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2.
Endocr Connect ; 9(7): 705-714, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698135

RESUMO

Background: The prognosis of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is heterogeneous. Genomic studies have identified ACC subgroups characterized by specific molecular alterations, including features measured at DNA level (somatic mutations, chromosome alterations, DNA methylation), which are closely associated with outcome. The aim of this study was to evaluate intratumor heterogeneity of prognostic molecular markers at the DNA level. Methods: Two different tissue samples (primary tumor, local recurrence or metastasis) were analyzed in 26 patients who underwent surgery for primary or recurrent ACC. DNA-related biomarkers with prognostic role were investigated in frozen and paraffin-embedded samples. Somatic mutations of p53/Rb and Wnt/ß-catenin pathways were assessed using next-generation sequencing (n = 26), chromosome alteration profiles were determined using SNP arrays (n = 14) and methylation profiles were determined using four-gene bisulfite pyrosequencing (n = 12). Results: Somatic mutations for ZNRF3, TP53, CTNN1B and CDKN2A were found in 7, 6, 6 and 4 patients, respectively, with intratumor heterogeneity in 8/26 patients (31%). Chromosome alteration profiles were 'Noisy' (numerous and anarchic alterations) in 8/14 and 'Chromosomal' (extended patterns of loss of heterozygosity) in 5/14 of the study samples. For these profiles, no intratumor heterogeneity was observed. Methylation profiles were hypermethylated in 5/12 and non-hypermethylated in 7/12 of the study samples. Intratumor heterogeneity of methylation profiles was observed in 2/12 patients (17%). Conclusions: Intratumor heterogeneity impacts DNA-related molecular markers. While somatic mutation can differ, prognostic DNA methylation and chromosome alteration profile seem rather stable and might be more robust for the prognostic assessment.

3.
Endocr Relat Cancer ; 27(9): 509-517, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638579

RESUMO

Mutations in the protein kinase A (PKA) regulatory subunit type 1A (PRKAR1A) and armadillo repeat-containing 5 (ARMC5) genes cause Cushing's syndrome (CS) due to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) and primary bilateral macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia (PBMAH), respectively. Between the two genes, ARMC5 is highly polymorphic with several variants in the population, whereas PRKAR1A has very little, if any, non-pathogenic variation in its coding sequence. We tested the hypothesis that ARMC5 variants may affect the clinical presentation of PPNAD and CS among patients with PRKAR1A mutations. In this study, 91 patients with PPNAD due to PRKAR1A mutations were tested for abnormal cortisol secretion or CS and for ARMC5 sequence variants. Abnormal cortisol secretion was present in 71 of 74 patients with ARMC5 variants, whereas 11 of 17 patients negative for ARMC5 variants did not have hypercortisolemia. The presence of ARMC5 variants was a statistically strong predictor of CS among patients with PRKAR1A mutations (P < 0.001). Among patients with CS due to PPNAD, ARMC5 variants were associated with lower cortisol levels at baseline (P = 0.04) and after high dose dexamethasone administration (P = 0.02). The ARMC5 p.I170V variant increased ARMC5 protein accumulation in vitro and decreased viability of NCI-H295 cells (but not HEK 293T cells). PPNAD tissues with ARMC5 variants showed stronger ARMC5 protein expression than those that carried a normal ARMC5 sequence. Taken together, our results suggest that ARMC5 variants among patients with PPNAD due to PRKAR1A defects may play the role of a genetic modifier for the presence and severity of hypercortisolemia.

