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1.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 32, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33230675

RESUMO

A panel of 200 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been recommended by the International Society for Animal Genetics (ISAG) for use in parentage verification of cattle. While the SNPs included on the ISAG panel are segregating in European Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds, their applicability in South African (SA) Sanga cattle has never been evaluated. This study, therefore, assessed the usefulness of the ISAG panel in SA Bonsmara (BON) and Drakensberger (DRB) cattle. Genotypes of 185 ISAG SNPs from 64 BON and 97 DRB sire-offspring pairs were available, all of which were validated with 119,375 SNPs. Of the 185 ISAG SNPs, 14 and 18 in the BON and DRB, respectively (9 in common to both breeds), were either monomorphic, exhibited at least one discordance between validated sire-offspring pairs, or had poor call rate or clustering issue. The mean minor allele frequency of the 185 ISAG SNPs was 0.331 in the BON and 0.359 in the DRB. The combined probability of parentage exclusion (PE) was the same (99.46%) for both breeds, while the probability of identity varied from 1.61 × 10-48 (BON) to 1.11 × 10-54 (DRB). Fifteen (23.4%) and 32 (33%) of the already validated sire-offspring pairs for the BON and DRB, respectively, were determined by the ISAG panel to be false-negatives based on a threshold of having at least two discordant SNPs. In comparison to sire discovery using the 119,375 SNPs, sire discovery using only the ISAG panel identified correctly 44 (out of 64 identified using the 119,375 SNPs) unique sire-offspring BON pairs and 62 (out of 97 identified using the 119,375 SNPs) unique sire-offspring DRB when all sires were masked. Five BON and three DRB offspring had > 1 sire nominated. This study demonstrated that the use of the ISAG panel may result in incorrect exclusions and multiple candidate sires for a given animal. Selection of more informative SNPs is, therefore, necessary in the pursuit of a low-cost and effective SNP panel for indigenous cattle breeds in SA.

2.
J Anim Sci ; 98(11)2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047124

RESUMO

Meticulous culling decisions, coupled with careful breeding decisions, are fundamental to shifting a population distribution in the favorable direction and improving profit per cow. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of easy-to-use dynamic tools to aid in culling decisions in beef cattle. The motivation for the present study was to develop a monetary-based culling tool, here referred to as the Beef Female's Profit Potential (BFPP), to identify females for culling. The BFPP reflects the expected lifetime profitability of an individual female in a herd for the expected remainder of her lifetime; this profit included that of the beef female herself as well as her progeny. The BFPP index framework was composed of 4 subindexes reflecting the value of an animal: (1) as a nulliparae (this was voided if the cow had already calved), (2) for the remainder of her current parity, (3) summed across each of her expected remaining parities, and (4) when she is retained within the herd and not voluntarily culled. Each subindex was comprised of different components reflecting both genetic and non-genetic effects associated with each female. Transition matrices predicting the expected longevity of each female and their expected month of calving were also utilized in calculating the expected remaining lifetime profitability of each female. The BFPP index was validated on 21,102 beef cows as well as their harvested progeny from 875 herds by stratifying the cows, within herd, into 4 strata based on their BFPP. The mean of the within-herd correlation between the BFPP and the Irish national replacement (i.e., breeding) index was, on average, 0.45 indicating the shortcomings of the breeding index as a culling tool. Cows within the top BFPP stratum had a genetic expectation of accruing almost an additional €36 profit per calving, relative to cows within the worst stratum; when validated on the cow's own calving interval and survival performance as well as their progeny's carcass performance, the actual phenotypic value was estimated to be an additional €32 profit per calving. A proportion of this additional profit was due to the harvested progeny of the high BFPP cows having, on average, heavier, more conformed carcasses with less fat cover relative to their poor BFPP contemporaries. This BFPP framework is a useful and easy-to-use tool to aid in producer decision making on the choice of females to voluntarily cull but also on which replacement heifers to graduate into the mature herd.

3.
J Anim Sci ; 98(11)2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011772

RESUMO

Despite the importance of validating any technology prior to recommendation for use, few studies exist in the scientific literature which have demonstrated the superior performance of high-ranking animals in a given total merit index; this is especially true for maternal cattle selection indexes. The objective of the present study was to demonstrate the impact of the Irish total merit maternal-based index and provide the benefits of using the Irish total merit maternal-based beef index as part of a breeding policy. The validation exercise was undertaken using 269,407 records (which included the cow's own records and her progeny records) from 92,300 females differing in a total merit index for maternal value; a comparison was also made with the Irish terminal index. Association analyses were undertaken within the framework of linear and threshold mixed models; the traits analyzed were fertility (e.g., calving interval), slaughter (e.g., harvest weight), live weight (e.g., weaning weight), and producer-recorded traits (e.g., docility). All traits were analyzed with the maternal index and terminal index fitted as covariate(s) separately. Depending on the independent variable analyzed, the other fixed effects included: parity of cow, heterosis and recombination loss of cow and/or progeny, gender of progeny, and the estimated breeding value of the sire; contemporary group was included as a random effect. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of using total merit indexes to improve performance in a whole range of different traits, despite the often antagonistic genetic correlations among traits that underpin the index. Cows excelling on the maternal index had less calving difficulty, superior fertility performance, lighter carcasses, and live weight, as well as being more easily managed. Additionally, progeny of higher maternal index cows were lighter at birth and more docile albeit with a small impact on slaughter traits. In contrast, higher terminal index cows had more calving difficulty, compromised fertility and had heavier carcasses themselves as well as their progeny. While the differences in phenotypic performance between groups on maternal index was, in most instances, relatively small, the benefits are: (1) expected to be greater when more genetically extreme groups of animals are evaluated and (2) expected to accumulate over time given the cumulative and permanent properties of breeding schemes.

