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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e042098, 2021 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441361

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 can cause severe acute respiratory failure requiring management in intensive care unit with invasive ventilation and a 40% mortality rate. Cardiovascular manifestations are common and studies have shown an increase in right ventricular (RV) dysfunction associated with mortality. These studies, however, comprise heterogeneous patient groups with few requiring invasive ventilation. This study will investigate the prevalence and prognostic significance of RV dysfunction in ventilated patients with COVID-19 which may lead to targeted interventions to improve patient outcomes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This prospective multicentre observational cohort study will perform transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) in 150 patients with COVID-19 requiring invasive ventilation for more than 48 hours. RV dysfunction will be defined as TTE evidence of RV dilatation along with the presence of septal flattening. Baseline demographics, disease severity data and clinical information relating to proposed aetiological mechanisms of RV dysfunction (acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), disordered coagulation, direct myocardial injury and ventilation) will be collected and analysed.Primary outcome measures include the prevalence of RV dysfunction and its association with 30-day mortality. Exploratory outcome measures will investigate the association of the proposed aetiological mechanisms of RV dysfunction to the primary outcomes.Prevalence of RV dysfunction will be determined along with 95% Clopper-Pearson CIs and 30-day survival will be analysed using logistic regression adjusting for patient demographics, phase of disease and baseline severity of illness. The role of potential aetiological factors (ARDS, disordered coagulation, direct myocardial injury and ventilation) in relation to the primary outcomes will be analysed using logistic regression. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Approval was gained from Scotland A Research Ethics Committee (REC reference 20/SS/0059). Findings will be disseminated by various methods including webinars, international presentations and publication in peer-reviewed journals.

3.
Cardiovasc Res ; 117(1): 320-329, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32065620

RESUMO

AIMS: The effects of serelaxin, a recombinant form of human relaxin-2 peptide, on vascular function in the coronary microvascular and systemic macrovascular circulation remain largely unknown. This mechanistic, clinical study assessed the effects of serelaxin on myocardial perfusion, aortic stiffness, and safety in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS AND RESULTS: In this multicentre, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study, 58 patients were randomized 1:1 to 48 h intravenous infusion of serelaxin (30 µg/kg/day) or matching placebo. The primary endpoints were change from baseline to 47 h post-initiation of the infusion in global myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR) assessed using adenosine stress perfusion cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and applanation tonometry-derived augmentation index (AIx). Secondary endpoints were: change from baseline in AIx and pulse wave velocity, assessed at 47 h, Day 30, and Day 180; aortic distensibility at 47 h; pharmacokinetics and safety. Exploratory endpoints were the effect on cardiorenal biomarkers [N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), high-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT), endothelin-1, and cystatin C]. Of 58 patients, 51 were included in the primary analysis (serelaxin, n = 25; placebo, n = 26). After 2 and 6 h of serelaxin infusion, mean placebo-corrected blood pressure reductions of -9.6 mmHg (P = 0.01) and -13.5 mmHg (P = 0.0003) for systolic blood pressure and -5.2 mmHg (P = 0.02) and -8.4 mmHg (P = 0.001) for diastolic blood pressure occurred. There were no between-group differences from baseline to 47 h in global MPR (-0.24 vs. -0.13, P = 0.44) or AIx (3.49% vs. 0.04%, P = 0.21) with serelaxin compared with placebo. Endothelin-1 and cystatin C levels decreased from baseline in the serelaxin group, and there were no clinically relevant changes observed with serelaxin for NT-proBNP or hsTnT. Similar numbers of serious adverse events were observed in both groups (serelaxin, n = 5; placebo, n = 7) to 180-day follow-up. CONCLUSION: In patients with stable CAD, 48 h intravenous serelaxin reduced blood pressure but did not alter myocardial perfusion.