4.
World J Surg ; 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681321

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT1) is the most frequent endocrinopathy in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). Its surgical management is challenging. We aimed to describe and compare the imaging findings of parathyroid ultrasound (US), sestaMIBI scintigraphy (sestaMIBI), and 18F-fluorocholine (FCH) PET/CT in a series of MEN1 patients with HPT1. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of a cohort of MEN1 patients with HPT1 assessed by parathyroid US, sestaMIBI scintigraphy and SPECT/CT, and FCH-PET/CT for potential surgery between 2015 and 2019. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients with a confirmed diagnosis of MEN1 who presented with HPT1 and were assessed by the 3 imaging modalities were included. After imaging workups, 11 patients were operated on for the first time, 4 underwent a redo surgery, and 7 did not undergo an operation. The overall patient-based positivity rate of imaging was 91% (20 of 22) for parathyroid US and 96% (21 of 22) for both sestaMIBI and FCH-PET/CT. The 3 imaging modalities demonstrated negative findings in 1/22 patient who did not undergo surgery. Overall, 3 pathologic glands were not detected by any imaging technique. SestaMIBI and FCH-PET/CT both resulted in the same 3 false-positive results in ectopic areas with a significant uptake on two thymic carcinoid tumors and one inflammatory lymph node. FCH-PET/CT provided more surgically relevant data than sestaMIBI in 4/11 patients with initial surgery and in 1/4 patient who underwent redo surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to sestaMIBI scintigraphy, FCH-PET/CT provides additional information regarding the number of pathologic parathyroid glands and their localization in MEN1 patients with HPT1.

5.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(2): 221-231, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583656

RESUMO

Context: In patients treated with antipsychotics, the rare occurrence of a macroprolactinoma represents a therapeutic challenge. Objective: Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy and psychiatric safety of dopamine agonists (DAs) prescribed for large macroprolactinomas in patients with psychosis treated with antipsychotics. Design: This was a multicenter (France and Belgium) retrospective study. Patients: Eighteen patients treated with antipsychotics were included. Results: Under DA, median PRL levels decreased from 1247 (117-81 132) to 42 (4-573) ng/mL (P = 0.008), from 3850 (449-38 000) to 141 (60-6000) ng/mL (P = 0.037) and from 1664 (94-9400) to 1215 (48-5640) ng/mL (P = 0.56) when given alone (n = 8), before surgery (n = 7), or after surgery (n = 6), respectively. The prolactinoma median largest diameter decreased by 28% (0-57) in patients under DAs alone (P = 0.02) but did not change when given after surgery. Optic chiasm decompression was achieved in 82% of patients. Five patients (28%) were admitted for psychotic relapse while receiving DAs (but three of them had stopped antipsychotic treatment at that time). A more severe underlying psychosis, rather than the DA treatment itself, may explain such psychiatric admissions. Conclusions: Even if the DA efficacy on PRL levels and tumor volume in patients with macroprolactinoma under antipsychotic drugs is less impressive than that typically observed, it may be considered satisfactory for half of our patients, particularly in cases of optic chiasm compression. Psychotic exacerbation was unusual in these patients, occurring mostly in those with the most severe psychotic forms. DAs may therefore be used as antitumor treatment for macroprolactinoma in patients with visual involvement, severe headaches or invasion into the skull base who receive antipsychotics.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Agonistas de Dopamina/efeitos adversos , Agonistas de Dopamina/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/tratamento farmacológico , Prolactinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Bélgica , Interações Medicamentosas , Feminino , França , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/patologia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/psicologia , Prolactina/sangue , Prolactinoma/patologia , Prolactinoma/psicologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/complicações , Transtornos Psicóticos/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Surgery ; 168(2): 335-339, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adrenal lesions diagnosed during pregnancy remain rare, and their management is challenging because of maternal physiologic modifications, restricted imaging investigations, and contraindications to several treatments. Surgical issues of adrenalectomy during pregnancy and consequences on perinatal outcomes are poorly described. We therefore aimed to report maternal and fetal outcomes after adrenalectomy during pregnancy. METHODS: All pregnant women who underwent adrenalectomy over a 15-year inclusion period were identified from a prospectively maintained database. Surgical management and maternal and fetal outcomes were reviewed. RESULTS: From January 2003 to July 2018, a total of 12 women underwent adrenalectomy at a median gestation of 20 weeks. Of these women, 11 had hyper-secreting lesions, including 8 with cortisol oversecretion, and 11 had benign lesions, including cortisol-secreting adenoma (n = 5), pheochromocytoma (n = 2), primary pigmented, nodular adrenal disease (n = 1), severe Cushing's disease (n = 2), and hematoma (n = 1). A total of 3 patients with severe Cushing's disease (n = 2) and primary pigmented, nodular adrenal disease (n = 1) required bilateral adrenalectomy. One patient presented with a malignant adrenal Ewing sarcoma. Adrenalectomy during pregnancy was performed by the lateral laparoscopic transabdominal laparoscopic route in 9 patients. Postoperative morbidity occurred in 3 women. Maternal mortality was nil, but preterm birth occurred in 7 cases and intrauterine growth retardation was observed in 3 cases. Finally, among the 12 women, 10 had a child in good health. CONCLUSION: During pregnancy, a lateral laparoscopic transabdominal approach is a feasible procedure. Maternal outcome is acceptable but fetal outcome is determined by the underlying disease, with a worse outcome when the adrenalectomy is indicated for malignant lesions or Cushing's syndrome.