4.
J Anim Sci ; 98(11)2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011776

RESUMO

Beef originates from the progeny of either dairy or beef dams. The objective of the present study was to identify contributing factors to the differences in the carcass merit of progeny from both dam types. This goal was achieved using slaughter records from 16,414 bucket-reared dairy animals (DXD), 5,407 bucket-reared dairy-beef animals (BXD), 42,102 suckle-reared animals from a beef × dairy F1 cross dam (BXF1), and 93,737 suckle-reared animals from a beef × beef cow (BXB). Linear mixed models were used to quantify the least squares means for carcass characteristics in the various progeny genotypes. Nuisance fixed effects adjusted for in the models were: animal heterosis and recombination loss, dam parity, age at slaughter, and contemporary group; age at slaughter was replaced as an independent variable with both carcass weight and carcass fat score where the dependent variable was age at slaughter. In a follow-up analysis, models were re-analyzed where the genetic merit of the sire was adjusted for; a further analysis set the genetic merit of the dam for the dependent variable to be identical for both the dairy and beef dams. The final analysis adjusted to a common sire and dam genetic merit facilitating the estimation of just differences in early-life rearing strategies. Irrespective of the genetic merit of the sire and dam, animals originating from beef herds had heavier and more conformed carcasses. BXB animals had a 67 kg heavier carcass, with a conformation score (scale 1 [poor] to 15 [excellent]) of 5 units greater compared with DXD animals. When the genetic merit of all dams was set to be equal, BXB animals were heavier and better conformed than BXD animals. When the genetic merit for both the sire and dam were set to be equal, carcasses of the BXB animals were 15 kg heavier, with a 0.69 unit superior conformation score compared with the DXD animals; this difference is due to early life experiences. In conclusion, the majority of the inferiority in carcass metrics of calves from dairy herds compared with beef herds is due to differences in the genetic merit of the parents. Nevertheless, even after adjusting the parents to the same genetic merit, progeny from dairy herds were still inferior to their contemporaries born in beef herds, due most likely to the persistence of early life experiences.

5.
Mol Biol Evol ; 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941615

RESUMO

How animals, particularly livestock, adapt to various climates and environments over short evolutionary time is of fundamental biological interest. Further, understanding the genetic mechanisms of adaptation in indigenous livestock populations is important for designing appropriate breeding programs to cope with the impacts of changing climate. Here we conducted a comprehensive genomic analysis of diversity, interspecies introgression and climate-mediated selective signatures in a global sample of sheep and their wild relatives. By examining 600k and 50k genome-wide SNP data from 3447 samples representing 111 domestic sheep populations and 403 samples from all their seven wild relatives (argali, Asiatic mouflon, European mouflon, urial, snow sheep, bighorn and thinhorn sheep), coupled with 88 whole-genome sequences, we detected clear signals of common introgression from wild relatives into sympatric domestic populations, thereby increasing their genomic diversities. The introgressions provided beneficial genetic variants in native populations, which were significantly associated with local climatic adaptation. We observed common introgression signals of alleles in olfactory-related genes (e.g., ADCY3 and TRPV1) and the PADI gene family including in particular PADI2, which is associated with antibacterial innate immunity. Further analyses of whole-genome sequences showed that the introgressed alleles in a specific region of PADI2 (chr2: 248302667-248306614) correlate with resistance to pneumonia. We conclude that wild introgression enhanced climatic adaptation and resistance to pneumonia in sheep. This has enabled them to adapt to varying climatic and environmental conditions after domestication.

