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1.
J Physiol ; 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789427

RESUMO

Cardiac excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling is influenced by (at least) three dynamic systems that couple and feedback to one another (Abstract Figure). Here we review the mechanical effects on cardiomyocytes that include mechano-electro-transduction (commonly referred to as mechano-electric coupling, MEC) and mechano-chemo-transduction (MCT) mechanisms at cell and molecular levels which couple to Ca2+ -electro and E-C coupling reviewed elsewhere. These feedback loops from muscle contraction and mechano-transduction to the Ca2+ homeodynamics and to the electrical excitation are essential for understanding the E-C coupling dynamic system and arrhythmogenesis in mechanically loaded hearts. This white paper is comprised of two parts each reflects the key aspects from the 2018 UC Davis symposium: MEC (how mechanical load influences electrical dynamics) and MCT (how mechanical load alters cell signalling and Ca2+ dynamics). Of course, such separation is artificial since Ca2+ dynamics profoundly affects ion channels and electrogenic transporters and vice-versa. In time these dynamic systems and their interactions must become fully integrated, and that should be a goal for a comprehensive understanding of how mechanical load influences cell signalling, Ca2+ homeodynamics and electrical dynamics. In this white paper we will emphasize current understanding, consensus, controversies, and the pressing issues for future investigations. Space constraints make it impossible to cover all relevant articles in the field, so we will focus on the topics discussed in the symposium. Cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and feedback pathways by mechano-electro- and mechano-chemo-transduction. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
Kidney Int ; 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739987

RESUMO

In the setting of type-2 diabetes, there are declines of structural stability and functionality of blood capillaries and red blood cells (RBCs), increasing the risk for microcirculatory disturbances. Correcting hyperglycemia is not entirely effective at reestablishing normal cellular metabolism and function. Therefore, identification of pathological changes occurring before the development of overt hyperglycemia may lead to novel therapeutic targets for reducing the risk of microvascular dysfunction. Here we determine whether RBC-capillary interactions are altered by prediabetic hypersecretion of amylin, an amyloid forming hormone co-synthesized with insulin, and is reversed by endothelial cell-secreted epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. In patients, we found amylin deposition in RBCs in association with type-2 diabetes, heart failure, cancer and stroke. Amylin-coated RBCs have altered shape and reduced functional (non-glycated) hemoglobin. Amylin-coated RBCs administered intravenously in control rats upregulated erythropoietin and renal arginase expression and activity. We also found that diabetic rats expressing amyloid-forming human amylin in the pancreas (the HIP rat model) have increased tissue levels of hypoxia-inducible transcription factors, compared to diabetic rats that express non-amyloid forming rat amylin (the UCD rat model). Upregulation of erythropoietin correlated with lower hematocrit in the HIP model indicating pathologic erythropoiesis. In the HIP model, pharmacological upregulation of endogenous epoxyeicosatrienoic acids protected the renal microvasculature against amylin deposition and also reduced renal accumulation of HIFs. Thus, prediabetes induces dysregulation of amylin homeostasis and promotes amylin deposition in RBCs and the microvasculature altering RBC-capillary interaction leading to activation of hypoxia signaling pathways and pathologic erythropoiesis. Hence, dysregulation of amylin homeostasis could be a therapeutic target for ameliorating diabetic vascular complications.

3.
J Cell Biol ; 218(12): 4141-4156, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601621

RESUMO

Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) protein is essential for the transport of externally derived cholesterol from lysosomes to other organelles. Deficiency of NPC1 underlies the progressive NPC1 neurodegenerative disorder. Currently, there are no curative therapies for this fatal disease. Given the Ca2+ hypothesis of neurodegeneration, which posits that altered Ca2+ dynamics contribute to neuropathology, we tested if disease mutations in NPC1 alter Ca2+ signaling and neuronal plasticity. We determine that NPC1 inhibition or disease mutations potentiate store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) due to a presenilin 1 (PSEN1)-dependent reduction in ER Ca2+ levels alongside elevated expression of the molecular SOCE components ORAI1 and STIM1. Associated with this dysfunctional Ca2+ signaling is destabilization of neuronal dendritic spines. Knockdown of PSEN1 or inhibition of the SREBP pathway restores Ca2+ homeostasis, corrects differential protein expression, reduces cholesterol accumulation, and rescues spine density. These findings highlight lysosomes as a crucial signaling platform responsible for tuning ER Ca2+ signaling, SOCE, and synaptic architecture in health and disease.