4.
Toxins (Basel) ; 12(12)2020 12 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33291447

RESUMO

The control of dipteran pests is highly relevant to humans due to their involvement in the transmission of serious diseases including malaria, dengue fever, Chikungunya, yellow fever, zika, and filariasis; as well as their agronomic impact on numerous crops. Many bacteria are able to produce proteins that are active against insect species. These bacteria include Bacillus thuringiensis, the most widely-studied pesticidal bacterium, which synthesizes proteins that accumulate in crystals with insecticidal properties and which has been widely used in the biological control of insects from different orders, including Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, and Diptera. In this review, we summarize all the bacterial proteins, from B. thuringiensis and other entomopathogenic bacteria, which have described insecticidal activity against dipteran pests, including species of medical and agronomic importance.

5.
Comput Biol Med ; 129: 104168, 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341555

RESUMO

An outstanding challenge in modelling biomechanics after myocardial infarction (MI) is to estimate the so-called growth tensor. Since it is impossible to track pure growth induced geometry change from in vivo magnetic resonance images alone, in this work, we propose a way of estimating a surrogate or apparent growth tensor of the human left ventricle using cine magnetic resonance (CMR) and late gadolinium enhanced (LGE) images of 16 patients following acute MI. The apparent growth tensor is evaluated at four time-points following myocardial reperfusion: 4-12 h (baseline), 3 days, 10 days and 7 months. We have identified three different growth patterns classified as the Dilation, No-Change and Shrinkage groups defined by the left ventricle end-diastole cavity volume change from baseline. We study the- trends in both the infarct and remote regions. Importantly, although the No-Change group has little change in the ventricular cavity volume, significant remodelling changes are seen within the myocardial wall, both in the infarct and remote regions. Through statistical analysis, we show that the growth tensor invariants can be used as effective biomarkers for adverse and favourable remodelling of the heart from 10 days onwards post-MI with statistically significant changes over time, in contrast to most of the routine clinical indices. We believe this is the first time that the apparent growth tensor has been estimated from in vivo CMR images post-MI. Our study not only provides much-needed information for understanding growth and remodelling in the human heart following acute MI, but also identifies novel biomarker for assessing heart disease progression.

6.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging ; 13(12): e011763, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33287584

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 2017 European Society of Cardiology guidelines for valvular heart disease included changes in the definition of severe aortic stenosis (AS). We wanted to evaluate its influence on management decisions in asymptomatic patients with moderate-severe AS. METHODS: We reclassified the AS severity of the participants of the PRIMID-AS study (Prognostic Importance of Microvascular Dysfunction in Asymptomatic Patients With AS), using the 2017 guidelines, determined their risk of reaching a clinical end point (valve replacement for symptoms, hospitalization, or cardiovascular death) and evaluated the prognostic value of aortic valve calcium score and biomarkers. Patients underwent echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, exercise tolerance testing, and biomarker assessment. RESULTS: Of the 174 participants, 45% (56/124) classified as severe AS were reclassified as moderate AS. This reclassified group was similar to the original moderate group in clinical characteristics, gradients, calcium scores, and remodeling parameters. There were 47 primary end points (41 valve replacement, 1 death, and 5 hospitalizations-1 chest pain, 2 dyspnea, 1 heart failure, and 1 syncope) over 368±156 days follow-up. The severe and reclassified groups had a higher risk compared with moderate group (adjusted hazard ratio 4.95 [2.02-12.13] and 2.78 [1.07-7.22], respectively), with the reclassified group demonstrating an intermediate risk. A mean pressure gradient ≥31 mm Hg had a 7× higher risk of the primary end point in the reclassified group. Aortic valve calcium score was more prognostic in females and low valve area but not after adjusting for gradients. NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-brain-type natriuretic peptide) and myocardial perfusion reserve were associated with the primary end point but not after adjusting for positive exercise tolerance testing. Troponin was associated with cardiovascular death or unplanned hospitalizations. CONCLUSIONS: Reclassification of asymptomatic severe AS into moderate AS was common using the European Society of Cardiology 2017 guidelines. This group had an intermediate risk of reaching the primary end point. Exercise testing, multimodality imaging, and lower mean pressure gradient threshold of 31 mm Hg may improve risk stratification. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01658345.