6.
Transl Anim Sci ; 4(3): txaa106, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734148

RESUMO

Few studies have attempted to quantify the association between a terminal total merit index with phenotypic feed and production efficiency in beef cattle, particularly when feed efficiency is itself explicitly absent as a goal trait in the index. The objective of the present study was to quantify the differences in phenotypic performance for feed intake, feed efficiency, and carcass traits of crossbred bulls, steers, and heifers differing in a terminal total merit index. A validation population of 614 bulls, steers, and heifers that were evaluated for feed intake and efficiency in the same feedlot and subsequently slaughtered at the end of their test period was constructed. The Irish national genetic evaluations for a terminal index of calving performance, docility, feed intake, and carcass traits were undertaken with the phenotypic records of animals present in the validation population masked. The validation population animals were subsequently stratified into four groups, within sex, according to their terminal index value. Mixed models were used to quantify the association between terminal genetic merit and phenotypic performance; whether the associations differed by sex were also investigated. The regression coefficient of phenotypic feed intake, carcass weight, carcass conformation, or carcass fat on its respective estimated breeding values was 0.86 kg dry matter 0.91 kg, 1.01 units, and 1.29 units, respectively, which are close to the expectation of one. On average, cattle in the very high terminal index stratum had a 0.63 kg DM/d lower feed intake, a 25.05 kg heavier carcass, a 1.82 unit better carcass conformation (scale 1 to 15), and a 1.24 unit less carcass fat score (scale 1 to 15), relative to cattle in the very low terminal index stratum. Cattle of superior total genetic merit were also more feed efficient (i.e., had a lower energy conversion ratio, lower residual feed intake, and greater residual gain), had a greater proportion of their live-weight as carcass weight (i.e., better dressing percentage) and were slaughtered at a younger age relative to their inferior total genetic merit counterparts. This study provides validation of an all-encompassing total merit index and demonstrates the benefits of selection on a total merit index for feed and production efficiency, which should impart confidence among stakeholders in the contribution of genetic selection to simultaneous improvements in individual animal performance and efficiency.

7.
Genet Sel Evol ; 52(1): 51, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Temperament traits are of high importance across species. In humans, temperament or personality traits correlate with psychological traits and psychiatric disorders. In cattle, they impact animal welfare, product quality and human safety, and are therefore of direct commercial importance. We hypothesized that genetic factors that contribute to variation in temperament among individuals within a species will be shared between humans and cattle. Using imputed whole-genome sequence data from 9223 beef cattle from three cohorts, a series of genome-wide association studies was undertaken on cattle flight time, a temperament phenotype measured as the time taken for an animal to cover a short-fixed distance after release from an enclosure. We also investigated the association of cattle temperament with polymorphisms in bovine orthologs of risk genes for neuroticism, schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and developmental delay disorders in humans. RESULTS: Variants with the strongest associations were located in the bovine orthologous region that is involved in several behavioural and cognitive disorders in humans. These variants were also partially validated in independent cattle cohorts. Genes in these regions (BARHL2, NDN, SNRPN, MAGEL2, ABCA12, KIFAP3, TOPAZ1, FZD3, UBE3A, and GABRA5) were enriched for the GO term neuron migration and were differentially expressed in brain and pituitary tissues in humans. Moreover, variants within 100 kb of ASD susceptibility genes were associated with cattle temperament and explained 6.5% of the total additive genetic variance in the largest cattle cohort. The ASD genes with the most significant associations were GABRB3 and CUL3. Using the same 100 kb window, a weak association was found with polymorphisms in schizophrenia risk genes and no association with polymorphisms in neuroticism and developmental delay disorders risk genes. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis showed that genes identified in a meta-analysis of cattle temperament contribute to neuron development functions and are differentially expressed in human brain tissues. Furthermore, some ASD susceptibility genes are associated with cattle temperament. These findings provide evidence that genetic control of temperament might be shared between humans and cattle and highlight the potential for future analyses to leverage results between species.

8.
J Anim Sci ; 98(7)2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658252

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to define an extensive suite of feeding behavior traits in growing crossbred cattle and to investigate their phenotypic inter-relationships as well as relationships with other performance and efficiency traits. Time-series feeding behavior data, as well as feed intake and liveweight records, were available for 624 growing crossbred cattle, of which 445 were steers and 179 were heifers. Feeding behavior repeatability estimates were calculated using linear mixed models. Additionally, partial Spearman correlations were estimated among 14 feeding behavior traits, as well as between feeding behavior with both performance and feed efficiency traits, using residuals retained from linear mixed models. The marginal contribution of several feeding behavior traits to the variability in metabolizable energy intake (MEI) was also determined. Repeatability estimates of 0.57, 0.36, and 0.48 were calculated for the number of feed events per day, the total time spent feeding per day, and the feeding rate, respectively. Cattle that ate more frequently each day, ate at a faster rate and consumed less energy in each visit to the feed bunk. More efficient cattle fed less often per day and fed for a shorter duration per day; they also had a slower feeding rate and fed for longer in each visit to the feed bunk. Moreover, heavier cattle fed for a longer duration per day had a faster feeding rate, but fed less often per day; heavier animals also fed first in the pen after the fresh feed was offered. The number of feed events per day and feeding time per day together explained an additional 13.4 percentage points of the variability in MEI above that already explained by all of growth rate, liveweight, and backfat depth. The results from the present study suggest that several repeatable time-series-related feeding behavior traits, that are less resource intensive to measure, may have a role as useful predictor traits of important but relatively difficult to record traits, such as feed intake and efficiency.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Ingestão de Alimentos , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Fenótipo , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Transl Anim Sci ; 4(1): 242-249, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32704983