4.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 136: 72-84, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491377

RESUMO

Mitochondria are involved in multiple cellular functions, in addition to their core role in energy metabolism. Mitochondria localized in different cellular locations may have different morphology, Ca2+ handling and biochemical properties and may interact differently with other intracellular structures, causing functional specificity. However, most prior studies have utilized isolated mitochondria, removed from their intracellular environment. Mitochondria in cardiac ventricular myocytes are highly organized, with a majority squeezed between the myofilaments in longitudinal chains (intrafibrillar mitochondria, IFM). There is another population of perinuclear mitochondria (PNM) around and between the two nuclei typical in myocytes. Here, we take advantage of live myocyte imaging to test for quantitative morphological and functional differences between IFM and PNM with respect to calcium fluxes, membrane potential, sensitivity to oxidative stress, shape and dynamics. Our findings show higher mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and oxidative stress sensitivity for IFM vs. PNM, which may relate to higher local energy demand supporting the contractile machinery. In contrast to IFM which are remarkably static, PNM are relatively mobile, appear to participate readily in fission/fusion dynamics and appear to play a central role in mitochondrial genesis and turnover. We conclude that while IFM may be physiologically tuned to support local myofilament energy demands, PNM may be more critical in mitochondrial turnover and regulation of nuclear function and import/export. Thus, important functional differences are present in intrafibrillar vs. perinuclear mitochondrial subpopulations.

5.
Eur Heart J ; 40(45): 3685-3695, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219556

RESUMO

AIMS: Diastolic dysfunction (DD) is common among hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) patients, causing major morbidity and mortality. However, its cellular mechanisms are not fully understood, and presently there is no effective treatment. Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) hold great potential for investigating the mechanisms underlying DD in HCM and as a platform for drug discovery. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the present study, beating iPSC-CMs were generated from healthy controls and HCM patients with DD. Micropatterned iPSC-CMs from HCM patients showed impaired diastolic function, as evidenced by prolonged relaxation time, decreased relaxation rate, and shortened diastolic sarcomere length. Ratiometric Ca2+ imaging indicated elevated diastolic [Ca2+]i and abnormal Ca2+ handling in HCM iPSC-CMs, which were exacerbated by ß-adrenergic challenge. Combining Ca2+ imaging and traction force microscopy, we observed enhanced myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity (measured as dF/Δ[Ca2+]i) in HCM iPSC-CMs. These results were confirmed with genome-edited isogenic iPSC lines that carry HCM mutations, indicating that cytosolic diastolic Ca2+ overload, slowed [Ca2+]i recycling, and increased myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity, collectively impairing the relaxation of HCM iPSC-CMs. Treatment with partial blockade of Ca2+ or late Na+ current reset diastolic Ca2+ homeostasis, restored diastolic function, and improved long-term survival, suggesting that disturbed Ca2+ signalling is an important cellular pathological mechanism of DD. Further investigation showed increased expression of L-type Ca2+channel (LTCC) and transient receptor potential cation channels (TRPC) in HCM iPSC-CMs compared with control iPSC-CMs, which likely contributed to diastolic [Ca2+]i overload. CONCLUSION: In summary, this study recapitulated DD in HCM at the single-cell level, and revealed novel cellular mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets of DD using iPSC-CMs.

6.
Physiology (Bethesda) ; 34(4): 240-249, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165682

RESUMO

Novel targeted fluorescent biosensors provide key insights into very local nanodomains of cAMP and PKA activity, and how they respond differently to ß-adrenergic activation in cardiac myocytes. This unique spatiotemporal detail in living cells is not available with biochemical measurements of total cellular cAMP and PKA, and provides unique physiological insights.

