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1.
World J Clin Oncol ; 12(11): 1037-1046, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34909398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-clear cell (ncc) metastatic renal-cell carcinoma (RCC) has dismal results with standard systemic therapies and a generally worse prognosis when compared to its clear-cell counterpart. New systemic combination therapies have emerged for metastatic RCC (mRCC), but the pivotal phase III trials excluded patients with nccRCC, which constitute about 30% of metastatic RCC cases. AIM: To provide a piece of real-life evidence on the use of pazopanib in this patient subgroup. METHODS: The present study is a multicenter retrospective observational analysis aiming to assess the activity, efficacy, and safety of pazopanib as first-line therapy for advanced nccRCC patients treated in a real-life setting. RESULTS: Overall, 48 patients were included. At the median follow-up of 40.6 mo, the objective response rate was 27.1%, the disease control rate was 83.3%, and the median progression-free survival and overall survival were 12.3 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.6-20.9) and 27.7 (95%CI: 18.2-37.1) mo, respectively. Grade 3 adverse events occurred in 20% of patients, and no grade 4 or 5 toxicities were found. CONCLUSION: Pazopanib should be considered as a good first-line option for metastatic RCC with variant histology.

2.
Immunotherapy ; 2021 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34784782

RESUMO

Background: Few data are available regarding the effectiveness of immune checkpoint inhibitors in advanced upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) patients. Methods: To provide a real-world experience with anti-PD-1/PD-L1-based therapy in UTUC patients, we involved an Italian network in a multicenter retrospective analysis. Results: A total of 78 UTUC patients were enrolled. The median follow-up was 25.1 months. The median progression-free survival (mPFS) was 2.2 months (95% CI 1.8-2.6), and the median OS (mOS) was 6.0 months (95% CI 3.6-8.4). The Sonpavde score (including performance status > 0, hemoglobin < 10 g/dl, liver metastases, time from prior chemotherapy ≥ 3 months) split the patients into three groups (0 vs 1 vs 2-4 factors), efficiently predicting the OS and PFS outcome at the multivariate analyses (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: The prognosis of unselected UTUC patients is still unsatisfactory. The Sonpavde score was validated for the first time in an UTUC population, as a useful tool for the treatment decision-making process.

3.
Curr Oncol Rep ; 23(12): 147, 2021 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748099

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Therapeutic alternatives to treat metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) are increasing, and combination therapies, including antiangiogenic agents and tyrosine kinase/mTOR/immune checkpoint inhibitors, are identified as the gold standard driven by the results of recent clinical studies. Nevertheless, the real-world RCC population is very heterogeneous, with categories of patients not represented in the enrolled trial population who may not benefit more from these treatments. The purpose of this expert review is to assess the rationale on which tyrosine kinase alone may still be a viable first-line treatment option for some subgroups of patients with mRCC. RECENT FINDINGS: The first-line treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitor monotherapy can still be considered an effective tool for addressing selected mRCCs, as highlighted by the successful outcome in a range of subjects such as favorable-risk patients, the ones suffering from autoimmune diseases, those with pancreatic or lung metastases, or previously undergoing organ transplantation and elderly subjects. Some selected categories of patients may still benefit from monotherapy with TKI, and smart sequential therapies can also be considered instead of a combination strategy. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors can also act as immune modulator agents, boosting the immune response to facilitate and potentiate the therapeutic effectiveness of subsequent immunotherapy.

4.
Immunotherapy ; 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34806404

RESUMO

Background: Combinations based on immune checkpoint inhibitors are the new first-line standard treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma (sRCC) has a dismal prognosis but good immunogenicity. Methods: The authors performed a network meta-analysis of Phase III randomized trials of immune checkpoint inhibitor-based combinations versus standard tyrosine kinase inhibitor monotherapy reporting data for sRCC. The endpoints were overall survival, progression-free survival and objective response rate. Results: Five trials comprising 569 sRCC patients (out of a total of 4409 metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients) were included. Nivolumab-cabozantinib was the highest ranking treatment for overall survival (p-value = 88%) and progression-free survival (p-value = 81%). Atezolizumab-bevacizumab had the highest rank for objective response rate (p-value = 80%). Conclusion: Despite some limitations, nivolumab-cabozantinib might be the preferred first-line option for sRCC in terms of efficacy.