RESUMO

The decision on which ewe lamb to retain versus which to sell is likely to vary by producer based on personal preference. What is not known, however, is if any commonality exists among producers in the characteristics of ewe lambs that influence their eventual fate. The objective of the present study was to determine what genetic and nongenetic factors associate with the fate of maiden ewe lambs. The fate of each ewe lamb born in the present study was defined as either subsequently: 1) having lambed in the flock, or 2) was slaughtered without any recorded lambing event. A total of 9,705 ewe lamb records from 41 crossbred flocks were used. The logit of the odds of the ewe lamb being retained for lambing was modeled using logistic regression. Variance components were then estimated for the binary trait representing the fate of the ewe lamb using animal linear and threshold mixed models. The genetic correlations between fate of the ewe lamb and preweaning, weaning, or postweaning liveweight were also estimated. From the edited data set, 45% of ewe lambs born entered the mature flock as ewes. Ewe lambs reared as singles, with greater levels of heterosis but lower levels of recombination loss, born to dams that lambed for the first time as hoggets, with greater breed proportion of the Belclare, Suffolk, Texel, and Llyen breeds were more likely (P < 0.001) to eventually lamb in the flock than be slaughtered without ever lambing. Irrespective of the age of the animal when weighed, heavier ewe lambs were more likely to eventually lamb (P < 0.001). The genetic SD and direct heritability of fate of the ewe lamb estimated in the univariate linear model was 26.58 percentage units and 0.31 (SE = 0.03), respectively; the heritability was 0.30 when estimated using the threshold model. The corresponding direct heritability of fate of the ewe lamb estimated in the bivariate analyses with liveweight ranged from 0.29 (SE = 0.03; preweaning weight) to 0.35 (SE = 0.04; postweaning weight). The genetic correlations estimated between fate of the ewe lamb and the liveweight traits were weak to moderate but strengthened as the age of the ewe lamb at weighing increased. Results from this study provide an understanding of the factors producers consider when selecting females for retention versus slaughter which may form useful parameters in the development of a decision support tool to identify suitable ewe lambs for retention.

10.
J Anim Sci ; 98(7)2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516387

RESUMO

Beef carcasses in Europe are classified on measures of carcass weight, conformation, and fat cover. These measurements provide the basis for payment to producers, with financial penalties for carcasses that do not conform to desirable characteristics. The objective of the present study was to identify animal-level factors associated with the achievement of a desirable carcass weight, conformation score, fat score, and age at harvest, as stipulated by Irish beef processors in accordance with the EUROP carcass classification system. The stipulated specifications were a EUROP conformation score ≥O=, a carcass weight between 270 and 380 kg, a EUROP fat score between 2+ and 4=, and an age at harvest ≤ 30 mo. In the present study, 59% of cattle failed to achieve at least one of these desired specifications. The logit of the probability of achieving the desired specifications was estimated using multivariable logistic regression and carcass data from 4,717,989 cattle finished and harvested in Ireland between the years 2003 and 2017. In comparison to beef-origin carcasses and after accounting for breed differences, the likelihood of dairy-origin carcasses achieving the desired age, conformation, fat, and weight specifications was 0.97, 0.88, 1.14, and 1.05, respectively. In comparison to heifer carcasses, the odds ratio (OR) of bull and steer carcasses simultaneously achieving all of the desired specifications (i.e. the overall specification) was 0.35 and 0.95, respectively. Additionally, after accounting for breed differences, heifers from the dairy herd were half as likely as heifers from the beef herd to achieve the overall specification, whereas the odds of dairy-origin bulls (OR = 3.46) and steers (OR = 2.41) achieving the overall specification was greater than that of their respective beef-origin counterparts. Finally, cattle with a greater breed proportion of Angus were most likely to achieve the overall specification. Results from the present study could provide a deeper understanding as to why animals fail to achieve desirable carcass specifications and could be implemented into the management decisions made on farm to ensure that the supply of beef carcasses that achieve the desired metrics is maximized.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Carne/classificação , Carne/economia , Animais , Bovinos/fisiologia , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Irlanda , Masculino
11.
J Anim Sci ; 98(5)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365208