7.
Circulation ; 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186500

RESUMO

Background: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors reduce the risk of heart failure hospitalization and cardiovascular death in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). However, their effects on cardiac structure and function in HFrEF are uncertain. Methods: We designed a multicenter randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to investigate the cardiac effects of empagliflozin in patients in NYHA functional class II to IV with a left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction ≤40% and type 2 diabetes or prediabetes. Patients were randomized 1:1 to empagliflozin 10 milligrams once daily or placebo, stratified by age (<65 and ≥65 years) and glycemic status (diabetes or prediabetes). The co-primary outcomes were change from baseline to 36 weeks in LV end-systolic volume indexed to body surface area (LVESVi) and LV global longitudinal strain (LV GLS) measured using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). Secondary efficacy outcomes included other CMR measures (LVEDVi, LVEF), diuretic intensification, symptoms (Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire Total Symptom Score (KCCQ-TSS)), 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), B-lines on lung ultrasound and biomarkers (including NT-proBNP). Results: From April 2018 to August 2019, 105 patients were randomized: 77 (73.3%) male, mean age 68.7 [SD 11.1] years, 82 (78.1%) diabetes and 23 (21.9%) prediabetes, mean LVEF 32.5% [9.8%], and 81 (77.1%) NYHA II and 24 (22.9%) NYHA III. Patients received standard treatment for HFrEF. Compared with placebo, empagliflozin reduced LVESVi by 6.0 (-10.8 to -1.2) ml/m2 (p=0.015). There was no difference in LV GLS. Empagliflozin reduced LVEDVi by 8.2 (-13.7 to -2.6) ml/m2 (p=0.0042) and reduced NT-proBNP by 28 (2 to 47) %, p=0.038. There were no between-group differences in other CMR measures, KCCQ-TSS, 6MWD or B-lines. Conclusions: The SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin reduced LV volumes in patients with HFrEF and type 2 diabetes or prediabetes. Favorable reverse LV remodeling may be a mechanism by which SGLT2 inhibitors reduce HF hospitalization and mortality in HFrEF. Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov Unique Identifier: NCT03485092.

8.
Heart ; 106(24): 1890-1897, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020224

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To monitor hospital activity for presentation, diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases during the COVID-19) pandemic to inform on indirect effects. METHODS: Retrospective serial cross-sectional study in nine UK hospitals using hospital activity data from 28 October 2019 (pre-COVID-19) to 10 May 2020 (pre-easing of lockdown) and for the same weeks during 2018-2019. We analysed aggregate data for selected cardiovascular diseases before and during the epidemic. We produced an online visualisation tool to enable near real-time monitoring of trends. RESULTS: Across nine hospitals, total admissions and emergency department (ED) attendances decreased after lockdown (23 March 2020) by 57.9% (57.1%-58.6%) and 52.9% (52.2%-53.5%), respectively, compared with the previous year. Activity for cardiac, cerebrovascular and other vascular conditions started to decline 1-2 weeks before lockdown and fell by 31%-88% after lockdown, with the greatest reductions observed for coronary artery bypass grafts, carotid endarterectomy, aortic aneurysm repair and peripheral arterial disease procedures. Compared with before the first UK COVID-19 (31 January 2020), activity declined across diseases and specialties between the first case and lockdown (total ED attendances relative reduction (RR) 0.94, 0.93-0.95; total hospital admissions RR 0.96, 0.95-0.97) and after lockdown (attendances RR 0.63, 0.62-0.64; admissions RR 0.59, 0.57-0.60). There was limited recovery towards usual levels of some activities from mid-April 2020. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial reductions in total and cardiovascular activities are likely to contribute to a major burden of indirect effects of the pandemic, suggesting they should be monitored and mitigated urgently.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Cardiologia/tendências , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/tendências , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde/tendências , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/tendências , Humanos , Admissão do Paciente/tendências , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Reino Unido
9.
EuroIntervention ; 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106225

