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1.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(8)2021 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34440317

RESUMO

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a clonal disease arising from hematopoietic stem cells, that are characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis (leading to peripheral blood cytopenia) and by an increased risk of evolution into acute myeloid leukemia. MDS are driven by a complex combination of genetic mutations that results in heterogeneous clinical phenotype and outcome. Genetic studies have enabled the identification of a set of recurrently mutated genes which are central to the pathogenesis of MDS and can be organized into a limited number of cellular pathways, including RNA splicing (SF3B1, SRSF2, ZRSR2, U2AF1 genes), DNA methylation (TET2, DNMT3A, IDH1/2), transcription regulation (RUNX1), signal transduction (CBL, RAS), DNA repair (TP53), chromatin modification (ASXL1, EZH2), and cohesin complex (STAG2). Few genes are consistently mutated in >10% of patients, whereas a long tail of 40-50 genes are mutated in <5% of cases. At diagnosis, the majority of MDS patients have 2-4 driver mutations and hundreds of background mutations. Reliable genotype/phenotype relationships were described in MDS: SF3B1 mutations are associated with the presence of ring sideroblasts and more recent studies indicate that other splicing mutations (SRSF2, U2AF1) may identify distinct disease categories with specific hematological features. Moreover, gene mutations have been shown to influence the probability of survival and risk of disease progression and mutational status may add significant information to currently available prognostic tools. For instance, SF3B1 mutations are predictors of favourable prognosis, while driver mutations of other genes (such as ASXL1, SRSF2, RUNX1, TP53) are associated with a reduced probability of survival and increased risk of disease progression. In this article, we review the most recent advances in our understanding of the genetic basis of myelodysplastic syndromes and discuss its clinical relevance.

2.
Blood ; 138(21): 2093-2105, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125889

RESUMO

Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP) is associated with increased risk of cancers and inflammation-related diseases. This phenomenon becomes common in persons aged ≥80 years, in whom the implications of CHIP are not well defined. We performed a mutational screening in 1794 persons aged ≥80 years and investigated the relationships between CHIP and associated pathologies. Mutations were observed in one-third of persons aged ≥80 years and were associated with reduced survival. Mutations in JAK2 and splicing genes, multiple mutations (DNMT3A, TET2, and ASXL1 with additional genetic lesions), and variant allele frequency ≥0.096 had positive predictive value for myeloid neoplasms. Combining mutation profiles with abnormalities in red blood cell indices improved the ability of myeloid neoplasm prediction. On this basis, we defined a predictive model that identifies 3 risk groups with different probabilities of developing myeloid neoplasms. Mutations in DNMT3A, TET2, ASXL1, or JAK2 were associated with coronary heart disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Cytopenia was common in persons aged ≥80 years, with the underlying cause remaining unexplained in 30% of cases. Among individuals with unexplained cytopenia, the presence of highly specific mutation patterns was associated with myelodysplastic-like phenotype and a probability of survival comparable to that of myeloid neoplasms. Accordingly, 7.5% of subjects aged ≥80 years with cytopenia had presumptive evidence of myeloid neoplasm. In summary, specific mutational patterns define different risk of developing myeloid neoplasms vs inflammatory-associated diseases in persons aged ≥80 years. In individuals with unexplained cytopenia, mutational status may identify those subjects with presumptive evidence of myeloid neoplasms.

3.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(6)2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34010955

RESUMO

The complex web of macromolecular interactions occurring within cells-the interactome-is the backbone of an increasing number of studies, but a clear consensus on the exact structure of this network is still lacking. Different genome-scale maps of human interactome have been obtained through several experimental techniques and functional analyses. Moreover, these maps can be enriched through literature-mining approaches, and different combinations of various 'source' databases have been used in the literature. It is therefore unclear to which extent the various interactomes yield similar results when used in the context of interactome-based approaches in network biology. We compared a comprehensive list of human interactomes on the basis of topology, protein complexes, molecular pathways, pathway cross-talk and disease gene prediction. In a general context of relevant heterogeneity, our study provides a series of qualitative and quantitative parameters that describe the state of the art of human interactomes and guidelines for selecting interactomes in future applications.

4.
J Clin Oncol ; 39(11): 1223-1233, 2021 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539200

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Recurrently mutated genes and chromosomal abnormalities have been identified in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). We aim to integrate these genomic features into disease classification and prognostication. METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled 2,043 patients. Using Bayesian networks and Dirichlet processes, we combined mutations in 47 genes with cytogenetic abnormalities to identify genetic associations and subgroups. Random-effects Cox proportional hazards multistate modeling was used for developing prognostic models. An independent validation on 318 cases was performed. RESULTS: We identify eight MDS groups (clusters) according to specific genomic features. In five groups, dominant genomic features include splicing gene mutations (SF3B1, SRSF2, and U2AF1) that occur early in disease history, determine specific phenotypes, and drive disease evolution. These groups display different prognosis (groups with SF3B1 mutations being associated with better survival). Specific co-mutation patterns account for clinical heterogeneity within SF3B1- and SRSF2-related MDS. MDS with complex karyotype and/or TP53 gene abnormalities and MDS with acute leukemia-like mutations show poorest prognosis. MDS with 5q deletion are clustered into two distinct groups according to the number of mutated genes and/or presence of TP53 mutations. By integrating 63 clinical and genomic variables, we define a novel prognostic model that generates personally tailored predictions of survival. The predicted and observed outcomes correlate well in internal cross-validation and in an independent external cohort. This model substantially improves predictive accuracy of currently available prognostic tools. We have created a Web portal that allows outcome predictions to be generated for user-defined constellations of genomic and clinical features. CONCLUSION: Genomic landscape in MDS reveals distinct subgroups associated with specific clinical features and discrete patterns of evolution, providing a proof of concept for next-generation disease classification and prognosis.


