ACC patients compared to the ESE/ENSAT and ESMO guidelines released in 2018 for adult patients. For example, patients in stratum 3 and 4 received 8 (instead of 6) cycles of EDP chemotherapy but 8 months (instead of 24) of mitotane adjuvant therapy. Bearing clearly in the mind that pediatric and adult ACC patients represent different settings, we wonder whether there could be some areas of intervention overlapping to constitute a continuum of disease across ages. Thus, pediatric and adult cohoperative groups should be encouraged to collaborate in order to reach common guidelines for the treatment of such a rare disease.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal , Carcinoma Adrenocortical , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/cirurgia , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/cirurgia , Adulto , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Criança , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Mitotano/uso terapêutico
17.
Br J Cancer ; 125(9): 1233-1238, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After radical resection, patients with adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) frequently experience recurrence and, therefore, effective adjuvant treatment is urgently needed. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of adjuvant platinum-based therapy. METHODS: In this retrospective multicentre cohort study, we identified patients treated with adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy after radical resection and compared them with patients without adjuvant chemotherapy. Recurrence-free and overall survival (RFS/OS) were investigated in a matched group analysis and by applying a propensity score matching using the full control cohort (n = 268). For both approaches, we accounted for immortal time bias. RESULTS: Of the 31 patients in the platinum cohort (R0 n = 25, RX n = 4, R1 n = 2; ENSAT Stage II n = 11, III n = 16, IV n = 4, median Ki67 30%, mitotane n = 28), 14 experienced recurrence compared to 29 of 31 matched controls (median RFS after the landmark at 3 months 17.3 vs. 7.3 months; adjusted HR 0.19 (95% CI 0.09-0.42; P < 0.001). Using propensity score matching, the HR for RFS was 0.45 (0.29-0.89, P = 0.021) and for OS 0.25 (0.09-0.69; P = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides the first evidence that adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy may be associated with prolonged recurrence-free and overall survival in patients with ACC and a very high risk for recurrence.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/cirurgia , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/cirurgia , Platina/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/patologia , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Platina/uso terapêutico , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
18.
Eur J Cancer ; 155: 127-135, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was designed to demonstrate the non-inferiority (NI) in overall survival (OS) of suspension of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) versus maintenance and intermittent versus continuous docetaxel administration in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: mCRPC patients were randomised to first-line docetaxel with maintenance or suspension of ADT. Patients attaining a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response after four chemotherapy cycles underwent second randomisation to receive continuous or intermittent docetaxel therapy. Six hundred patients were to be randomised to achieve 80% statistical power to demonstrate an NI hazard ratio (HR) of 1.25 of interruption versus maintenance of ADT. RESULTS: The trial was prematurely closed when 198 participants were randomised. OS was similar in patients who continued (N = 96) versus those who interrupted (n = 102) ADT during docetaxel therapy (HR 0.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.72-1.33] and those on a continuous (N = 35) versus an intermittent (N = 42) docetaxel schedule (HR 0.86, 95% CI 0.55-1.43). No difference in radiological progression-free survival, PSA response, or toxicity was observed between the study arms. The actual NI hazard margins of OS in Arms A and B patients were 1.33 and 1.43, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This trial enrolled one-third of the planned patients; this main weakness dramatically limits the interpretation of the results. ADT discontinuation and switching to an intermittent schedule did not seem to affect docetaxel efficacy. The absence of testosterone recovery in the majority of patients could have been a contributory factor. In men with mCRPC, ADT discontinuation should only be done with regular biochemical and clinical monitoring, with the option of quickly restarting ADT at disease progression.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Docetaxel/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Antagonistas de Androgênios/farmacologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Docetaxel/farmacologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/mortalidade , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Análise de Sobrevida
19.
Biomedicines ; 9(6)2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208714

RESUMO

Mitotane is the cornerstone of medical treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma. Estrogenic-like side effects frequently occur in patients, and previous studies explored the chemical nature of the interaction between estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) and toxic compounds, including the DDD derivatives. We used molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to explore the possible interaction between mitotane and the ER-α receptor and the induced conformational changes. The ER-α expressing MCF-7 cells were exposed to mitotane with/without tamoxifen, and the cell viability/proliferation was evaluated by MTT assay and direct count. The transient ER-α silencing was performed using two ER-α siRNA (50 nM) and verified by Western blot. MDA-MB-231 cells were used as a negative control. Mitotane showed a similar docking configuration to 17ß-estradiol and bisphenol A (BPA) and a significant binding affinity to ER-α. MD simulations showed that mitotane preserves the active conformation of ER-α more than both BPA and Bisphenol C, classifying it as an agonist. Exposure of MCF-7 cells to mitotane led to the concentration-dependent increase of cell viability and proliferation, which was reduced in the presence of tamoxifen and nullified by the transient ER-α knock-down. Integrating bioinformatics approaches with cell biology and pharmacological methods, we demonstrated that mitotane directly binds and activates ER-α.

20.
Endocr Relat Cancer ; 28(8): 593-604, 2021 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105516

RESUMO

Intrathyroidal thymic carcinoma (ITC) is a rare thyroid tumor that resembles thymic carcinoma, for which there are no recommendations on diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. We performed a pooled analysis of published ITC cases to describe the natural history of this disease and identify prognostic factors. We performed a systematic review of histopathological-confirmed ITC cases published in the literature in English. The following keywords were used: 'intrathyroidal thymic carcinoma', 'carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation', 'CASTLE tumor', 'thyroid carcinoma showing thymus like differentiation'. Fifty eligible publications were identified, providing data from 132 patients, plus a case diagnosed at our institution. Median disease-free survival (DFS) of this patient series was 144 months (range 91-197), while median overall survival (OS) was not reached. Upfront surgery was performed in 97% of patients and 24% of them experienced disease recurrence after a median of 19 months (range 13-25). Complaining of major symptoms, as a sign of more advanced local stage, was the only prognostic factor significantly associated with a higher risk of death at multivariate analysis (HR 4.903, 95% CI: 1.092-22.008, P = 0.038). Postoperative radiation therapy was not associated with prognosis, while not enough data were available to assess the efficacy of chemotherapy. ITC is a rather indolent disease and ITC patients have a relatively good prognosis. Surgery is the mainstay of therapy. Survival outcome of patients depends on tumor burden and complete surgical resection. Postoperative radiation effect seems to be negligible. Data on the efficacy of chemotherapy in advanced patients are lacking.


Assuntos
Carcinoma , Timoma , Neoplasias do Timo , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide , Carcinoma/patologia , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Timoma/patologia , Timoma/cirurgia , Neoplasias do Timo/terapia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia
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