RESUMO

AIMS: Cardiogenic shock (CGS) occurs in 6-10% of patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Mortality has fallen over time from 80% to approximately 50% consequent on acute revascularization but plateaued since the 1990s. Once established, patients with CGS develop adverse compensatory mechanisms that contribute to the downwards spiral towards death, which becomes difficult to reverse. METHODS AND RESULTS: The "EURO SHOCK' trial will test the benefit or otherwise of mechanical cardiac support using veno-arterial extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO), initiated early after acute percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for CGS. The trial sets out to randomize 428 patients with CGS complicating ACS, following primary PCI (P-PCI), to either very early ECMO plus standard pharmacotherapy, or to standard pharmacotherapy alone. It will be conducted in 39 European centers. The primary endpoint is 30-day all-cause mortality with key secondary endpoints: 1) 12-month all-cause mortality or admission for heart failure, 2) 12-month all-cause mortality, 3) 12-month admission for heart failure. Cost-effectiveness analysis (including quality of life measures) will be embedded. Mechanistic and hypothesis-generating sub-studies will be undertaken. CONCLUSIONS: The EURO SHOCK trial will determine whether early initiation of VA-ECMO in patients presenting with ACS-CGS persisting after PCI, improves mortality and morbidity.

10.
Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc ; 31: 100630, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32984497

RESUMO

Background: Patients with signs and symptoms of myocardial ischemia and non-obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) frequently have coronary functional abnormalities, including coronary microvascular dysfunction. Those with the latter are grouped under the term "microvascular angina" (MVA). Although diagnostic criteria exist for MVA, as recently proposed by our COVADIS (COronary VAsomotor Disorders International Study) group and the condition has been increasingly recognized in clinical practice, the clinical characteristics and long-term prognosis of MVA patients in the current era remain to be fully elucidated. Aims: In the present study, we aimed to prospectively assess the clinical characteristics and long-term prognosis of MVA subjects in the current era in an international, multicenter, observational, and prospective registry study. Methods: A total of 15 medical centers across 7 countries (USA, UK, Germany, Spain, Italy, Australia, and Japan) enrolled subjects fulfilling the COVADIS diagnostic criteria for MVA as follows; (1) signs and/or symptoms of myocardial ischemia, (2) absence of obstructive CAD, and (3) objective evidence of myocardial ischemia and/or coronary microvascular dysfunction. The primary endpoint was the composite of major cardiovascular events (MACE), including cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, hospitalization due to heart failure or unstable angina. Between July 2015 and December 2018, a total of 706 subjects with MVA (M/F 256/450, 61.1 ± 11.8 [SD] yrs.) were registered. Subjects will be followed for at least 1 year. Summary: The present study will provide important information regarding the clinical characteristics, management, and long-term prognosis of MVA patients in the current era.

11.
Am Heart J ; 229: 70-80, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942043

RESUMO

Microvascular angina is caused by cardiac small vessel disease, and dysregulation of the endothelin system is implicated. The minor G allele of the non-coding single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs9349379 enhances expression of the endothelin 1 gene in human vascular cells, increasing circulating concentrations of ET-1. The prevalence of this allele is higher in patients with ischemic heart disease. Zibotentan is a potent, selective inhibitor of the ETA receptor. We have identified zibotentan as a potential disease-modifying therapy for patients with microvascular angina. METHODS: We will assess the efficacy and safety of adjunctive treatment with oral zibotentan (10 mg daily) in patients with microvascular angina and assess whether rs9349379 (minor G allele; population prevalence ~36%) acts as a theragnostic biomarker of the response to treatment with zibotentan. The PRIZE trial is a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, sequential cross-over trial. The study population will be enriched to ensure a G-allele frequency of 50% for the rs9349379 SNP. The participants will receive a single-blind placebo run-in followed by treatment with either 10 mg of zibotentan daily for 12 weeks then placebo for 12 weeks, or vice versa, in random order. The primary outcome is treadmill exercise duration using the Bruce protocol. The primary analysis will assess the within-subject difference in exercise duration following treatment with zibotentan versus placebo. CONCLUSION: PRIZE invokes precision medicine in microvascular angina. Should our hypotheses be confirmed, this developmental trial will inform the rationale and design for undertaking a larger multicenter trial.