Assuntos
Genômica/métodos , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/classificação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/genética , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Front Genet ; 11: 106, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32180795

RESUMO

The development of integrative methods is one of the main challenges in bioinformatics. Network-based methods for the analysis of multiple gene-centered datasets take into account known and/or inferred relations between genes. In the last decades, the mathematical machinery of network diffusion-also referred to as network propagation-has been exploited in several network-based pipelines, thanks to its ability of amplifying association between genes that lie in network proximity. Indeed, network diffusion provides a quantitative estimation of network proximity between genes associated with one or more different data types, from simple binary vectors to real vectors. Therefore, this powerful data transformation method has also been increasingly used in integrative analyses of multiple collections of biological scores and/or one or more interaction networks. We present an overview of the state of the art of bioinformatics pipelines that use network diffusion processes for the integrative analysis of omics data. We discuss the fundamental ways in which network diffusion is exploited, open issues and potential developments in the field. Current trends suggest that network diffusion is a tool of broad utility in omics data analysis. It is reasonable to think that it will continue to be used and further refined as new data types arise (e.g. single cell datasets) and the identification of system-level patterns will be considered more and more important in omics data analysis.

6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2643, 2020 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060296

RESUMO

In recent years complex networks have been identified as powerful mathematical frameworks for the adequate modeling of many applied problems in disparate research fields. Assuming a Master Equation (ME) modeling the exchange of information within the network, we set up a perturbative approach in order to investigate how node alterations impact on the network information flow. The main assumption of the perturbed ME (pME) model is that the simultaneous presence of multiple node alterations causes more or less intense network frailties depending on the specific features of the perturbation. In this perspective the collective behavior of a set of molecular alterations on a gene network is a particularly adapt scenario for a first application of the proposed method, since most diseases are neither related to a single mutation nor to an established set of molecular alterations. Therefore, after characterizing the method numerically, we applied as a proof of principle the pME approach to breast cancer (BC) somatic mutation data downloaded from Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. For each patient we measured the network frailness of over 90 significant subnetworks of the protein-protein interaction network, where each perturbation was defined by patient-specific somatic mutations. Interestingly the frailness measures depend on the position of the alterations on the gene network more than on their amount, unlike most traditional enrichment scores. In particular low-degree mutations play an important role in causing high frailness measures. The potential applicability of the proposed method is wide and suggests future development in the control theory context.


Assuntos
Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Modelos Genéticos , Mutação/genética , Apoptose/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Processos Estocásticos
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(13)2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323926

RESUMO

Current studies suggest that autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) may be caused by many genetic factors. In fact, collectively considering multiple studies aimed at characterizing the basic pathophysiology of ASDs, a large number of genes has been proposed. Addressing the problem of molecular data interpretation using gene networks helps to explain genetic heterogeneity in terms of shared pathways. Besides, the integrative analysis of multiple omics has emerged as an approach to provide a more comprehensive view of a disease. In this work, we carry out a network-based meta-analysis of the genes reported as associated with ASDs by studies that involved genomics, epigenomics, and transcriptomics. Collectively, our analysis provides a prioritization of the large number of genes proposed to be associated with ASDs, based on genes' relevance within the intracellular circuits, the strength of the supporting evidence of association with ASDs, and the number of different molecular alterations affecting genes. We discuss the presence of the prioritized genes in the SFARI (Simons Foundation Autism Research Initiative) database and in gene networks associated with ASDs by other investigations. Lastly, we provide the full results of our analyses to encourage further studies on common targets amenable to therapy.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/metabolismo , Epigenômica/métodos , Genômica/métodos , Transcriptoma/genética , Biologia Computacional , Humanos
8.
Front Genet ; 8: 129, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28993790

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is marked by a strong genetic heterogeneity, which is underlined by the low overlap between ASD risk gene lists proposed in different studies. In this context, molecular networks can be used to analyze the results of several genome-wide studies in order to underline those network regions harboring genetic variations associated with ASD, the so-called "disease modules." In this work, we used a recent network diffusion-based approach to jointly analyze multiple ASD risk gene lists. We defined genome-scale prioritizations of human genes in relation to ASD genes from multiple studies, found significantly connected gene modules associated with ASD and predicted genes functionally related to ASD risk genes. Most of them play a role in synapsis and neuronal development and function; many are related to syndromes that can be in comorbidity with ASD and the remaining are involved in epigenetics, cell cycle, cell adhesion and cancer.

