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1.
Psychol Health Med ; : 1-11, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505944

RESUMO

The disclosure of genetic information is an important issue in cancer prevention. This study based on a French national cohort of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers (GENEPSO-PS cohort, N=233) aimed to assess the prevalence of parental disclosure of genetic information to children 10 years after genetic testing, with a focus on gender differences. Most participants (n = 193, 131 women) reported having children. A total of 72.0% of offspring had received genetic information (88.8% for adult offspring, p < .001), with no differences according to the gender of the mutation-carrying parent. While female carriers disclosed genetic information more often than male carriers (54.1% versus 38.3%, p = .029), they did so irrespective of the gender of their offspring. Moreover, female carriers who had developed incident cancer after genetic testing disclosed genetic information more frequently than unaffected female carriers (70.7% versus 48.5%, p = .005). A multivariate analysis confirmed the effects of both gender and cancer on disclosure to offspring. The same results were obtained when the analysis was restricted to adult offspring. This study reveals high rates of disclosure of positive BRCA1/2 mutation status to children 10 years after genetic testing, irrespective of the gender of the carrier/offspring. However, female carriers disclosed genetic information more frequently than male carriers.

2.
Psychooncology ; 28(9): 1894-1900, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276266

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Genetic counseling in at-risk families is known to improve cancer prevention. Our study aimed to determine the rate of uptake of genetic counseling among adult children of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and to identify the potential psychosocial factors associated with uptake of genetic counseling. METHODS: A self-reported questionnaire was mailed to 328 BRCA1/2 mutation carriers 10 years after BRCA1/2 test disclosure. Of the 233 carriers who returned the questionnaire (response rate = 71%), 135 reported having children over age 18 years and were therefore included in the analysis. Generalized estimating equations models were used to identify the factors associated with uptake of genetic counseling among adult children of mutation carriers. RESULTS: Data were gathered for a total of 296 children (46% male, 54% female). The vast majority were informed about the familial mutation (90.9%) and 113 (38%; 95% CI, 32%-44%) underwent genetic counseling. This percentage exceeded 80% in women over 40 years. In the multivariate model, female sex, advanced age, mutation in the father, diagnosis of cancer in the mutation-carrying parent after genetic testing, and good family relationships were all factors associated with higher uptake of genetic counseling. CONCLUSIONS: Adult children of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers in France do not undergo genetic counseling sufficiently often. Further studies should be conducted on the psychosocial factors that hinder the uptake of genetic counseling among adult children of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers.

4.
Int J Cancer ; 2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30303537

RESUMO

Pathogenic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 only explain the underlying genetic cause of about 10% of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer families. Because of cost-effectiveness, multigene panel testing is often performed even if the clinical utility of testing most of the genes remains questionable. The purpose of our study was to assess the contribution of rare, deleterious-predicted variants in DNA repair genes in familial breast cancer (BC) in a well-characterized and homogeneous population. We analyzed 113 DNA repair genes selected from either an exome sequencing or a candidate gene approach in the GENESIS study, which includes familial BC cases with no BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation and having a sister with BC (N = 1,207), and general population controls (N = 1,199). Sequencing data were filtered for rare loss-of-function variants (LoF) and likely deleterious missense variants (MV). We confirmed associations between LoF and MV in PALB2, ATM and CHEK2 and BC occurrence. We also identified for the first time associations between FANCI, MAST1, POLH and RTEL1 and BC susceptibility. Unlike other associated genes, carriers of an ATM LoF had a significantly higher risk of developing BC than carriers of an ATM MV (ORLoF = 17.4 vs. ORMV = 1.6; p Het = 0.002). Hence, our approach allowed us to specify BC relative risks associated with deleterious-predicted variants in PALB2, ATM and CHEK2 and to add MAST1, POLH, RTEL1 and FANCI to the list of DNA repair genes possibly involved in BC susceptibility. We also highlight that different types of variants within the same gene can lead to different risk estimates.