7.
Endocr Relat Cancer ; 27(7): 403-413, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348959

RESUMO

Biochemical characterization of primary bilateral macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia (PBMAH) by distinct plasma steroid profiles and its putative correlation to disease has not been previously studied. LC-MS/MS-based steroid profiling of 16 plasma steroids was applied to 36 subjects (22 females, 14 males) with PBMAH, 19 subjects (16 females, 3 males) with other forms of adrenal Cushing's syndrome (ACS), and an age and sex-matched control group. Germline ARMC5 sequencing was performed in all PBMAH cases. Compared to controls, PBMAH showed increased plasma 11-deoxycortisol, corticosterone, 11-deoxycorticosterone, 18-hydroxycortisol, and aldosterone, but lower progesterone, DHEA, and DHEA-S with distinct differences in subjects with and without pathogenic variants in ARMC5. Steroids that showed isolated differences included cortisol and 18-oxocortisol with higher (P < 0.05) concentrations in ACS than in controls and aldosterone with higher concentrations in PBMAH when compared to controls. Larger differences in PBMAH than with ACS were most clear for corticosterone, but there were also trends in this direction for 18-hydroxycortisol and aldosterone. Logistic regression analysis indicated four steroids - DHEA, 11-deoxycortisol, 18-oxocortisol, and corticosterone - with the most power for distinguishing the groups. Discriminant analyses with step-wise variable selection indicated correct classification of 95.2% of all subjects of the four groups using a panel of nine steroids; correct classification of subjects with and without germline variants in ARMC5 was achieved in 91.7% of subjects with PBMAH. Subjects with PBMAH show distinctive plasma steroid profiles that may offer a supplementary single-test alternative for screening purposes.

8.
Endocr Relat Cancer ; 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023208

RESUMO

ARMC5 (Armadillo repeat containing 5) was identified as a new tumor suppressor gene responsible for hereditary adrenocortical tumors and meningiomas. ARMC5 is ubiquitously expressed and encodes a protein which contains a N-terminal Armadillo repeat domain and a C-terminal BTB (Bric-a-Brac, Tramtrack, Broad-complex) domain, both docking platforms for numerous proteins. At present, expression regulation and mechanisms of action of ARMC5 are almost unknown. In this study, we showed that ARMC5 interacts with CUL3 requiring its BTB domain. This interaction leads to ARMC5 ubiquitination and further degradation by the proteasome. ARMC5 alters cell cycle (G1/S phases and Cyclin E accumulation) and this effect is blocked by CUL3. Moreover, missense mutants in the BTB domain of ARMC5, identified in patients with multiple adrenocortical tumors, are neither able to interact and be degraded by CUL3/proteasome nor alter cell cycle. These data show a new mechanism of regulation of the ARMC5 protein and open new perspectives in the understanding of its tumor suppressor activity.

9.
Horm Metab Res ; 52(8): 598-606, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097969

RESUMO

Bilateral hyperplasias of the adrenal cortex are rare causes of chronic endogenous hypercortisolemia also called Cushing syndrome. These hyperplasias have been classified in two categories based on the adrenal nodule size: the micronodular types include Primary Pigmented Nodular Adrenocortical Disease (PPNAD) and isolated Micronodular Adrenal Disease (iMAD) and the macronodular also named Primary Bilateral Macronodular Adrenal Hyperplasia (PBMAH). This review discusses the genetic and molecular causes of these different forms of hyperplasia that involve mutations and dysregulation of various regulators of the cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway. PKA signaling is the main pathway controlling cortisol secretion in adrenocortical cells under ACTH stimulation. Although mutations of the regulatory subunit R1α of PKA (PRKAR1A) is the main cause of familial and sporadic PPNAD, inactivation of two cAMP-binding phosphodiesterases (PDE11A and PDE8B) are associated with iMAD even if they are also found in PPNAD and PBMAH cases. Interestingly, PBMAH that is observed in multiple familial syndrome such as APC, menin, fumarate hydratase genes, has initially been associated with the aberrant expression of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) leading to an activation of cAMP/PKA pathway. However, more recently, the discovery of germline mutations in Armadillo repeat containing protein 5 (ARMC5) gene in 25-50% of PBMAH patients highlights its importance in the development of PBMAH. The potential relationship between ARMC5 mutations and aberrant GPCR expression is discussed as well as the potential other causes of PBMAH.