RESUMO

Reducing the incidence of both the degree of assistance required at calving, as well as the extent of perinatal mortality (PM) has both economic and societal benefits. The existence of heritable genetic variability in both traits signifies the presence of underlying genomic variability. The objective of the present study was to locate regions of the genome, and by extension putative genes and mutations, that are likely to be underpinning the genetic variability in direct calving difficulty (DCD), maternal calving difficulty (MCD), and PM. Imputed whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data on up to 8,304 Angus (AA), 17,175 Charolais (CH), 16,794 Limousin (LM), and 18,474 Holstein-Friesian (HF) sires representing 5,866,712 calving events from descendants were used. Several putative quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions associated with calving performance both within and across dairy and beef breeds were identified, although the majority were both breed- and trait-specific. QTL surrounding and encompassing the myostatin (MSTN) gene were associated (P < 5 × 10-8) with DCD and PM in both the CH and LM populations. The well-known Q204X mutation was the fifth strongest association with DCD in the CH population and accounted for 5.09% of the genetic variance in DCD. In contrast, none of the 259 segregating variants in MSTN were associated (P > × 10-6) with DCD in the LM population but a genomic region 617 kb downstream of MSTN was associated (P < 5 × 10-8). The genetic architecture for DCD differed in the HF population relative to the CH and LM, where two QTL encompassing ZNF613 on Bos taurus autosome (BTA)18 and PLAG1 on BTA14 were identified in the former. Pleiotropic SNP associated with all three calving performance traits were also identified in the three beef breeds; 5 SNP were pleiotropic in AA, 116 in LM, and 882 in CH but no SNP was associated with more than one trait within the HF population. The majority of these pleiotropic SNP were on BTA2 surrounding MSTN and were associated with both DCD and PM. Multiple previously reported, but also novel QTL, associated with calving performance were detected in this large study. These also included QTL regions harboring SNP with the same direction of allele substitution effect for both DCD and MCD thus contributing to a more effective simultaneous selection for both traits.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/veterinária , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/veterinária , Parto/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Animais , Bovinos/classificação , Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Feminino , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/genética , Parto/fisiologia , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Gravidez , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
12.
J Anim Sci ; 98(6)2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459312

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to estimate the genetic parameters associated with the achievement of desirable weight, conformation, and fat specifications, represented by a series of binary traits. The desired specifications were those stipulated by Irish beef processors, in accordance with the EUROP carcass grading system, and were represented by a carcass weight between 270 and 380 kg, a fat score between 2+ and 4= (between 6 and 11 on a 15-point scale), and a conformation score of O= or better (≥5 on a 15-point scale). Using data from 58,868 beef carcasses, variance components were estimated using linear mixed models for these binary traits, as well as their underlying continuous measures. Heritability estimates for the continuous traits ranged from 0.63 to 0.73; heritability estimates for the binary traits ranged from 0.05 to 0.19. An additional trait was defined to reflect if all desired carcass specifications were met. All genetic correlations between this trait and the individual contributing binary traits were positive (0.38 to 0.87), while all genetic correlations between this trait and the continuous carcass measures were negative (-0.87 to -0.07). The genetic parameters estimated in the present study signify that potential exists to breed cattle that more consistently achieve desirable carcass metrics at harvest.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Carne/normas , Animais , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Cruzamento , Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/fisiologia , Feminino , Irlanda , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Fenótipo
13.
Front Genet ; 11: 20, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32117439

RESUMO

Linear type traits describing the skeletal characteristics of an animal are moderately to strongly genetically correlated with a range of other performance traits in cattle including feed intake, reproduction traits and carcass merit; thus, type traits could also provide useful insights into the morphological differences among animals underpinning phenotypic differences in these complex traits. The objective of the present study was to identify genomic regions associated with five subjectively scored skeletal linear traits, to determine if these associated regions are common in multiple beef and dairy breeds, and also to determine if these regions overlap with those proposed elsewhere to be associated with correlated performance traits. Analyses were carried out using linear mixed models on imputed whole genome sequence data separately in 1,444 Angus, 1,129 Hereford, 6,433 Charolais, 8,745 Limousin, 1,698 Simmental, and 4,494 Holstein-Friesian cattle, all scored for the linear type traits. There was, on average, 18 months difference in age at assessment of the beef versus the dairy animals. While the majority of the identified quantitative trait loci (QTL), and thus genes, were both trait-specific and breed-specific, a large-effect pleiotropic QTL on BTA6 containing the NCAPG and LCORL genes was associated with all skeletal traits in the Limousin population and with wither height in the Angus. Other than that, little overlap existed in detected QTLs for the skeletal type traits in the other breeds. Only two QTLs overlapped the beef and dairy breeds; both QTLs were located on BTA5 and were associated with height in both the Angus and the Holstein-Friesian, despite the difference in age at assessment. Several detected QTLs in the present study overlapped with QTLs documented elsewhere that are associated with carcass traits, feed intake, and calving difficulty. While most breeding programs select for the macro-traits like carcass weight, carcass conformation, and feed intake, the higher degree of granularity with selection on the individual linear type traits in a multi-trait index underpinning the macro-level goal traits, presents an opportunity to help resolve genetic antagonisms among morphological traits in the pursuit of the animal with optimum performance metrics.