5.
Bull Cancer ; 105(10): 907-917, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30268633

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Next generation sequencing allows the simultaneous analysis of large panel of genes for families or individuals with a strong suspicion of hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer (HBOC). Because of lack of guidelines, several panels of genes potentially involved in HBOC were designed, with large disparities not only in their composition but also in medical care offered to mutation carriers. Then, homogenization in practices is needed. METHODS: The French Genetic and Cancer Group (GGC) - Unicancer conducted an exhaustive bibliographic work on 18 genes of interest. Only publications with unbiased risk estimates were retained. RESULTS: The expertise of each 18 genes was based on clinical utility criteria, i.e. a relative risk of cancer of 4 and more, available medical tools for screening and prevention of mutation carriers, and pre-symptomatic genetic tests for relatives. Finally, 13 genes were selected to be included in a HBOC diagnosis gene panel: BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, TP53, CDH1, PTEN, RAD51C, RAD51D, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, EPCAM. The reasons for excluding NBN, RAD51B, CHEK2, STK11, ATM, BARD1, BRIP1 from the HBOC diagnosis panel are presented. Screening, prevention and genetic counselling guidelines were detailed for each of the 18 genes. DISCUSSION: Due to the rapid increase in knowledge, the GGC has planned a yearly update of the bibliography to take into account new findings. Furthermore, genetic-epidemiological studies are being initiated to better estimate the cancer risk associated with genes which are not yet included in the HBOC diagnosis panel.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Antígenos CD , Caderinas , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Molécula de Adesão da Célula Epitelial/genética , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação N da Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Feminino , França , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Genes p53 , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Humanos , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética
6.
Genet Med ; 2018 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29988077

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Integration of gene panels in the diagnosis of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) requires a careful evaluation of the risk associated with pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants (PVs) detected in each gene. Here we analyzed 34 genes in 5131 suspected HBOC index cases by next-generation sequencing. METHODS: Using the Exome Aggregation Consortium data sets plus 571 individuals from the French Exome Project, we simulated the probability that an individual from the Exome Aggregation Consortium carries a PV and compared it to the estimated frequency within the HBOC population. RESULTS: Odds ratio conferred by PVs within BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, RAD51C, RAD51D, ATM, BRIP1, CHEK2, and MSH6 were estimated at 13.22 [10.01-17.22], 8.61 [6.78-10.82], 8.22 [4.91-13.05], 4.54 [2.55-7.48], 5.23 [1.46-13.17], 3.20 [2.14-4.53], 2.49 [1.42-3.97], 1.67 [1.18-2.27], and 2.50 [1.12-4.67], respectively. PVs within RAD51C, RAD51D, and BRIP1 were associated with ovarian cancer family history (OR = 11.36 [5.78-19.59], 12.44 [2.94-33.30] and 3.82 [1.66-7.11]). PALB2 PVs were associated with bilateral breast cancer (OR = 16.17 [5.48-34.10]) and BARD1 PVs with triple-negative breast cancer (OR = 11.27 [3.37-25.01]). Burden tests performed in both patients and the French Exome Project population confirmed the association of PVs of BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, and RAD51C with HBOC. CONCLUSION: Our results validate the integration of PALB2, RAD51C, and RAD51D in the diagnosis of HBOC and suggest that the other genes are involved in an oligogenic determinism.

7.
Breast Cancer Res ; 20(1): 28, 2018 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29665859

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene is a moderate-risk breast cancer susceptibility gene; germline loss-of-function variants are found in up to 3% of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) families who undergo genetic testing. So far, no clear histopathological and molecular features of breast tumours occurring in ATM deleterious variant carriers have been described, but identification of an ATM-associated tumour signature may help in patient management. METHODS: To characterise hallmarks of ATM-associated tumours, we performed systematic pathology review of tumours from 21 participants from ataxia-telangiectasia families and 18 participants from HBOC families, as well as copy number profiling on a subset of 23 tumours. Morphology of ATM-associated tumours was compared with that of 599 patients with no BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations from a hospital-based series, as well as with data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Absolute copy number and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) profiles were obtained from the OncoScan SNP array. In addition, we performed whole-genome sequencing on four tumours from ATM loss-of-function variant carriers with available frozen material. RESULTS: We found that ATM-associated tumours belong mostly to the luminal B subtype, are tetraploid and show LOH at the ATM locus at 11q22-23. Unlike tumours in which BRCA1 or BRCA2 is inactivated, tumours arising in ATM deleterious variant carriers are not associated with increased large-scale genomic instability as measured by the large-scale state transitions signature. Losses at 13q14.11-q14.3, 17p13.2-p12, 21p11.2-p11.1 and 22q11.23 were observed. Somatic alterations at these loci may therefore represent biomarkers for ATM testing and harbour driver mutations in potentially 'druggable' genes that would allow patients to be directed towards tailored therapeutic strategies. CONCLUSIONS: Although ATM is involved in the DNA damage response, ATM-associated tumours are distinct from BRCA1-associated tumours in terms of morphological characteristics and genomic alterations, and they are also distinguishable from sporadic breast tumours, thus opening up the possibility to identify ATM variant carriers outside the ataxia-telangiectasia disorder and direct them towards effective cancer risk management and therapeutic strategies.