10.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(3)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912137

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Carney Complex (CNC) is a rare multiple endocrine and nonendocrine neoplasia syndrome. Manifestations and genotype-phenotype correlations have been described by retrospective studies, but no prospective study evaluating the occurrence of the different manifestations has been available so far. METHODS: This multicenter national prospective study included patients with CNC, primary pigmented nodular adrenal disease (PPNAD), or a pathogenic PRKAR1A mutation; after a full initial workup, participants were followed for 3 years with annual standardized evaluation. RESULTS: The cohort included 70 patients (50 female/20 male, mean age 35.4 ± 16.7 years, 81% carrying PRKAR1A mutation). The initial investigations allowed identification of several manifestations. At the end of the 3-year follow-up, the newly diagnosed manifestations of the disease were subclinical acromegaly in 6 patients, bilateral testicular calcifications in 1 patient, and cardiac myxomas in 2 patients. Recurrences of cardiac myxomas were diagnosed in 4 patients during the 3-year follow-up study period. Asymptomatic abnormalities of the corticotroph and somatotroph axis that did not meet criteria of PPNAD and acromegaly were observed in 11.4% and 30% of the patients, respectively. Patients carrying the PRKAR1A c.709-7del6 mutation had a mild phenotype. CONCLUSION: This study underlines the importance of a systematic follow-up of the CNC manifestations, especially a biannual screening for cardiac myxoma. By contrast, regular screening for the other manifestations after a first extensive workup could be spread out, leading to a lighter and more acceptable follow-up schedule for patients. These are important results for recommendations for long-term management of CNC patients.

11.
Endocrine ; 67(3): 708-717, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583575

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Paraneoplastic Cushing's syndrome (PCS) is frequently caused by neuroendocrine tumours (NETs). Approximately 20% of tumours are still occult years later. Gallium-68 somatostatin receptor-PET/CT is promising for the detection of the causal primary NET, but its role in case of recurrent PCS is rarely reported. We report our experience with DOTATOC PET/CT in localising the causal NET in cases of initial but also recurrent PCS, and its clinical impact. METHODS: A retrospective review of all DOTATOC PET/CTs performed in consecutive patients referred for PCS to our centre, between January 2011 and June 2017, was done. Nineteen patients underwent 26 PET/CTs, 13 for detection of a primary NET, seven for persistent or recurrent PCS after resection, and six for surveillance after resection of NETs previously detected on a DOTATOC PET/CT in our centre. RESULTS: Among the 13 PET/CTs performed to search for primary NET, five were positive: four carcinoid lung tumours were confirmed after resection and one lung focus was not confirmed since surgery would have carried a high risk. Clinical impact was 23% (3/13). Among the seven PET/CTs performed for persistent or recurrent PCS, six were true-positive, with confirmation of metastatic lymph nodes after resection. Clinical impact was 57% (4/7). All PET/CTs performed for surveillance were true-negative. CONCLUSIONS: DOTATOC PET/CT seems to be a valuable tool for detection of the NET responsible for persistent or recurrent PCS after surgery. In this context, DOTATOC PET/CT was more effective than for the detection of the causal tumour in initial PCS.