5.
Ther Adv Urol ; 13: 17562872211053189, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34733356

RESUMO

Background: In recent years, new therapeutic combinations based on immunotherapy provided significant benefits as a first-line treatment for patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Objective: This work aims to address the lack of head-to-head comparisons and the uncertainty of the benefit from immunotherapy-based combinations in all the International Metastatic RCC Database Consortium (IMDC) subgroups. Design setting and participants: A systematic review and a network meta-analysis were performed. Overall survival (OS) in the intention-to-treat (ITT) population was the primary endpoint. OS according to IMDC subgroups (favorable, intermediate, poor), PD-L1 expression, and grade ⩾3 adverse events (AEs) were secondary endpoints. A SUCRA analysis was performed. Results and limitations: Six randomized phase III trials with 5121 patients were included. There was a high likelihood (82%) that nivolumab-cabozantinib was the preferred treatment in OS. The benefit of ICI-based combinations over sunitinib was unclear in the favorable-risk subgroup. Nivolumab-ipilimumab had the best risk/benefit ratio among all the ICI-based combinations. The limitations were the lack of individual patient data; the heterogeneity of patients' characteristics, trial designs, and follow-up times; and a limited number of studies for indirect comparisons. Conclusions: A customized approach for the first-line treatment of patients with mRCC should consider the risk/benefit profile of each treatment option, especially considering the likeliness of long-term survival finally reached in this setting.

6.
JAMA Oncol ; 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34734989

RESUMO

Importance: Geriatric (aged ≥80 years) patients are historically underrepresented in cancer clinical trials. Little is known about the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in geriatric patients. These agents are associated with immune-related adverse events (irAEs), which may be particularly associated with morbidity in this population. Objective: To provide insight into the clinical outcomes and safety of ICIs among geriatric patients (aged ≥80 years) with cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: A Multicenter, international retrospective study of 928 geriatric patients with different tumors treated with single-agent ICIs between 2010 to 2019 from 18 academic centers in the US and Europe. Analyses were conducted from January 2021 to April 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical outcomes and irAE patterns in geriatric patients treated with single-agent ICIs. Results: Median (range) age of the 928 patients at ICI initiation was 83.0 (75.8-97.0) years. Most patients (806 [86.9%]) were treated with anti-programmed cell death 1 therapy. Among the full cohort, the 3 most common tumors were non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, 345 [37.2%]), melanoma (329 [35.5%]), and genitourinary (GU) tumors (153 [16.5%]). Objective response rates for patients with NSCLC, melanoma, and GU tumors were 32.2%, 39.3%, and 26.2%, respectively. Median PFS and OS, respectively, were 6.7 and 10.9 months (NSCLC), 11.1 and 30.0 months (melanoma), and 6.0 and 15.0 months (GU). Within histologically specific subgroups (NSCLC, melanoma, and GU), clinical outcomes were similar across age subgroups (aged <85 vs ≥85 years). Among all 928 patients, 383 (41.3%) experienced ≥1 irAE(s), including 113 (12.2%) that were reported to be grade (G) 3 to 4 based on Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (version 5.0). The median time to irAE onset was 9.8 weeks; 219 (57%) occurred within the first 3 months after ICI initiation. Discontinuation of treatment with ICIs owing to irAEs occurred in 137 (16.1%) patients. There was no significant difference in the rate of irAEs among patients aged younger than 85, 85 to 89, and 90 years or older. Despite the similar rate of G3 or higher irAEs, ICIs were discontinued owing to irAEs more than twice as often among patients aged 90 years or older compared with patients younger than 90 years (30.9% vs 15.1%, P = .008). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this international cohort study suggest that treatment with ICIs may be effective and generally well tolerated among older patients with cancer, though ICI discontinuation owing to irAEs was more frequent with increasing age.

7.
World J Radiol ; 13(9): 294-306, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34630915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is the main manifestation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Chest computed tomography is recommended for the initial evaluation of the disease; this technique can also be helpful to monitor the disease progression and evaluate the therapeutic efficacy. AIM: To review the currently available literature regarding the radiological follow-up of COVID-19-related lung alterations using the computed tomography scan, to describe the evidence about the dynamic evolution of COVID-19 pneumonia and verify the potential usefulness of the radiological follow-up. METHODS: We used pertinent keywords on PubMed to select relevant studies; the articles we considered were published until October 30, 2020. Through this selection, 69 studies were identified, and 16 were finally included in the review. RESULTS: Summarizing the included works' findings, we identified well-defined stages in the short follow-up time frame. A radiographic deterioration reaching a peak roughly within the first 2 wk; after the peak, an absorption process and repairing signs are observed. At later radiological follow-up, with the limitation of little evidence available, the lesions usually did not recover completely. CONCLUSION: Following computed tomography scan evolution over time could help physicians better understand the clinical impact of COVID-19 pneumonia and manage the possible sequelae; a longer follow-up is advisable to verify the complete resolution or the presence of long-term damage.