8.
Fam Cancer ; 17(3): 451-457, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29080081

RESUMO

One of the main challenges in cancer genetics is responding to the exponential demand for genetic counseling, especially in patients with breast and/or ovarian cancer. To address this demand, we have set up a new procedure, based on pre-genetic counseling telephone interviews (PTI) followed by routing of patients: D1, a PTI is scheduled within 14 days; D7-D14, genetic counselors perform a 20 min PTI in order to establish a pre-genetic counseling file, by collecting personal and family medical history via a structured questionnaire and; D10-17, routing: pre-genetic counseling appointment files are analyzed by a cancer geneticist with 3 possible conclusions: (a) priority face-to-face genetic counseling (FTFGC) appointment with a cancer geneticist, if the genetic test results have an immediate therapeutic impact; (b) non-priority FTFGC with a genetic counselor, or (c) no FTFGC required or substitution by a more appropriate index case. In the context of breast and/or ovarian cancer, 1012 patients received PTIs, 39.1% of which did not lead to FTFGC. The mean delay for non-priority FTFGC was maintained at 18 weeks and priority FTFGC appointments were guaranteed within 8 weeks. The required resources for 1012 patients was estimated at 0.12 FTE secretaries, 0.62 FTE genetic counselors and 0.08 FTE cancer geneticists and the procedure was shown to be cost-effective. This new procedure allows the suppression of up to 1/3 of appointments, guarantees priority for appointments with therapeutic impact and optimizes the interaction and breakdown of tasks between genetic counselors and cancer geneticists.

9.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 25(12): 1345-1353, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29255180

RESUMO

RAD51 paralogs (RAD51B, RAD51C, RAD51D, XRCC2, and XRCC3) have recently been involved in breast and ovarian cancer predisposition: RAD51B, RAD51C, and RAD51D in ovarian cancer, RAD51B and XRCC2 in breast cancer. The aim of this study was to estimate the contribution of deleterious variants in the five RAD51 paralogs to breast and ovarian cancers. The five RAD51 paralog genes were analyzed by next-generation sequencing technologies in germline DNA from 2649 consecutive patients diagnosed with breast and/or ovarian cancer. Twenty-one different deleterious variants were identified in the RAD51 paralogs in 30 patients: RAD51B (n = 4), RAD51C (n = 12), RAD51D (n = 7), XRCC2 (n = 2), and XRCC3 (n = 5). The overall deleterious variant rate was 1.13% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.72-1.55%) (30/2649), including 15 variants in breast cancer only cases (15/2063; 0.73% (95% CI: 0.34-1.11%)) and 15 variants in cases with at least one ovarian cancer (15/570; 2.63% (95% CI: 1.24-4.02%)). This study is the first evaluation of the five RAD51 paralogs in breast and ovarian cancer predisposition and it demonstrates that deleterious variants can be present in breast cancer only cases. Moreover, this is the first time that XRCC3 deleterious variants have been identified in breast and ovarian cancer cases.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Rad51 Recombinase/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia
10.
Carcinogenesis ; 38(10): 994-1003, 2017 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28981872