12.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(3)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678991

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are neuroendocrine tumors explained by germline or somatic mutations in about 70% of cases. Patients with SDHB mutations are at high risk of developing metastatic disease, yet no reliable tumor biomarkers are available to predict tumor aggressiveness. OBJECTIVE: We aimed at identifying long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) specific for PPGL molecular groups and metastatic progression. DESIGN AND METHODS: To analyze the expression of lncRNAs, we used a mining approach of transcriptome data from a well-characterized series of 187 tumor tissues. Clustering consensus analysis was performed to determine a lncRNA-based classification, and informative transcripts were validated in an independent series of 51 PPGLs. The expression of metastasis-related lncRNAs was confirmed by RT-qPCR. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to estimate the predictive accuracy of potential markers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Univariate/multivariate and metastasis-free survival (MFS) analyses were carried out for the assessment of risk factors and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: Four lncRNA-based subtypes strongly correlated with mRNA expression clusters (chi-square P-values from 1.38 × 10-32 to 1.07 × 10-67). We identified one putative lncRNA (GenBank: BC063866) that accurately discriminates metastatic from benign tumors in patients with SDHx mutations (area under the curve 0.95; P = 4.59 × 10-05). Moreover, this transcript appeared as an independent risk factor associated with poor clinical outcome of SDHx carriers (log-rank test P = 2.29 × 10-05). CONCLUSION: Our findings extend the spectrum of transcriptional dysregulations in PPGL to lncRNAs and provide a novel biomarker that could be useful to identify potentially metastatic tumors in patients carrying SDHx mutations.

13.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(3)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665449

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Urine steroid metabolomics, combining mass spectrometry-based steroid profiling and machine learning, has been described as a novel diagnostic tool for detection of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). OBJECTIVE, DESIGN, SETTING: This proof-of-concept study evaluated the performance of urine steroid metabolomics as a tool for postoperative recurrence detection after microscopically complete (R0) resection of ACC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 135 patients from 14 clinical centers provided postoperative urine samples, which were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We assessed the utility of these urine steroid profiles in detecting ACC recurrence, either when interpreted by expert clinicians or when analyzed by random forest, a machine learning-based classifier. Radiological recurrence detection served as the reference standard. RESULTS: Imaging detected recurrent disease in 42 of 135 patients; 32 had provided pre- and post-recurrence urine samples. 39 patients remained disease-free for ≥3 years. The urine "steroid fingerprint" at recurrence resembled that observed before R0 resection in the majority of cases. Review of longitudinally collected urine steroid profiles by 3 blinded experts detected recurrence by the time of radiological diagnosis in 50% to 72% of cases, improving to 69% to 92%, if a preoperative urine steroid result was available. Recurrence detection by steroid profiling preceded detection by imaging by more than 2 months in 22% to 39% of patients. Specificities varied considerably, ranging from 61% to 97%. The computational classifier detected ACC recurrence with superior accuracy (sensitivity = specificity = 81%). CONCLUSION: Urine steroid metabolomics is a promising tool for postoperative recurrence detection in ACC; availability of a preoperative urine considerably improves the ability to detect ACC recurrence.

14.
Cancer Cell ; 37(1): 123-134.e5, 2020 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883967

RESUMO

Pituitary neuroendocrine tumors (PitNETs) are common, with five main histological subtypes: lactotroph, somatotroph, and thyrotroph (POU1F1/PIT1 lineage); corticotroph (TBX19/TPIT lineage); and gonadotroph (NR5A1/SF1 lineage). We report a comprehensive pangenomic classification of PitNETs. PitNETs from POU1F1/PIT1 lineage showed an epigenetic signature of diffuse DNA hypomethylation, with transposable elements expression and chromosomal instability (except for GNAS-mutated somatotrophs). In TPIT lineage, corticotrophs were divided into three classes: the USP8-mutated with overt secretion, the USP8-wild-type with increased invasiveness and increased epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and the large silent tumors with gonadotroph transdifferentiation. Unexpected expression of gonadotroph markers was also found in GNAS-wild-type somatotrophs (SF1 expression), challenging the current definition of SF1/gonadotroph lineage. This classification improves our understanding and affects the clinical stratification of patients with PitNETs.