7.
J Physiol ; 597(15): 3867-3883, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215643

RESUMO

KEY POINTS: Cardiac electrophysiology and Ca2+ handling change rapidly during the fight-or-flight response to meet physiological demands. Despite dramatic differences in cardiac electrophysiology, the cardiac fight-or-flight response is highly conserved across species. In this study, we performed physiological sympathetic nerve stimulation (SNS) while optically mapping cardiac action potentials and intracellular Ca2+ transients in innervated mouse and rabbit hearts. Despite similar heart rate and Ca2+ handling responses between mouse and rabbit hearts, we found notable species differences in spatio-temporal repolarization dynamics during SNS. Species-specific computational models revealed that these electrophysiological differences allowed for enhanced Ca2+ handling (i.e. enhanced inotropy) in each species, suggesting that electrophysiological responses are fine-tuned across species to produce optimal cardiac fight-or-flight responses. ABSTRACT: Sympathetic activation of the heart results in positive chronotropy and inotropy, which together rapidly increase cardiac output. The precise mechanisms that produce the electrophysiological and Ca2+ handling changes underlying chronotropic and inotropic responses have been studied in detail in isolated cardiac myocytes. However, few studies have examined the dynamic effects of physiological sympathetic nerve activation on cardiac action potentials (APs) and intracellular Ca2+ transients (CaTs) in the intact heart. Here, we performed bilateral sympathetic nerve stimulation (SNS) in fully innervated, Langendorff-perfused rabbit and mouse hearts. Dual optical mapping with voltage- and Ca2+ -sensitive dyes allowed for analysis of spatio-temporal AP and CaT dynamics. The rabbit heart responded to SNS with a monotonic increase in heart rate (HR), monotonic decreases in AP and CaT duration (APD, CaTD), and a monotonic increase in CaT amplitude. The mouse heart had similar HR and CaT responses; however, a pronounced biphasic APD response occurred, with initial prolongation (50.9 ± 5.1 ms at t = 0 s vs. 60.6 ± 4.1 ms at t = 15 s, P < 0.05) followed by shortening (46.5 ± 9.1 ms at t = 60 s, P = NS vs. t = 0). We determined the biphasic APD response in mouse was partly due to dynamic changes in HR during SNS and was exacerbated by ß-adrenergic activation. Simulations with species-specific cardiac models revealed that transient APD prolongation in mouse allowed for greater and more rapid CaT responses, suggesting more rapid increases in contractility; conversely, the rabbit heart requires APD shortening to produce optimal inotropic responses. Thus, while the cardiac fight-or-flight response is highly conserved between species, the underlying mechanisms orchestrating these effects differ significantly.

8.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 12(3): e007061, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is characterized by electrophysiological remodeling resulting in increased risk of cardiac arrhythmias. Previous reports suggest that elevated inward ionic currents in HF promote action potential (AP) prolongation, increased short-term variability of AP repolarization, and delayed afterdepolarizations. However, the underlying changes in late Na+ current (INaL), L-type Ca2+ current, and NCX (Na+/Ca2+ exchanger) current are often measured in nonphysiological conditions (square-pulse voltage clamp, slow pacing rates, exogenous Ca2+ buffers). METHODS: We measured the major inward currents and their Ca2+- and ß-adrenergic dependence under physiological AP clamp in rabbit ventricular myocytes in chronic pressure/volume overload-induced HF (versus age-matched control). RESULTS: AP duration and short-term variability of AP repolarization were increased in HF, and importantly, inhibition of INaL decreased both parameters to the control level. INaL was slightly increased in HF versus control even when intracellular Ca2+ was strongly buffered. But under physiological AP clamp with normal Ca2+ cycling, INaL was markedly upregulated in HF versus control (dependent largely on CaMKII [Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II] activity). ß-Adrenergic stimulation (often elevated in HF) further enhanced INaL. L-type Ca2+ current was decreased in HF when Ca2+ was buffered, but CaMKII-mediated Ca2+-dependent facilitation upregulated physiological L-type Ca2+ current to the control level. Furthermore, L-type Ca2+ current response to ß-adrenergic stimulation was significantly attenuated in HF. Inward NCX current was upregulated at phase 3 of AP in HF when assessed by combining experimental data and computational modeling. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that CaMKII-dependent upregulation of INaL in HF significantly contributes to AP prolongation and increased short-term variability of AP repolarization, which may lead to increased arrhythmia propensity, and is further exacerbated by adrenergic stress.