9.
Sci Rep ; 6: 34841, 2016 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27731320

RESUMO

A relation exists between network proximity of molecular entities in interaction networks, functional similarity and association with diseases. The identification of network regions associated with biological functions and pathologies is a major goal in systems biology. We describe a network diffusion-based pipeline for the interpretation of different types of omics in the context of molecular interaction networks. We introduce the network smoothing index, a network-based quantity that allows to jointly quantify the amount of omics information in genes and in their network neighbourhood, using network diffusion to define network proximity. The approach is applicable to both descriptive and inferential statistics calculated on omics data. We also show that network resampling, applied to gene lists ranked by quantities derived from the network smoothing index, indicates the presence of significantly connected genes. As a proof of principle, we identified gene modules enriched in somatic mutations and transcriptional variations observed in samples of prostate adenocarcinoma (PRAD). In line with the local hypothesis, network smoothing index and network resampling underlined the existence of a connected component of genes harbouring molecular alterations in PRAD.

10.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 17 Suppl 2: 15, 2016 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26821531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Methods for the integrative analysis of multi-omics data are required to draw a more complete and accurate picture of the dynamics of molecular systems. The complexity of biological systems, the technological limits, the large number of biological variables and the relatively low number of biological samples make the analysis of multi-omics datasets a non-trivial problem. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: We review the most advanced strategies for integrating multi-omics datasets, focusing on mathematical and methodological aspects.


Assuntos
Genômica/métodos , Modelos Genéticos , Algoritmos , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Software
11.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 17 Suppl 2: 16, 2016 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26821617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interest in understanding the mechanisms that lead to a particular composition of the Gut Microbiota is highly increasing, due to the relationship between this ecosystem and the host health state. Particularly relevant is the study of the Relative Species Abundance (RSA) distribution, that is a component of biodiversity and measures the number of species having a given number of individuals. It is the universal behaviour of RSA that induced many ecologists to look for theoretical explanations. In particular, a simple stochastic neutral model was proposed by Volkov et al. relying on population dynamics and was proved to fit the coral-reefs and rain forests RSA. Our aim is to ascertain if this model also describes the Microbiota RSA and if it can help in explaining the Microbiota plasticity. RESULTS: We analyzed 16S rRNA sequencing data sampled from the Microbiota of three different animal species by Jeraldo et al. Through a clustering procedure (UCLUST), we built the Operational Taxonomic Units. These correspond to bacterial species considered at a given phylogenetic level defined by the similarity threshold used in the clustering procedure. The RSAs, plotted in the form of Preston plot, were fitted with Volkov's model. The model fits well the Microbiota RSA, except in the tail region, that shows a deviation from the neutrality assumption. Looking at the model parameters we were able to discriminate between different animal species, giving also a biological explanation. Moreover, the biodiversity estimator obtained by Volkov's model also differentiates the animal species and is in good agreement with the first and second order Hill's numbers, that are common evenness indexes simply based on the fraction of individuals per species. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the neutrality assumption is a good approximation for the Microbiota dynamics and the observation that Volkov's model works for this ecosystem is a further proof of the RSA universality. Moreover, the ability to separate different animals with the model parameters and biodiversity number are promising results if we think about future applications on human data, in which the Microbiota composition and biodiversity are in close relationships with a variety of diseases and life-styles.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bovinos/microbiologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Sus scrofa/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Biodiversidade , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Filogenia , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA
12.
Brief Bioinform ; 17(3): 527-40, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26307062

RESUMO

Systems Medicine (SM) can be defined as an extension of Systems Biology (SB) to Clinical-Epidemiological disciplines through a shifting paradigm, starting from a cellular, toward a patient centered framework. According to this vision, the three pillars of SM are Biomedical hypotheses, experimental data, mainly achieved by Omics technologies and tailored computational, statistical and modeling tools. The three SM pillars are highly interconnected, and their balancing is crucial. Despite the great technological progresses producing huge amount of data (Big Data) and impressive computational facilities, the Bio-Medical hypotheses are still of primary importance. A paradigmatic example of unifying Bio-Medical theory is the concept of Inflammaging. This complex phenotype is involved in a large number of pathologies and patho-physiological processes such as aging, age-related diseases and cancer, all sharing a common inflammatory pathogenesis. This Biomedical hypothesis can be mapped into an ecological perspective capable to describe by quantitative and predictive models some experimentally observed features, such as microenvironment, niche partitioning and phenotype propagation. In this article we show how this idea can be supported by computational methods useful to successfully integrate, analyze and model large data sets, combining cross-sectional and longitudinal information on clinical, environmental and omics data of healthy subjects and patients to provide new multidimensional biomarkers capable of distinguishing between different pathological conditions, e.g. healthy versus unhealthy state, physiological versus pathological aging.


Assuntos
Inflamação , Análise de Sistemas , Biomarcadores , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Neoplasias , Biologia de Sistemas
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