Assuntos
Tumores Neuroendócrinos/diagnóstico , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/genética , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Linhagem da Célula , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Metilação de DNA , Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Complexos Endossomais de Distribuição Requeridos para Transporte/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Epigenoma , Exoma , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Invasividade Neoplásica , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/patologia , Hipófise/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/patologia , Prognóstico , Transcriptoma , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
15.
Mol Cell Endocrinol ; 500: 110636, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678420

RESUMO

Adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) frequently cause steroid excess and present cell-cycle dysregulation. cAMP/PKA signaling is involved in steroid synthesis and play a role in cell-cycle regulation. We investigated, by cell synchronization in the different phases of the cell-cycle, the control of steroidogenesis and the contribution of PKA in adrenocortical cells (H295R and culture of primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease cells). Cells showed increased steroidogenesis and a maximal PKA activity at G2 phase, and a reduction at G1 phase. PRKACA overexpression, or cAMP stimulation, enhanced PKA activity and induced steroidogenesis in all synchronized groups but is not sufficient to drive cell-cycle progression. PRKAR1A inactivation enhanced PKA activity and induced STAR gene expression, only in cells in G1, and triggered cell-cycle progression in all groups. These findings provide evidence for a tight association between steroidogenesis and cell-cycle in ACTs. Moreover, PRKAR1A is essential for mediating the function of PKA activity on both steroidogenesis and cell-cycle progression in adrenocortical cells.

16.
Expert Rev Anticancer Ther ; 19(12): 1089-1100, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825691

RESUMO

Introduction: Neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas (pNETs) represent only 1% to 2% of all pancreatic neoplasms. These tumors can be classified as functional or nonfunctional tumors; as sporadic or from a genetic origin; as neuroendocrine neoplasms or carcinoma. Over the last decade, diagnosis of pNETs has increased significantly mainly due to the widespread use of cross-sectional imaging. Those tumors are usually associated with a good prognosis. Surgery, the only curative option for those patients, should always be discussed, ideally in a multidisciplinary team setting.Areas covered: We discuss i), the preoperative management of pNETs and the importance of accurate diagnosis, localization, grading and staging with computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, endoscopic ultrasound, and nuclear medicine imaging; ii), surgical indications and iii), the surgical approach (standard pancreatectomy vs pancreatic-sparing surgery).Expert opinion: The treatment option of all patients presenting with pNETs should be discussed in a multidisciplinary team setting with surgeon's experienced in both pancreatic surgery and neuroendocrine tumor management. A complete preoperative imaging assessment - morphological and functional - must be performed. Surgery is usually recommended for functional pNETs, nonfunctional pNETs >2 cm (nf-pNETs) or for symptomatic nf-pNETs.


Assuntos
Tumores Neuroendócrinos/cirurgia , Pancreatectomia/métodos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Humanos , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/diagnóstico , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos
17.
Exp Suppl ; 111: 149-169, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588532

RESUMO

Adrenocortical malignancies can occur in the context of several tumor predisposition syndromes.The Carney complex (CNC) is responsible for the majority of primary pigmented nodular adrenal diseases and is more rarely associated with adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). Other core manifestations of CNC include cardiac and cutaneous myxomas, lentiginosis, somatotroph pituitary adenomas, Sertoli tumors, melanocytic schwannoma, and thyroid, breast, and bone tumors. CNC is mostly due to germline inactivating mutations of PRKAR1A.The majority of childhood ACC are related to genetic predisposition. The Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is an overgrowth and tumor predisposition syndrome due to genetic or epigenetic alterations at the 11p15 locus. Classical tumor spectrum of BWS includes embryonal tumors and childhood ACC. The Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is a devastating tumor predisposition syndrome, due to germline inactivating mutations of TP53, and characterized by a high, various, and early-onset cancer risk. LFS spectrum includes premenopausal breast cancer, soft-tissue sarcoma, osteosarcoma, central nervous system tumor, and ACC, accounting for 50-80% of pediatric cases. Finally, germline predisposition affects up to 10% of adult ACC patients, mostly in part of LFS and Lynch syndrome.This chapter focuses on the diagnosis, screening, and management of adrenal tumors in part of these tumor predisposition syndromes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/genética , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/genética , Síndrome de Beckwith-Wiedemann/genética , Complexo de Carney/genética , Síndrome de Li-Fraumeni/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379752