8.
Ther Adv Urol ; 13: 17562872211054302, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34707691

RESUMO

Background: Considering the growing genitourinary (GU) cancer population undergoing systemic treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, we planned a clinical audit in 24 Italian institutions treating GU malignancies. Objective: The primary objective was investigating the clinical impact of COVID-19 in GU cancer patients undergoing ICI-based therapy during the first outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 contagion in Italy. Design setting and participants: The included centers were 24 Oncology Departments. Two online forms were completed by the responsible Oncology Consultants, respectively, for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) and metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) patients receiving at least one administration of ICIs between 31 January 2020 and 30 June 2020. Results and limitation: In total, 287 mRCC patients and 130 mUC patients were included. The COVID-19 incidence was, respectively, 3.5%, with mortality 1%, in mRCC patients and 7.7%, with mortality 3.1%, in mUC patients. In both groups, 40% of patients developing COVID-19 permanently discontinued anticancer treatment. The pre-test SARS-CoV-2 probability in the subgroup of patients who underwent nasal/pharyngeal swab ranged from 14% in mRCC to 26% in mUC. The main limitation of the work was its nature of audit: data were not recorded at the single-patient level. Conclusion: GU cancer patients undergoing active treatment with ICIs have meaningful risk factors for developing severe events from COVID-19 and permanent discontinuation of therapy after the infection. Treatment delays due to organizational issues during the pandemic were unlikely to affect the treatment outcome in this population.

9.
World J Radiol ; 13(8): 243-257, 2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34567434

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given the several radiological features shared by coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia and other infective or non-infective diseases with lung involvement, the differential diagnosis is often tricky, and no unequivocal tool exists to help the radiologist in the proper diagnosis. Computed tomography is considered the gold standard in detecting pulmonary illness caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. AIM: To conduct a systematic review including the available studies evaluating computed tomography similarities and discrepancies between coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia and other pulmonary illness, then providing a discussion focus on cancer patients. METHODS: Using pertinent keywords, we performed a systematic review using PubMed to select relevant studies published until October 30, 2020. RESULTS: Of the identified 133 studies, 18 were eligible and included in this review. CONCLUSION: Ground-glass opacity and consolidations are the most common computed tomography lesions in coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia and other respiratory diseases. Only two studies included cancer patients, and the differential diagnosis with early lung cancer and radiation pneumonitis was performed. A single lesion associated with pleural effusion and lymphadenopathies in lung cancer and the onset of the lesions in the radiation field in the case of radiation pneumonitis allowed the differential diagnosis. Nevertheless, the studies were heterogeneous, and the type and prevalence of lesions, distributions, morphology, evolution, and additional signs, together with epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory findings, are crucial to help in the differential diagnosis.

10.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(18)2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34572748

RESUMO

The treatment landscape of advanced prostate cancer has completely changed during the last decades. Chemotherapy (docetaxel, cabazitaxel), androgen-receptor signaling inhibitors (ARSi) (abiraterone acetate, enzalutamide), and radium-223 have revolutionized the management of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Lutetium-177-PSMA-617 is also going to become another treatment option for these patients. In addition, docetaxel, abiraterone acetate, apalutamide, enzalutamide, and radiotherapy to primary tumor have demonstrated the ability to significantly prolong the survival of patients with metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (mHSPC). Finally, apalutamide, enzalutamide, and darolutamide have recently provided impactful data in patients with nonmetastatic castration-resistant disease (nmCRPC). However, which is the best treatment sequence for patients with advanced prostate cancer? This comprehensive review aims at discussing the available literature data to identify the optimal sequencing approaches in patients with prostate cancer at different disease stages. Our work also highlights the potential impact of predictive biomarkers in treatment sequencing and exploring the role of specific agents (i.e., olaparib, rucaparib, talazoparib, niraparib, and ipatasertib) in biomarker-selected populations of patients with prostate cancer (i.e., those harboring alterations in DNA damage and response genes or PTEN).