9.
Biophys J ; 116(3): 530-539, 2019 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30686487

RESUMO

Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) mediate calcium (Ca)-induced Ca release and intracellular Ca homeostasis. In a cardiac myocyte, RyRs group into clusters of variable size from a few to several hundred RyRs, creating a spatially nonuniform intracellular distribution. It is unclear how heterogeneity of RyR cluster size alters spontaneous sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca releases (Ca sparks) and arrhythmogenic Ca waves. Here, we tested the impact of heterogeneous RyR cluster size on the initiation of Ca waves. Experimentally, we measured RyR cluster sizes at Ca spark sites in rat ventricular myocytes and further tested functional impacts using a physiologically detailed computational model with spatial and stochastic intracellular Ca dynamics. We found that the spark frequency and amplitude increase nonlinearly with the size of RyR clusters. Larger RyR clusters have lower SR Ca release threshold for local Ca spark initiation and exhibit steeper SR Ca release versus SR Ca load relationship. However, larger RyR clusters tend to lower SR Ca load because of the higher Ca leak rate. Conversely, smaller clusters have a higher threshold and a lower leak, which tends to increase SR Ca load. At the myocyte level, homogeneously large or small RyR clusters limit Ca waves (because of low load for large clusters but low excitability for small clusters). Mixtures of large and small RyR clusters potentiates Ca waves because the enhanced SR Ca load driven by smaller clusters enables Ca wave initiation and propagation from larger RyR clusters. Our study suggests that a spatially heterogeneous distribution of RyR cluster size under pathological conditions may potentiate Ca waves and thus afterdepolarizations and triggered arrhythmias.

10.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 127: 246-259, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30633874

RESUMO

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is upregulated in diabetes and significantly contributes to cardiac remodeling with increased risk of cardiac arrhythmias. Diabetes is frequently associated with atrial fibrillation, coronary artery disease, and heart failure, which may further enhance CaMKII. Activation of CaMKII occurs downstream of neurohormonal stimulation (e.g. via G-protein coupled receptors) and involve various posttranslational modifications including autophosphorylation, oxidation, S-nitrosylation and O-GlcNAcylation. CaMKII signaling regulates diverse cellular processes in a spatiotemporal manner including excitation-contraction and excitation-transcription coupling, mechanics and energetics in cardiac myocytes. Chronic activation of CaMKII results in cellular remodeling and ultimately arrhythmogenic alterations in Ca2+ handling, ion channels, cell-to-cell coupling and metabolism. This review addresses the detrimental effects of the upregulated CaMKII signaling to enhance the arrhythmogenic substrate and trigger mechanisms in the heart. We also briefly summarize preclinical studies using kinase inhibitors and genetically modified mice targeting CaMKII in diabetes. The mechanistic understanding of CaMKII signaling, cardiac remodeling and arrhythmia mechanisms may reveal new therapeutic targets and ultimately better treatment in diabetes and heart disease in general.

11.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 662: 177-189, 2019 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30571965

RESUMO

We have previously demonstrated that inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) is a potent activator of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) in cardiac myocytes. PolyP depletion protected against Ca2+-induced mPTP opening, however it did not prevent and even exacerbated cell death during ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). The central goal of this study was to investigate potential molecular mechanisms underlying these dichotomous effects of polyP on mitochondrial function. We utilized a Langendorff-perfused heart model of I/R to monitor changes in polyP size and chain length at baseline, 20 min no-flow ischemia, and 15 min reperfusion. Freshly isolated cardiac myocytes and mitochondria from C57BL/6J (WT) and cyclophilin D knock-out (CypD KO) mice were used to measure polyP uptake, mPTP activity, mitochondrial membrane potential, respiration and ATP generation. We found that I/R induced a significant decrease in polyP chain length. We, therefore, tested, the ability of synthetic polyPs with different chain length to accumulate in mitochondria and induce mPTP. Both short and long chain polyPs accumulated in mitochondria in oligomycin-sensitive manner implicating potential involvement of mitochondrial ATP synthase in polyP transport. Notably, only short-chain polyP activated mPTP in WT myocytes, and this effect was prevented by mPTP inhibitor cyclosprorin A and absent in CypD KO myocytes. To the contrary, long-chain polyP suppressed mPTP activation, and enhanced ADP-linked respiration and ATP production. Our data indicate that 1) effect of polyP on cardiac function strongly depends on polymer chain length; and 2) short-chain polyPs (as increased in ischemia-reperfusion) induce mPTP and mitochondrial uncoupling, while long-chain polyPs contribute to energy generation and cell metabolism.