14.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 205, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The trading of individual animal genotype information often involves only the exchange of the called genotypes and not necessarily the additional information required to effectively call structural variants. The main aim here was to determine if it is possible to impute copy number variants (CNVs) using the flanking single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) haplotype structure in cattle. While this objective was achieved using high-density genotype panels (i.e., 713,162 SNPs), a secondary objective investigated the concordance of CNVs called with this high-density genotype panel compared to CNVs called from a medium-density panel (i.e., 45,677 SNPs in the present study). This is the first study to compare CNVs called from high-density and medium-density SNP genotypes from the same animals. High (and medium-density) genotypes were available on 991 Holstein-Friesian, 1015 Charolais, and 1394 Limousin bulls. The concordance between CNVs called from the medium-density and high-density genotypes were calculated separately for each animal. A subset of CNVs which were called from the high-density genotypes was selected for imputation. Imputation was carried out separately for each breed using a set of high-density SNPs flanking the midpoint of each CNV. A CNV was deemed to be imputed correctly when the called copy number matched the imputed copy number. RESULTS: For 97.0% of CNVs called from the high-density genotypes, the corresponding genomic position on the medium-density of the animal did not contain a called CNV. The average accuracy of imputation for CNV deletions was 0.281, with a standard deviation of 0.286. The average accuracy of imputation of the CNV normal state, i.e. the absence of a CNV, was 0.982 with a standard deviation of 0.022. Two CNV duplications were imputed in the Charolais, a single CNV duplication in the Limousins, and a single CNV duplication in the Holstein-Friesians; in all cases the CNV duplications were incorrectly imputed. CONCLUSION: The vast majority of CNVs called from the high-density genotypes were not detected using the medium-density genotypes. Furthermore, CNVs cannot be accurately predicted from flanking SNP haplotypes, at least based on the imputation algorithms routinely used in cattle, and using the SNPs currently available on the high-density genotype panel.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Algoritmos , Alelos , Animais , Bovinos , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Haplótipos
15.
Genet Sel Evol ; 52(1): 2, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Linear type traits, which reflect the muscular characteristics of an animal, could provide insight into how, in some cases, morphologically very different animals can yield the same carcass weight. Such variability may contribute to differences in the overall value of the carcass since primal cuts vary greatly in price; such variability may also hinder successful genome-based association studies. Therefore, the objective of our study was to identify genomic regions that are associated with five muscularity linear type traits and to determine if these significant regions are common across five different breeds. Analyses were carried out using linear mixed models on imputed whole-genome sequence data in each of the five breeds, separately. Then, the results of the within-breed analyses were used to conduct an across-breed meta-analysis per trait. RESULTS: We identified many quantitative trait loci (QTL) that are located across the whole genome and associated with each trait in each breed. The only commonality among the breeds and traits was a large-effect pleiotropic QTL on BTA2 that contained the MSTN gene, which was associated with all traits in the Charolais and Limousin breeds. Other plausible candidate genes were identified for muscularity traits including PDE1A, PPP1R1C and multiple collagen and HOXD genes. In addition, associated (gene ontology) GO terms and KEGG pathways tended to differ between breeds and between traits especially in the numerically smaller populations of Angus, Hereford, and Simmental breeds. Most of the SNPs that were associated with any of the traits were intergenic or intronic SNPs located within regulatory regions of the genome. CONCLUSIONS: The commonality between the Charolais and Limousin breeds indicates that the genetic architecture of the muscularity traits may be similar in these breeds due to their similar origins. Conversely, there were vast differences in the QTL associated with muscularity in Angus, Hereford, and Simmental. Knowledge of these differences in genetic architecture between breeds is useful to develop accurate genomic prediction equations that can operate effectively across breeds. Overall, the associated QTL differed according to trait, which suggests that breeding for a morphologically different (e.g. longer and wider versus shorter and smaller) more efficient animal may become possible in the future.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Músculo Esquelético/química , Carne Vermelha/análise , Animais , Cruzamento , Bovinos/classificação , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/fisiologia , Feminino , Genômica , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
16.
Front Genet ; 10: 1068, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31749838