11.
Clin Med Insights Oncol ; 15: 11795549211043427, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526833

RESUMO

Background: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), an acute respiratory syndrome caused by a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), has rapidly spread worldwide, significantly affecting the outcome of a highly vulnerable group such as cancer patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical impact of COVID-19 infection on outcome and oncologic treatment of cancer patients. Patient and methods: We retrospectively enrolled cancer patients with laboratory and/or radiologic confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, admitted to our center from February to April 2020. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the clinical data and univariate analyses were performed to investigate the impact of anticancer treatment modifications due to COVID-19 outbreak on the short-term overall survival (OS). Results: Among 61 patients enrolled, 49 (80%) were undergoing anticancer treatment and 41 (67%) had metastatic disease. Most patients were men; median age was 68 years. Median OS was 46.6 days (40% of deaths occurred within 20 days from COVID-19 diagnosis). Among 59 patients with available data on therapeutic course, 46 experienced consequences on their anticancer treatment schedule. Interruption or a starting failure of the oncologic therapy correlated with significant shorter OS. Anticancer treatment delays did not negatively affect the OS. Lymphocytopenia development after COVID was significantly associated with worst outcome. Conclusions: COVID-19 diagnosis in cancer patients may affect their short-term OS, especially in case of interruption/starting failure of cancer therapy. Maintaining/delaying cancer therapy seems not to influence the outcome in selected patients with recent COVID-19 diagnosis.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prognostic relevance of early immune-related adverse events (irAEs) in patients affected by non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) upon immunotherapy is not fully understood. METHODS: The Leading to Treatment Discontinuation cohort included 24 patients experiencing severe irAEs after one of two administrations of single anti-PD-1/PD-L1 in any line setting for metastatic NSCLC between November 2015 and June 2019. The control cohort was composed of 526 patients treated with single anti-PD-1/PD-L1 in any line setting with no severe irAE reported. The primary end points were median progression-free survival, overall survival, objective response rate, risk of progression of disease and risk of death. The correlation of clinic pathological features with early severe irAEs represented the secondary end point. RESULTS: Median PFS was 9.3 and 8.4 months, median OS was 12.0 months and 14.2 months at a median follow-up of 18.1 and 22.6 months in the LTD cohort and in the control cohort, respectively. The ORR was 40% (95% CI 17.2-78.8) in the LTD cohort and 32.7% (95% CI 27.8-38.2) in the control cohort. The risk of disease progression was higher in the LTD cohort (HR 2.52 [95% 1.10-5.78], P = .0288). CONCLUSIONS: We found no survival benefit in LTD cohort compared to the control cohort. However, early and severe irAEs might underly an immune anti-tumor activation. We identified a significant association with first-line immune checkpoints inhibitors treatment and good PS. Further studies on risk prediction and management of serious and early irAEs in NSCLC patients are needed.

14.
Pharmacol Ther ; : 107973, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453999

RESUMO

Cancer treatment has been deeply changed by immunotherapy, achieving unprecedented improvement in overall and progression-free survival in several advanced and metastatic cancers. Currently, immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) antibodies against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen (CTLA-4) and programmed death/ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) are being tested and approved for different tumors, ranging from melanoma to lung carcinoma. However, only a subgroup of patients can reach treatment benefits and long-term responses, and reliable biomarkers that can accurately predict clinical responses to immunotherapy are still unidentified. In the last decade, accumulating evidence seems to suggest the gut microbiota as one of the modulators that can alter the efficacy and toxicity of immunotherapy drugs (as well as chemotherapeutics), mainly acting through the local and systemic immune system. Herein, we reviewed the highly dynamic and complex microbiome-immune system interface, its bidirectional relationship with cancer immunotherapies, and explored the future possibilities and risks in manipulating the gut microbiome.