RESUMO

Recent studies have linked constitutive telomere length (TL) to aging-related diseases including cancer at different sites. ATM participates in the signaling of telomere erosion, and inherited mutations in ATM have been associated with increased risk of cancer, particularly breast cancer. The goal of this study was to investigate whether carriage of an ATM mutation and TL interplay to modify cancer risk in ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) families.The study population consisted of 284 heterozygous ATM mutation carriers (HetAT) and 174 non-carriers (non-HetAT) from 103 A-T families. Forty-eight HetAT and 14 non-HetAT individuals had cancer, among them 25 HetAT and 6 non-HetAT were diagnosed after blood sample collection. We measured mean TL using a quantitative PCR assay and genotyped seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) recurrently associated with TL in large population-based studies.HetAT individuals were at increased risk of cancer (OR = 2.3, 95%CI = 1.2-4.4, P = 0.01), and particularly of breast cancer for women (OR = 2.9, 95%CI = 1.2-7.1, P = 0.02), in comparison to their non-HetAT relatives. HetAT individuals had longer telomeres than non-HetAT individuals (P = 0.0008) but TL was not associated with cancer risk, and no significant interaction was observed between ATM mutation status and TL. Furthermore, rs9257445 (ZNF311) was associated with TL in HetAT subjects and rs6060627 (BCL2L1) modified cancer risk in HetAT and non-HetAT women.Our findings suggest that carriage of an ATM mutation impacts on the age-related TL shortening and that TL per se is not related to cancer risk in ATM carriers. TL measurement alone is not a good marker for predicting cancer risk in A-T families.


Assuntos
Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Ataxia Telangiectasia/complicações , Mutação , Neoplasias/genética , Telômero/genética , Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Encurtamento do Telômero/genética , Proteína bcl-X/genética
11.
JAMA ; 317(23): 2402-2416, 2017 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28632866

RESUMO

Importance: The clinical management of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers requires accurate, prospective cancer risk estimates. Objectives: To estimate age-specific risks of breast, ovarian, and contralateral breast cancer for mutation carriers and to evaluate risk modification by family cancer history and mutation location. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective cohort study of 6036 BRCA1 and 3820 BRCA2 female carriers (5046 unaffected and 4810 with breast or ovarian cancer or both at baseline) recruited in 1997-2011 through the International BRCA1/2 Carrier Cohort Study, the Breast Cancer Family Registry and the Kathleen Cuningham Foundation Consortium for Research into Familial Breast Cancer, with ascertainment through family clinics (94%) and population-based studies (6%). The majority were from large national studies in the United Kingdom (EMBRACE), the Netherlands (HEBON), and France (GENEPSO). Follow-up ended December 2013; median follow-up was 5 years. Exposures: BRCA1/2 mutations, family cancer history, and mutation location. Main Outcomes and Measures: Annual incidences, standardized incidence ratios, and cumulative risks of breast, ovarian, and contralateral breast cancer. Results: Among 3886 women (median age, 38 years; interquartile range [IQR], 30-46 years) eligible for the breast cancer analysis, 5066 women (median age, 38 years; IQR, 31-47 years) eligible for the ovarian cancer analysis, and 2213 women (median age, 47 years; IQR, 40-55 years) eligible for the contralateral breast cancer analysis, 426 were diagnosed with breast cancer, 109 with ovarian cancer, and 245 with contralateral breast cancer during follow-up. The cumulative breast cancer risk to age 80 years was 72% (95% CI, 65%-79%) for BRCA1 and 69% (95% CI, 61%-77%) for BRCA2 carriers. Breast cancer incidences increased rapidly in early adulthood until ages 30 to 40 years for BRCA1 and until ages 40 to 50 years for BRCA2 carriers, then remained at a similar, constant incidence (20-30 per 1000 person-years) until age 80 years. The cumulative ovarian cancer risk to age 80 years was 44% (95% CI, 36%-53%) for BRCA1 and 17% (95% CI, 11%-25%) for BRCA2 carriers. For contralateral breast cancer, the cumulative risk 20 years after breast cancer diagnosis was 40% (95% CI, 35%-45%) for BRCA1 and 26% (95% CI, 20%-33%) for BRCA2 carriers (hazard ratio [HR] for comparing BRCA2 vs BRCA1, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.47-0.82; P=.001 for difference). Breast cancer risk increased with increasing number of first- and second-degree relatives diagnosed as having breast cancer for both BRCA1 (HR for ≥2 vs 0 affected relatives, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.41-2.82; P<.001 for trend) and BRCA2 carriers (HR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.08-3.37; P=.02 for trend). Breast cancer risk was higher if mutations were located outside vs within the regions bounded by positions c.2282-c.4071 in BRCA1 (HR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.11-1.93; P=.007) and c.2831-c.6401 in BRCA2 (HR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.36-2.74; P<.001). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings provide estimates of cancer risk based on BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carrier status using prospective data collection and demonstrate the potential importance of family history and mutation location in risk assessment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Mutação , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Fam Cancer ; 16(2): 167-171, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27783335