12.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 16213, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30385779

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) is characterized by abnormal mitochondrial calcium (Ca2+) handling, energy failure and impaired mitophagy resulting in contractile dysfunction and myocyte death. We have previously shown that the 18-kDa mitochondrial translocator protein of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TSPO) can modulate mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake. Experiments were designed to test the role of the TSPO in a murine pressure-overload model of HF induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Conditional, cardiac-specific TSPO knockout (KO) mice were generated using the Cre-loxP system. TSPO-KO and wild-type (WT) mice underwent TAC for 8 weeks. TAC-induced HF significantly increased TSPO expression in WT mice, associated with a marked reduction in systolic function, mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake, complex I activity and energetics. In contrast, TSPO-KO mice undergoing TAC had preserved ejection fraction, and exhibited fewer clinical signs of HF and fibrosis. Mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and energetics were restored in TSPO KO mice, associated with decreased ROS, improved complex I activity and preserved mitophagy. Thus, HF increases TSPO expression, while preventing this increase limits the progression of HF, preserves ATP production and decreases oxidative stress, thereby preventing metabolic failure. These findings suggest that pharmacological interventions directed at TSPO may provide novel therapeutics to prevent or treat HF.

13.
JCI Insight ; 3(22)2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30429366

RESUMO

The mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU) complex mediates acute mitochondrial Ca2+ influx. In skeletal muscle, MCU links Ca2+ signaling to energy production by directly enhancing the activity of key metabolic enzymes in the mitochondria. Here, we examined the role of MCU in skeletal muscle development and metabolic function by generating mouse models for the targeted deletion of Mcu in embryonic, postnatal, and adult skeletal muscle. Loss of Mcu did not affect muscle growth and maturation or otherwise cause pathology. Skeletal muscle-specific deletion of Mcu in mice also did not affect myofiber intracellular Ca2+ handling, but it did inhibit acute mitochondrial Ca2+ influx and mitochondrial respiration stimulated by Ca2+, resulting in reduced acute exercise performance in mice. However, loss of Mcu also resulted in enhanced muscle performance under conditions of fatigue, with a preferential shift toward fatty acid metabolism, resulting in reduced body fat with aging. Together, these results demonstrate that MCU-mediated mitochondrial Ca2+ regulation underlies skeletal muscle fuel selection at baseline and under enhanced physiological demands, which affects total homeostatic metabolism.

14.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 125: 87-97, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30359562

RESUMO

In cardiac myocytes Calmodulin (CaM) bound to the ryanodine receptor (RyR2) constitutes a large pool of total myocyte CaM, but the CaM-RyR2 affinity is reduced in pathological conditions. Knock-in mice expressing RyR2 unable to bind CaM also developed hypertrophy and early death. However, it is unknown whether CaM released from this RyR2-bound pool participates in pathological cardiac hypertrophy. We found that angiotensin II (AngII) or phenylephrine (PE) both cause CaM to dissociate from the RyR2 and translocate to the nucleus. To test whether this nuclear CaM accumulation depends on CaM released from RyR2, we enhanced CaM-RyR2 binding affinity (with dantrolene), or caused CaM dissociation from RyR2 (using suramin). Dantrolene dramatically reduced AngII- and PE-induced nuclear CaM accumulation. Conversely, suramin enhanced nuclear CaM accumulation. This is consistent with nuclear CaM accumulation coming largely from the CaM-RyR2 pool. CaM lacks a nuclear localization signal (NLS), but G-protein coupled receptor kinase 5 (GRK5) binds CaM, has a NLS and translocates like CaM in response to AngII or PE. Suramin also promoted GRK5 nuclear import, and caused nuclear export of histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5). Dantrolene prevented these effects. After 2-8 weeks of pressure overload (TAC) CaM binding to RyR2 was reduced, nuclear CaM and GRK5 were both elevated and there was enhanced nuclear export of HDAC5. Stress (acute AngII or TAC) causes CaM dissociation from RyR2 and translocation to the nucleus with GRK5 with parallel HDAC5 nuclear export. Thus CaM dissociation from RyR2 may be an important step in driving pathological hypertrophic gene transcription.