RESUMO

While many association studies exist that have attempted to relate genomic markers to phenotypic performance in cattle, very few have considered gestation length as a phenotype, and of those that did, none used whole genome sequence data from multiple breeds. The objective of the present study was therefore to relate imputed whole genome sequence data to estimated breeding values for gestation length using 22,566 sires (representing 2,262,706 progeny) of multiple breeds [Angus (AA), Charolais (CH), Holstein-Friesian (HF), and Limousin (LM)]. The associations were undertaken within breed using linear mixed models that accounted for genomic relatedness among sires; a separate association analysis was undertaken with all breeds analysed together but with breed included as a fixed effect in the model. Furthermore, the genome was divided into 500 kb segments and whether or not segments harboured a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) with a P ≤ 1 × 10-4 common to different combinations of breeds was determined. Putative quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions associated with gestation length were detected in all breeds; significant associations with gestation length were only detected in the HF population and in the across-breed analysis of all 22,566 sires. Twenty-five SNPs were significantly associated (P ≤ 5 × 10-8) with gestation length in the HF population. Of the 25 significant SNPs, 18 were located within three QTLs on Bos taurus autosome number (BTA) 18, six were in two QTL on BTA19, and one was located within a QTL on BTA7. The strongest association was rs381577268, a downstream variant of ZNF613 located within a QTL spanning from 58.06 to 58.19 Mb on BTA18; it accounted for 1.37% of the genetic variance in gestation length. Overall there were 11 HF animals within the edited dataset that were homozygous for the T allele at rs381577268 and these had a 3.3 day longer (P < 0.0001) estimated breeding value (EBV) for gestation length than the heterozygous animals and a 4.7 day longer (P < 0.0001) EBV for gestation length than the homozygous CC animals. The majority of the 500 kb windows harboring a SNP with a P ≤ 1 × 10-4 were unique to a single breed and no window was shared among all four breeds for gestation length, suggesting any QTLs identified are breed-specific associations.

17.
J Anim Sci ; 97(11): 4405-4417, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593986

RESUMO

Some definitions of feed efficiency such as residual energy intake (REI) and residual gain (RG) may not truly reflect production efficiency. The energy sinks used in the derivation of the traits include metabolic live-weight; producers finishing cattle for slaughter are, however, paid on the basis of carcass weight, as opposed to live-weight. The objective of the present study was to explore alternative definitions of REI and RG which are more reflective of production efficiency, and quantify their relationship with performance, ultrasound, and carcass traits across multiple breeds and sexes of cattle. Feed intake and live-weight records were available on 5,172 growing animals, 2,187 of which also had information relating to carcass traits; all animals were fed a concentrate-based diet representative of a feedlot diet. Animal linear mixed models were used to estimate (co)variance components. Heritability estimates for all derived REI traits varied from 0.36 (REICWF; REI using carcass weight and carcass fat as energy sinks) to 0.50 (traditional REI derived with the energy sinks of both live-weight and ADG). The heritability for the RG traits varied from 0.24 to 0.34. Phenotypic correlations among all definitions of the REI traits ranged from 0.90 (REI with REICWF) to 0.99 (traditional REI with REI using metabolic preslaughter live-weight and ADG). All were different (P < 0.001) from one suggesting reranking of animals when using different definitions of REI to identify efficient cattle. The derived RG traits were either weakly or not correlated (P > 0.05) with the ultrasound and carcass traits. Genetic correlations between the REI traits with carcass weight, dressing difference (i.e., live-weight immediately preslaughter minus carcass weight) and dressing percentage (i.e., carcass weight divided by live-weight immediately preslaughter) implies that selection on any of the REI traits will increase carcass weight, lower the dressing difference and increase dressing percentage. Selection on REICW (REI using carcass weight as an energy sink), as opposed to traditional REI, should increase the carcass weight 2.2 times slower but reduce the dressing difference 4.3 times faster. While traditionally defined REI is informative from a research perspective, the ability to convert energy into live-weight gain does not necessarily equate to carcass gain, and as such, traits such as REICW and REICWF provide a better description of production efficiency for feedlot cattle.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Energia , Animais , Benchmarking , Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Ingestão de Alimentos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Fenótipo , Ganho de Peso
18.
J Anim Sci ; 97(12): 4737-4745, 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628487

RESUMO

The importance of improving the efficiency of beef production systems using both genetic and management strategies has long been discussed. Despite the contribution of the mature beef herd to the overall cost of production in the sector as a whole, most strategies for improving (feed) efficiency have focused on the growing animal. The objective of the present study was to quantify the phenotypic and genetic variability in several novel measures that relate the weight of a calf to that of its dam and vice versa. Two novel residual traits, representing the deviation in calf weight relative to its expectation from the population based on its dam's weight (DIFFcalf) or the deviation in the weight of the dam relative to its expectation from the population based on its calf's weight (DIFFdam), were calculated while simultaneously accounting for some nuisance factors in a multiple regression model. Four supplementary traits were also calculated, namely, 1) the deviation in calf weight from its expectation expressed relative to the weight of the dam (DIFFcalf_ratio), 2) the deviation in dam weight from its expectation relative to the weight of the dam (DIFFdam_ratio), 3) DIFFcalf-DIFFdam, and 4) the simple ratio of calf weight to its dam's weight (RATIOcalfdam). Genetic and residual variance components for each of the 6 traits were estimated using animal-dam linear mixed models. The phenotypic SD for DIFFcalf was 42 kg and, when expressed relative to the weight of the dam (i.e., DIFFcalf_ratio), was 0.07. The genetic SD for DIFFcalf and DIFFcalf_ratio was 16.66 kg and 0.02, respectively. The direct and maternal heritability estimated for DIFFcalf was 0.28 (SE = 0.04) and 0.11 (SE = 0.02), respectively, and for DIFFcalf_ratio was 0.24 (SE = 0.04) and 0.17 (SE = 0.03), respectively. The genetic SD for DIFFdam was 47.09 kg; the direct heritability was 0.50 (SE = 0.03), and the dam repeatability was 0.75 (SE = 0.01). The genetic SD for RATIOcalfdam was 0.03; the direct and maternal heritability was 0.24 (SE = 0.04) and 0.24 (SE = 0.03), respectively. The suggested traits outlined in the present study provide useful metrics for benchmarking dam-calf efficiency; in addition, the genetic variability detected in these traits suggest genetic progress for more efficient dam-calf pairs is indeed possible.