RESUMO

Background: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumor entity with restricted therapeutic opportunities. HSP90 (Heat Shock Protein 90) chaperone activity is fundamental for cell survival and contributes to different oncogenic signaling pathways. Indeed, agents targeting HSP90 function have shown therapeutic efficacy in several cancer types. We have examined the expression of HSP90 in different adrenal tumors and evaluated the use of HSP90 inhibitors in vitro as possible therapy for ACC. Methods: Immunohistochemical expression of HSP90 isoforms was investigated in different adrenocortical tumors and associated with clinical features. Additionally, a panel of N-terminal (17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), luminespib, and ganetespib) and C-terminal (novobiocin and silibinin) HSP90 inhibitors were tested on various ACC cell lines. Results: Within adrenocortical tumors, ACC samples exhibited the highest expression of HSP90ß. Within a cohort of ACC patients, HSP90ß expression levels were inversely correlated with recurrence-free and overall survival. In functional assays, among five different compounds tested luminespib and ganetespib induced a significant decrease in cell viability in single as well as in combined treatments with compounds of the clinically used EDP-M scheme (etoposide, doxorubicin, cisplatin, mitotane). Inhibition of cell viability correlated furthermore with a decrease in proliferation, in cell migration and an increase in apoptosis. Moreover, analysis of cancer pathways indicated a modulation of the ERK1/2-and AKT-pathways by luminespib and ganetespib treatment. Conclusions: Our findings emphasize HSP90 as a marker with prognostic impact and promising target with N-terminal HSP90 inhibitors as drugs with potential therapeutic efficacy toward ACC.

19.
Br J Cancer ; 121(5): 384-394, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: EZH2 is overexpressed and associated with poor prognosis in adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) and its inhibition reduces growth and aggressiveness of ACC cells in culture. Although EZH2 was identified as the methyltransferase that deposits the repressive H3K27me3 histone mark, it can cooperate with transcription factors to stimulate gene transcription. METHODS: We used bioinformatics approaches on gene expression data from three cohorts of patients and a mouse model of EZH2 ablation, to identify targets and mode of action of EZH2 in ACC. This was followed by ChIP and functional assays to evaluate contribution of identified targets to ACC pathogenesis. RESULTS: We show that EZH2 mostly works as a transcriptional inducer in ACC, through cooperation with the transcription factor E2F1 and identify three positive targets involved in cell cycle regulation and mitosis i.e., RRM2, PTTG1 and ASE1/PRC1. Overexpression of these genes is associated with poor prognosis, suggesting a potential role in acquisition of aggressive ACC features. Pharmacological and siRNA-mediated inhibition of RRM2 blocks cell proliferation, induces apoptosis and inhibits cell migration, suggesting that it may be an interesting target in ACC. CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, these data show an unexpected role of EZH2 and E2F1 in stimulating expression of genes associated with ACC aggressiveness.

20.
Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 33(5): 101294, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351817

RESUMO

Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (PanNET) are rare tumours, accounting for 1%-2% of all pancreatic neoplasms. These tumors are classified as functioning neuroendocrine tumours (F-PanNETs) or non-functioning (NF-PanNETs) depends on whether the tumour is associated with clinical hormonal hypersecretion syndrome or not. In the last decades, diagnosis of PanNETs has increased significantly due to the widespread of cross-sectional imaging. Whenever possible, surgery is the cornerstone of PanNETs management and the only curative option for these patients. Indeed, after R0 resection, the 5-year overall survival rate is around 90-100% for low grade lesions but significantly drops after incomplete resections. Compared to standard resections, pancreatic sparing surgery, i.e. enucleation and central pancreatectomy, significantly decreased the risk of pancreatic insufficiency. It should be performed in patients with good general condition and normal pancreatic function to limit the operative risk and enhance the benefit of surgery. Nowadays, due to many known advantages of minimally invasive surgery, there is an ongoing trend towards laparoscopic and robotic pancreatic surgery. The aim of this study is to describe the pre- and intraoperative diagnostic requirements for the management of PanNETs and the benefits and risks of minimally invasive surgery including laparoscopic and robotic approach in view of the recent literature.


Assuntos
Laparoscopia/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/métodos , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/cirurgia , Pancreatectomia/métodos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/métodos , Humanos , Período Intraoperatório , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Laparoscopia/normas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/normas , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/diagnóstico , Pancreatectomia/efeitos adversos , Pancreatectomia/normas , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Período Pré-Operatório , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/normas
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