15.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 130: 174-188, 2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30315935

RESUMO

We previously demonstrated that the loss of female hormones induces cardiac and mitochondrial dysfunction in the female heart. Here, we show the impact of endurance training for twelve weeks, a nonpharmacological therapy against cardiovascular disease caused by ovariectomy and its contribution to cardiac contractility, mitochondrial quality control, bioenergetics and oxidative damage. We found that ovariectomy induced cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction by decreasing SERCA2 and increasing phospholamban protein expression. Endurance training restored myocardial contractility, SERCA2 levels, increased calcium transient in ovariectomized rats but did not change phospholamban protein expression or cardiac hypertrophy. Additionally, ovariectomy decreased the amount of intermyofibrillar mitochondria and induced mitochondrial fragmentation that were accompanied by decreased levels of mitofusin 1, PGC-1α, NRF-1, total AMPK-α and mitochondrial Tfam. Endurance training prevented all these features except for mitofusin 1. Ovariectomy reduced O2 consumption, elevated O2.- release and increased Ca2+-induced mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening in both mitochondrial subpopulations. Ovariectomy also increased NOX-4 protein expression in the heart, reduced mitochondrial Mn-SOD, catalase protein expression and increased protein carbonylation in both mitochondrial subpopulations, which were prevented by endurance training. Taken together, our findings show that endurance training prevented cardiac contractile dysfunction and mitochondrial quality control in ovariectomized rats.

16.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 125: 18-28, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30321537

RESUMO

Calcium-calmodulin dependent protein kinase IIδ (CaMKIIδ) is an important regulator of cardiac electrophysiology, calcium (Ca) balance, contraction, transcription, arrhythmias and progression to heart failure. CaMKII is readily activated at mouths of dyadic cleft Ca channels, but because of its low Ca-calmodulin affinity and presumed immobility it is less clear how CaMKII gets activated near other known, extra-dyad targets. CaMKII is typically considered to be anchored in cardiomyocytes, but while untested, mobility of active CaMKII could provide a mechanism for broader target phosphorylation in cardiomyocytes. We therefore tested CaMKII mobility and how this is affected by kinase activation in adult rabbit cardiomyocytes. We measured translocation of both endogenous and fluorescence-tagged CaMKII using immunocytochemistry, fluorescence recovery after photobleach (FRAP) and photoactivation of fluorescence. In contrast to the prevailing view that CaMKII is anchored near its myocyte targets, we found CaMKII to be highly mobile in resting myocytes, which was slowed by Ca chelation and accelerated by pacing. At low [Ca], CaMKII was concentrated at Z-lines near the dyad but spread throughout the sarcomere upon pacing. Nuclear exchange of CaMKII was also enhanced upon pacing- and heart failure-induced chronic activation. This mobilization of active CaMKII and its intrinsic memory may allow CaMKII to be activated in high [Ca] regions and then move towards more distant myocyte target sites.

17.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 123: 168-179, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30240676

RESUMO

Late Na+ current (INaL) significantly contributes to shaping cardiac action potentials (APs) and increased INaL is associated with cardiac arrhythmias. ß-adrenergic receptor (ßAR) stimulation and its downstream signaling via protein kinase A (PKA) and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) pathways are known to regulate INaL. However, it remains unclear how each of these pathways regulates INaL during the AP under physiological conditions. Here we performed AP-clamp experiments in rabbit ventricular myocytes to delineate the impact of each signaling pathway on INaL at different AP phases to understand the arrhythmogenic potential. During the physiological AP (2 Hz, 37 °C) we found that INaL had a basal level current independent of PKA, but partially dependent on CaMKII. ßAR activation (10 nM isoproterenol, ISO) further enhanced INaL via both PKA and CaMKII pathways. However, PKA predominantly increased INaL early during the AP plateau, whereas CaMKII mainly increased INaL later in the plateau and during rapid repolarization. We also tested the role of key signaling pathways through exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Direct Epac stimulation enhanced INaL similar to the ßAR-induced CaMKII effect, while NOS inhibition prevented the ßAR-induced CaMKII-dependent INaL enhancement. ROS generated by NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) also contributed to the ISO-induced INaL activation early in the AP. Taken together, our data reveal differential modulations of INaL by PKA and CaMKII signaling pathways at different AP phases. This nuanced and comprehensive view on the changes in INaL during AP deepens our understanding of the important role of INaL in reshaping the cardiac AP and arrhythmogenic potential under elevated sympathetic stimulation, which is relevant for designing therapeutic treatment of arrhythmias under pathological conditions.