15.
Clin Med Insights Oncol ; 15: 11795549211021667, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34290538

RESUMO

Background: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are currently the standard of care for metastatic urothelial cancer (mUC) after the failure of previous platinum-based chemotherapy. The choice of further therapy after ICI progression is a new challenge, and scarce data support it. We aimed to examine the outcomes of mUC patients after progression to ICI, especially when receiving chemotherapy. Methods: Data were retrospectively collected from clinical records of mUC patients whose disease progressed to anti-programmed death 1 (PD-1)or programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) therapy at 14 Italian centers. Patients were grouped according to ICI therapy setting into SALVAGE (ie, ICI delivered ⩾ second-line therapy after platinum-based chemotherapy) and NAÏVE (ie, first-line therapy) groups. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared among subgroups. Cox regression assessed the effect of treatments after progression to ICI on OS. Objective response rate (ORR) was calculated as the sum of partial and complete radiologic responses. Results: The study population consisted of 201 mUC patients who progressed after ICI: 59 in the NAÏVE cohort and 142 in the SALVAGE cohort. Overall, 52 patients received chemotherapy after ICI progression (25.9%), 20 (9.9%) received ICI beyond progression, 115 (57.2%) received best supportive care only, and 14 (7.0%) received investigational drugs. Objective response rate to chemotherapy in the post-ICI setting was 23.1% (28.0% in the NAÏVE group and 18.5% in the SALVAGE group). Median PFS and OS to chemotherapy after ICI-PD was 5 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3-11) and 13 months (95% CI: 7-NA) for the NAÏVE group; 3 months (95% CI: 2-NA) and 9 months (95% CI: 6-NA) for the SALVAGE group, respectively. Overall survival from ICI initiation was 17 months for patients receiving chemotherapy (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.09, p < 0.001), versus 8 months for patients receiving ICI beyond progression (HR = 0.13, p < 0.001), and 2 months for patients who did not receive further active treatment (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Chemotherapy administered after ICI progression for mUC patients is advisable irrespective of the treatment line.

17.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 270, 2021 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167578

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The favourable safety profile and the increasing confidence with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) might have boosted their prescription in frail patients with short life expectancies, who usually are not treated with standard chemotherapy. METHODS: The present analysis aims to describe clinicians' attitudes towards ICIs administration during late stages of life within a multicenter cohort of advanced cancer patients treated with single agent PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitors in Italy. RESULTS: Overall, 1149 patients with advanced cancer who received single agent PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitors were screened. The final study population consisted of 567 deceased patients. 166 patients (29.3%) had received ICIs within 30 days of death; among them there was a significantly higher proportion of patients with ECOG-PS ≥ 2 (28.3% vs 11.5%, p < 0.0001) and with a higher burden of disease (69.3% vs 59.4%, p = 0.0266). In total, 35 patients (6.2%) started ICIs within 30 days of death; among them there was a higher proportion of patients with ECOG-PS ≥ 2 (45.7% vs 14.5%, p < 0.0001) and with a higher burden of disease (82.9% vs 60.9%, p = 0.0266). Primary tumors were significantly different across subgroups (p = 0.0172), with a higher prevalence of NSCLC patients (80% vs 60.9%) among those who started ICIs within 30 days of death. Lastly, 123 patients (21.7%) started ICIs within 3 months of death. Similarly, within this subgroup there was a higher proportion of patients with ECOG-PS ≥ 2 (29.3% vs 12.8%, p < 0.0001), with a higher burden of disease (74.0% vs 59.0%, p = 0.0025) and with NSCLC (74.0% vs 58.8%, p = 0.0236). CONCLUSION: Our results confirmed a trend toward an increasing ICIs prescription in frail patients, during the late stages of life. Caution should be exercised when evaluating an ICI treatment for patients with a poor PS and a high burden of disease.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1 , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico , Itália , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1
18.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 13: 17588359211019642, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34046089

RESUMO

Background: Despite the survival advantage, not all metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) patients achieve a long-term benefit from immunotherapy. Moreover, the identification of prognostic biomarkers is still an unmet clinical need. Methods: This multicenter retrospective study investigated the prognostic role of peripheral-blood inflammatory indices and clinical factors to develop a novel prognostic score in mRCC patients receiving at least second-line nivolumab. The complete blood count before the first cycle of therapy was assessed by calculating neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), derived NLR (dNLR), lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), systemic inflammation index (SII), and systemic inflammation response index (SIRI). Clinical factors included pre-treatment International Metastatic RCC Database Consortium (IMDC) score, line of therapy, and metastatic sites. Results: From October 2015 to November 2019, 571 mRCC patients received nivolumab as second- and further-line treatment in 69% and 31% of cases. In univariable and multivariable analyses all inflammatory indices, IMDC score, and bone metastases significantly correlated with overall survival (OS). The multivariable model with NLR, IMDC score, and bone metastases had the highest c-index (0.697) and was chosen for the developing of the score (Schneeweiss scoring system). After internal validation (bootstrap re-sampling), the final index (Meet-URO score) composed by NLR, IMDC score, and bone metastases had a c-index of 0.691. It identified five categories with distinctive OSs: group 1 (median OS - mOS = not reached), group 2 (mOS = 43.9 months), group 3 (mOS = 22.4 months), group 4 (mOS = 10.3 months), and group 5 (mOS = 3.2 months). Moreover, the Meet-URO score allowed for a fine risk-stratification across all three IMDC groups. Conclusion: The Meet-URO score allowed for the accurate stratification of pretreated mRCC patients receiving nivolumab and is easily applicable for clinical practice at no additional cost. Future steps include its external validation, the assessment of its predictivity, and its application to first-line combinations.