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos/métodos , Angina Microvascular , Pirrolidinas , Receptor de Endotelina A/genética , Adulto , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Antagonistas dos Receptores de Endotelina/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas dos Receptores de Endotelina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Angina Microvascular/diagnóstico , Angina Microvascular/tratamento farmacológico , Angina Microvascular/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Pirrolidinas/administração & dosagem , Pirrolidinas/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
EuroIntervention ; 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32863244

RESUMO

It would be ideal for a non-hyperemic index to predict fractional flow reserve (FFR) more accurately, given FFR's extensive validation in a multitude of clinical settings. The aim of this study was to derive a novel non-hyperemic algorithm based on deep learning and to validate it in an internal validation cohort against FFR. Methods and Results The ARTIST study is a post hoc analysis of 3 previously published studies. In a derivation cohort (random 80% sample of the total cohort) a deep neural network was trained with paired examples of resting coronary pressure curves and their FFR values. The resulting algorithm was validated against unseen resting pressure curves from a random 20% sample of the total cohort. The primary endpoint was diagnostic accuracy of the deep learning-derived algorithms against binary FFR≤0.8. A total of 1666 patients were included. Diagnostic accuracy of our convolutional neural network (CNN) and recurrent neural networks (RNN) against binary FFR≤0.80 were 79.6±1.9%, and 77.6±2.3%, respectively. Conclusions In the first study using a deep learning-based algorithm to predict FFR from resting coronary pressure curves, we did not find a clinically relevant increase in diagnostic accuracy versus non-hyperemic pressure ratios.

14.
Heart ; 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817271

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the cost-effectiveness of management strategies for patients presenting with chest pain and suspected coronary heart disease (CHD): (1) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR); (2) myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS); and (3) UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guideline-guided care. METHODS: Using UK data for 1202 patients from the Clinical Evaluation of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Coronary Heart Disease 2 trial, we conducted an economic evaluation to assess the cost-effectiveness of CMR, MPS and NICE guidelines. Health outcomes were expressed as quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and costs reflected UK pound sterling in 2016-2017. Cost-effectiveness results were presented as incremental cost-effectiveness ratios and incremental net health benefits overall and for low, medium and high pretest likelihood of CHD subgroups. RESULTS: CMR had the highest estimated QALY gain overall (2.21 (95% credible interval 2.15, 2.26) compared with 2.07 (1.92, 2.20) for NICE and 2.11 (2.01, 2.22) for MPS) and incurred comparable costs (overall £1625 (£1431, £1824) compared with £1753 (£1473, £2032) for NICE and £1768 (£1572, £1989) for MPS). Overall, CMR was the cost-effective strategy, being the dominant strategy (more effective, less costly) with incremental net health benefits per patient of 0.146 QALYs (-0.18, 0.406) compared with NICE guidelines at a cost-effectiveness threshold of £15 000 per QALY (93% probability of cost-effectiveness). Results were similar in the pretest likelihood subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: CMR-guided care is cost-effective overall and across all pretest likelihood subgroups, compared with MPS and NICE guidelines.