18.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(13)2018 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29929992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ryanodine receptors (RyR) mediate sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium (Ca2+) release and influence myocyte Ca2+ homeostasis and arrhythmias. In cardiac myocytes, RyRs are found in clusters of various sizes and shapes, and RyR cluster size may critically influence normal and arrhythmogenic Ca2+ spark and wave formation. However, the actual RyR cluster sizes at specific Ca2+ spark sites have never been measured in the physiological setting. METHODS AND RESULTS: Here we measured RyR cluster size and Ca2+ sparks simultaneously to assess how RyR cluster size influences Ca2+ sparks and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ leak. For small RyR cluster sizes (<50), Ca2+ spark frequency is very low but then increases dramatically at larger cluster sizes. In contrast, Ca2+ spark amplitude is nearly maximal even at relatively small RyR cluster size (≈10) and changes little at larger cluster size. These properties agreed with computational simulations of RyR gating within clusters. CONCLUSIONS: Our study explains how this combination of properties may limit arrhythmogenic Ca2+ sparks and wave propagation (at many junctions) while preserving the efficacy and spatial synchronization of Ca2+-induced Ca2+-release during normal excitation-contraction coupling. However, variations in RyR cluster size among individual junctions and RyR sensitivity could exacerbate heterogeneity of local sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release and arrhythmogenesis under pathological conditions.

19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(13): E3036-E3044, 2018 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29531045

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) following myocardial infarction (MI) is associated with high incidence of cardiac arrhythmias. Development of therapeutic strategy requires detailed understanding of electrophysiological remodeling. However, changes of ionic currents in ischemic HF remain incompletely understood, especially in translational large-animal models. Here, we systematically measure the major ionic currents in ventricular myocytes from the infarct border and remote zones in a porcine model of post-MI HF. We recorded eight ionic currents during the cell's action potential (AP) under physiologically relevant conditions using selfAP-clamp sequential dissection. Compared with healthy controls, HF-remote zone myocytes exhibited increased late Na+ current, Ca2+-activated K+ current, Ca2+-activated Cl- current, decreased rapid delayed rectifier K+ current, and altered Na+/Ca2+ exchange current profile. In HF-border zone myocytes, the above changes also occurred but with additional decrease of L-type Ca2+ current, decrease of inward rectifier K+ current, and Ca2+ release-dependent delayed after-depolarizations. Our data reveal that the changes in any individual current are relatively small, but the integrated impacts shift the balance between the inward and outward currents to shorten AP in the border zone but prolong AP in the remote zone. This differential remodeling in post-MI HF increases the inhomogeneity of AP repolarization, which may enhance the arrhythmogenic substrate. Our comprehensive findings provide a mechanistic framework for understanding why single-channel blockers may fail to suppress arrhythmias, and highlight the need to consider the rich tableau and integration of many ionic currents in designing therapeutic strategies for treating arrhythmias in HF.


Assuntos
Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Cálcio/metabolismo , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/fisiologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , Suínos
20.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 11(2): e005852, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29437761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electrophysiological remodeling and increased susceptibility for cardiac arrhythmias are hallmarks of heart failure (HF). Ventricular action potential duration (APD) is typically prolonged in HF, with reduced repolarization reserve. However, underlying K+ current changes are often measured in nonphysiological conditions (voltage clamp, low pacing rates, cytosolic Ca2+ buffers). METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured the major K+ currents (IKr, IKs, and IK1) and their Ca2+- and ß-adrenergic dependence in rabbit ventricular myocytes in chronic pressure/volume overload-induced HF (versus age-matched controls). APD was significantly prolonged only at lower pacing rates (0.2-1 Hz) in HF under physiological ionic conditions and temperature. However, when cytosolic Ca2+ was buffered, APD prolongation in HF was also significant at higher pacing rates. Beat-to-beat variability of APD was also significantly increased in HF. Both IKr and IKs were significantly upregulated in HF under action potential clamp, but only when cytosolic Ca2+ was not buffered. CaMKII (Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II) inhibition abolished IKs upregulation in HF, but it did not affect IKr. IKs response to ß-adrenergic stimulation was also significantly diminished in HF. IK1 was also decreased in HF regardless of Ca2+ buffering, CaMKII inhibition, or ß-adrenergic stimulation. CONCLUSIONS: At baseline Ca2+-dependent upregulation of IKr and IKs in HF counterbalances the reduced IK1, maintaining repolarization reserve (especially at higher heart rates) in physiological conditions, unlike conditions of strong cytosolic Ca2+ buffering. However, under ß-adrenergic stimulation, reduced IKs responsiveness severely limits integrated repolarizing K+ current and repolarization reserve in HF. This would increase arrhythmia propensity in HF, especially during adrenergic stress.

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