Assuntos
Benchmarking , Peso Corporal/genética , Bovinos/genética , Envelhecimento , Animais , Bovinos/fisiologia , Feminino , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos
19.
Gigascience ; 8(6)2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241156

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Copy number variants (CNVs) contribute to genetic diversity and phenotypic variation. We aimed to discover CNVs in taurine cattle using a large collection of whole-genome sequences and to provide an interactive database of the identified CNV regions (CNVRs) that includes visualizations of sequence read alignments, CNV boundaries, and genome annotations. RESULTS: CNVs were identified in each of 4 whole-genome sequencing datasets, which together represent >500 bulls from 17 breeds, using a popular multi-sample read-depth-based algorithm, cn.MOPS. Quality control and CNVR construction, performed dataset-wise to avoid batch effects, resulted in 26,223 CNVRs covering 107.75 unique Mb (4.05%) of the bovine genome. Hierarchical clustering of samples by CNVR genotypes indicated clear separation by breeds. An interactive HTML database was created that allows data filtering options, provides graphical and tabular data summaries including Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium tests on genotype proportions, and displays genes and quantitative trait loci at each CNVR. Notably, the database provides sequence read alignments at each CNVR genotype and the boundaries of constituent CNVs in individual samples. Besides numerous novel discoveries, we corroborated the genotypes reported for a CNVR at the KIT locus known to be associated with the piebald coat colour phenotype in Hereford and some Simmental cattle. CONCLUSIONS: We present a large comprehensive collection of taurine cattle CNVs in a novel interactive visual database that displays CNV boundaries, read depths, and genome features for individual CNVRs, thus providing users with a powerful means to explore and scrutinize CNVRs of interest more thoroughly.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Visualização de Dados , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Genética Populacional , Animais , Bovinos , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
20.
mSystems ; 4(4)2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213524

RESUMO

Optimal feed efficiency (FE) in pigs is important for economic and environmental reasons. Previous research identified FE-associated bacterial taxa within the intestinal microbiota of growing pigs. This study investigated whether FE-associated bacteria and selected FE-associated physiological traits were consistent across geographic locations (Republic of Ireland [ROI] [two batches of pigs, ROI1 and ROI2], Northern Ireland [NI], and Austria [AT]), where differences in genetic, dietary, and management factors were minimized. Pigs (n = 369) were ranked, within litter, on divergence in residual feed intake (RFI), and 100 extremes were selected (50 with high RFI and 50 with low RFI) across geographic locations for intestinal microbiota analysis using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and examination of FE-associated physiological parameters. Microbial diversity varied by geographic location and intestinal sampling site but not by RFI rank, except in ROI2, where more-feed-efficient pigs had greater ileal and cecal diversity. Although none of the 188 RFI-associated taxonomic differences found were common to all locations/batches, Lentisphaerae, Ruminococcaceae, RF16, Mucispirillum, Methanobrevibacter, and two uncultured genera were more abundant within the fecal or cecal microbiota of low-RFI pigs in two geographic locations and/or in both ROI batches. These are major contributors to carbohydrate metabolism, which was reflected in functional predictions. Fecal volatile fatty acids and salivary cortisol were the only physiological parameters that differed between RFI ranks. Despite controlling genetics, diet specification, dietary phases, and management practices in each rearing environment, the rearing environment, encompassing maternal influence, herd health status, as well as other factors, appears to impact intestinal microbiota more than FE.IMPORTANCE Interest in the role of intestinal microbiota in determining FE in pigs has increased in recent years. However, it is not known if the same FE-associated bacteria are found across different rearing environments. In this study, geographic location and intestinal sampling site had a greater influence on the pig gut microbiome than FE. This presents challenges when aiming to identify consistent reliable microbial biomarkers for FE. Nonetheless, seven FE-associated microbial taxa were common across two geographic locations and/or two batches within one location, and these indicated a potentially "healthier" and metabolically more capable microbiota in more-feed-efficient pigs. These taxa could potentially be employed as biomarkers for FE, although bacterial consortia, rather than individual taxa, may be more likely to predict FE. They may also merit consideration for use as probiotics or could be targeted by dietary means as a strategy for improving FE in pigs in the future.

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