15.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 13(16): 1847-1864, 2020 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32819476

RESUMO

Ischemic heart disease secondary to coronary vascular dysfunction causes angina and impairs quality of life and prognosis. About one-half of patients with symptoms and signs of ischemia turn out not to have obstructive coronary artery disease, and coronary vascular dysfunction may be relevant. Adjunctive tests of coronary vasomotion include guidewire-based techniques with adenosine and reactivity testing, typically by intracoronary infusion of acetylcholine. The CorMicA (Coronary Microvascular Angina) trial provided evidence that routine management guided by an interventional diagnostic procedure and stratified therapy improves angina and quality of life in patients with angina but no obstructive coronary artery disease. In this paper, the COVADIS study group provide a comprehensive review of why, how, and when coronary vascular dysfunction should be assessed invasively. They discuss the rationale through a shared understanding of vascular pathophysiology and clinical evidence. They propose a consensus approach to how an interventional diagnostic procedure is performed with focus on practical aspects. Finally, the authors discuss the clinical scenarios in patients with stable and acute coronary syndromes in which measurement of coronary vascular function may be helpful for patient care.

16.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(16): e017109, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32779497

RESUMO

Background The net clinical benefit of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) reflects the paradoxical effects of an increased risk of bleeding and a reduced risk of major adverse cardiovascular events. A time-constrained approach to DAPT has been recently investigated in 5 multicenter trials including GLOBAL LEADERS, STOPDAPT2 (Short and Optimal Duration of Dual Antiplatelet Therapy After Everolimus-Eluting Cobalt-Chromium Stent-2), SMART-CHOICE, TWILIGHT (Ticagrelor With Aspirin or Alone in High-Risk Patients After Coronary Intervention), and TICO (Ticagrelor Monotherapy After 3 Months in the Patients Treated With New Generation Sirolimus Stent for Acute Coronary Syndrome). Methods and Results We undertook a pooled analysis of these trials to assess the overall associations between time-constrained P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy (aspirin-free regimen) for bleeding events, major adverse cardiovascular events, and all-cause mortality as compared to standard care with DAPT for at least 12 months post-percutaneous coronary intervention. We implemented a DerSimonian and Laird random effects meta-analysis using the metafor package in R. 32 361 randomized trial participants, including 16 898 (52.2%) who had a history of acute coronary syndrome, underwent percutaneous coronary intervention, and had outcome data available. P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy from 1 to 3 months was associated with a reduced risk for bleeding (hazard ratio [HR] 0.60; 95% CI, 0.45-0.81), including in the acute coronary syndrome group in which the magnitude of risk reduction was greatest (HR 0.50; 95% CI, 0.41-0.61). The estimates of the effect of P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy on the HR were also favorable for major adverse cardiovascular events (0.88; 95% CI, 0.77-1.02) and all-cause mortality (0.85; 95% CI, 0.71-1.03). Conclusions Compared with DAPT for 12 months post-percutaneous coronary intervention, P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy from 1 to 3 months substantially reduces the risk of major and fatal bleeding and, in addition, confers potentially protective effects, for major adverse cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. Considering patient safety, the results support a strategy of DAPT for 1 to 3 months followed by aspirin-free P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy.