19.
Eur J Cancer ; 150: 224-231, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously demonstrated the cumulative poor prognostic role of concomitant medications on the clinical outcome of patients with advanced cancer treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors, creating and validating a drug-based prognostic score to be calculated before immunotherapy initiation in patients with advanced solid tumours. This 'drug score' was calculated assigning score 1 for each between proton-pump inhibitor and antibiotic administration until a month before cancer therapy initiation and score 2 in case of corticosteroid intake. The good risk group included patients with score 0, intermediate risk with score 1-2 and poor risk with score 3-4. METHODS: Aiming at validating the prognostic and putative predictive ability depending on the anticancer therapy, we performed the present comparative analysis in two cohorts of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), respectively, receiving first-line pembrolizumab or chemotherapy through a random case-control matching and through a pooled multivariable analysis including the interaction between the computed score and the therapeutic modality (pembrolizumab vs chemotherapy). RESULTS: Nine hundred fifty and 595 patients were included in the pembrolizumab and chemotherapy cohorts, respectively. After the case-control random matching, 589 patients from the pembrolizumab cohort and 589 from the chemotherapy cohort were paired, with no statistically significant differences between the characteristics of the matched subjects. Among the pembrolizumab-treated group, good, intermediate and poor risk evaluable patients achieved an objective response rate (ORR) of 50.0%, 37.7% and 23.4%, respectively, (p < 0.0001), whereas among the chemotherapy-treated group, patients achieved an ORR of 37.0%, 40.0% and 32.4%, respectively (p = 0.4346). The median progression-free survival (PFS) of good, intermediate and poor risk groups was 13.9 months, 6.3 months and 2.8 months, respectively, within the pembrolizumab cohort (p < 0.0001), and 6.2 months, 6.2 months and 4.3 months, respectively, within the chemotherapy cohort (p = 0.0280). Among the pembrolizumab-treated patients, the median overall survival (OS) for good, intermediate and poor risk patients was 31.4 months, 14.5 months and 5.8 months, respectively, (p < 0.0001), whereas among the chemotherapy-treated patients, it was 18.3 months, 16.8 months and 10.6 months, respectively (p = 0.0003). A similar trend was reported considering the two entire populations. At the pooled analysis, the interaction term between the score and the therapeutic modality was statistically significant with respect to ORR (p = 0.0052), PFS (p = 0.0003) and OS (p < 0.0001), confirming the significantly different effect of the score within the two cohorts. CONCLUSION: Our 'drug score' showed a predictive ability with respect to ORR in the immunotherapy cohort only, suggesting it might be a useful tool for identifying patients unlikely to benefit from first-line single-agent pembrolizumab. In addition, the prognostic stratification in terms of PFS and OS was significantly more pronounced among the pembrolizumab-treated patients.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Interações Medicamentosas , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Itália , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Seleção de Pacientes , Polimedicação , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
20.
Tumori ; : 3008916211014954, 2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34002648

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of CTLA-4, PD-1 (programmed death-1), and PD-L1 (programmed death-ligand 1) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in predicting clinical outcome of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). METHODS: A total of 166 consecutive patients were included. We correlated SNPs with clinical benefit, progression-free survival, time to treatment failure, and overall survival and evaluated the incidence of SNPs in nonresponder and long clinical benefit groups. RESULTS: Considering the entire cohort, no correlation was found between SNPs and clinical outcome; however, PD-L1 rs4143815 SNP and the long clinical benefit group showed a statistically significant association (p = 0.02). The nonresponder cohort displayed distinctive PD-L1 haplotype (p = 0.05). CONCLUSION: PD-L1 SNPs seem to be marginally involved in predicting clinical outcome of NSCLC treated with ICI, but further investigations are required.

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