17.
Eur Heart J ; 41(42): 4092-4099, 2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860034

RESUMO

AIMS: The COLchicine Cardiovascular Outcomes Trial (COLCOT) demonstrated the benefits of targeting inflammation after myocardial infarction (MI). We aimed to determine whether time-to-treatment initiation (TTI) influences the beneficial impact of colchicine. METHODS AND RESULTS: In COLCOT, patients were randomly assigned to receive colchicine or placebo within 30 days post-MI. Time-to-treatment initiation was defined as the length of time between the index MI and the initiation of study medication. The primary efficacy endpoint was a composite of cardiovascular death, resuscitated cardiac arrest, MI, stroke, or urgent hospitalization for angina requiring coronary revascularization. The relationship between endpoints and various TTI (<3, 4-7 and >8 days) was examined using multivariable Cox regression models. Amongst the 4661 patients included in this analysis, there were 1193, 720, and 2748 patients, respectively, in the three TTI strata. After a median follow-up of 22.7 months, there was a significant reduction in the incidence of the primary endpoint for patients in whom colchicine was initiated < Day 3 compared with placebo [hazard ratios (HR) = 0.52, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.32-0.84], in contrast to patients in whom colchicine was initiated between Days 4 and 7 (HR = 0.96, 95% CI 0.53-1.75) or > Day 8 (HR = 0.82, 95% CI 0.61-1.11). The beneficial effects of early initiation of colchicine were also demonstrated for urgent hospitalization for angina requiring revascularization (HR = 0.35), all coronary revascularization (HR = 0.63), and the composite of cardiovascular death, resuscitated cardiac arrest, MI, or stroke (HR = 0.55, all P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Patients benefit from early, in-hospital initiation of colchicine after MI. TRIAL REGISTRATION: COLCOT ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02551094.

18.
Can J Cardiol ; 36(11): 1805-1814, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary percutaneous coronary intervention is used to restore blood flow in the infarct-related coronary artery, followed by immediate stenting to prevent reocclusion. Stents implanted in thrombus-laden arteries cause distal embolization, which paradoxically impairs myocardial reperfusion and ventricular function. Whether a strategy of delayed stenting improves outcomes in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is uncertain. METHODS: The Primary Reperfusion Secondary Stenting (PRIMACY) is a Bayesian prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded end point trial in which delayed vs immediate stenting in patients with STEMI were compared for prevention of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, heart failure, or unplanned target vessel revascularization at 9 months. All participants were immediately reperfused, but those assigned to the delayed arm underwent stenting after an interval of 24 to 48 hours. This interval was bridged with antithrombin therapy to reduce thrombus burden. In the principal Bayesian hierarchical random effects analysis, data from exchangeable trials will be combined into a study prior and updated with PRIMACY into a posterior probability of efficacy. RESULTS: A total of 305 participants were randomized across 15 centres in France and Canada between April 2014 and September 2017. At baseline, the median age of participants was 59 years, 81% were male, and 3% had a history of percutaneous coronary intervention. Results from PRIMACY will be updated from the patient-level data of 1568 participants enrolled in the Deferred Stent Trial in STEMI (DEFER; United Kingdom), Minimalist Immediate Mechanical Intervention (MIMI; France), Danish Trial in Acute Myocardial Infarction-3 (DANAMI-3; Denmark), and Impact of Immediate Stent Implantation Versus Deferred Stent Implantation on Infarct Size and Microvascular Perfusion in Patients With ST Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (INNOVATION, South Korea) trials. CONCLUSIONS: We expect to clarify whether delayed stenting can safely reduce the occurrence of adverse cardiovascular end points compared with immediate stenting in patients with STEMI.

20.
Eur Heart J Case Rep ; 4(3): 1-6, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32617474

RESUMO

Background: Ischaemic heart disease is a leading cause of mortality in women. Even in those without obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD), women with angina continue to have increased mortality. There are gender differences in prevalence of different pathophysiologies, including functional disorders such as microvascular and vasospastic angina. Case summary: We describe four cases of angina in women with no obstructive CAD, in whom coronary function testing was performed. These four patients were diagnosed with disorders of coronary vasomotion, including vasospastic angina and different endotypes of microvascular angina. Discussion: This case series highlights the different mechanisms of ischaemia in the absence of obstructive CAD. Patients with angina and no obstructive CAD classified by computed tomography coronary angiography may have myocardial ischaemia due to microvascular angina, vasospastic angina, or both. Conventional investigations risk under-diagnosing, and as a consequence under-treating, patients with these conditions. Coronary function testing, in the form of diagnostic guidewire-based tests and adjunctive acetylcholine provocation, has proven to be critical in the accurate diagnoses and appropriate management of these patients.

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