RESUMO

Germline allele specific expression (ASE), resulting in a lowered expression of one of the BRCA1 alleles, has been described as a possible predisposition marker in Hereditary Breast or Ovarian Cancer (HBOC), usable for molecular diagnosis in HBOC. The main objective of this prospective case-control study was to compare the proportion of ASE between controls without familial history of breast or ovarian cancer, and HBOC cases without BRCA1 or BRCA2 deleterious mutation. BRCA1 ASE evaluated on three SNPs among controls and HBOC patients without deleterious mutation were assessed by pyrosequencing. The allelic ratios and the proportion of ASE were compared between controls and cases using a Student's t test and a Fisher exact test, respectively. The linearity and reproducibility of the ASE dosage was demonstrated with R2 > 0.99 and a coefficient of variation below 10 %, and ASE was detected in two positive controls harbouring BRCA1 truncated mutations. In the heterozygote population, composed of 99/264 controls (37.5 %) and 96/227 patients (42.3 %), we detected a 5 % ASE without truncated mutations, in each population. We failed to detect any significant difference of ASE between controls and patients. So far, BRCA1 Allelic specific expression is not usable in routine diagnosis as a possible predisposition marker in HBOC patients except for the detection of truncated mutations.


Assuntos
Desequilíbrio Alélico/genética , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 161(1): 117-134, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27796716

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cis-acting regulatory SNPs resulting in differential allelic expression (DAE) may, in part, explain the underlying phenotypic variation associated with many complex diseases. To investigate whether common variants associated with DAE were involved in breast cancer susceptibility among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, a list of 175 genes was developed based of their involvement in cancer-related pathways. METHODS: Using data from a genome-wide map of SNPs associated with allelic expression, we assessed the association of ~320 SNPs located in the vicinity of these genes with breast and ovarian cancer risks in 15,252 BRCA1 and 8211 BRCA2 mutation carriers ascertained from 54 studies participating in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2. RESULTS: We identified a region on 11q22.3 that is significantly associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers (most significant SNP rs228595 p = 7 × 10-6). This association was absent in BRCA2 carriers (p = 0.57). The 11q22.3 region notably encompasses genes such as ACAT1, NPAT, and ATM. Expression quantitative trait loci associations were observed in both normal breast and tumors across this region, namely for ACAT1, ATM, and other genes. In silico analysis revealed some overlap between top risk-associated SNPs and relevant biological features in mammary cell data, which suggests potential functional significance. CONCLUSION: We identified 11q22.3 as a new modifier locus in BRCA1 carriers. Replication in larger studies using estrogen receptor (ER)-negative or triple-negative (i.e., ER-, progesterone receptor-, and HER2-negative) cases could therefore be helpful to confirm the association of this locus with breast cancer risk.


Assuntos
Alelos , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Heterozigoto , Mutação , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Cromossomos Humanos Par 11 , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Humanos , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Risco
14.
Breast Cancer Res ; 18(1): 112, 2016 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27836010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers have inherited a single (heterozygous) mutation. Transheterozygotes (TH) who have inherited deleterious mutations in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 are rare, and the consequences of transheterozygosity are poorly understood. METHODS: From 32,295 female BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, we identified 93 TH (0.3 %). "Cases" were defined as TH, and "controls" were single mutations at BRCA1 (SH1) or BRCA2 (SH2). Matched SH1 "controls" carried a BRCA1 mutation found in the TH "case". Matched SH2 "controls" carried a BRCA2 mutation found in the TH "case". After matching the TH carriers with SH1 or SH2, 91 TH were matched to 9316 SH1, and 89 TH were matched to 3370 SH2. RESULTS: The majority of TH (45.2 %) involved the three common Jewish mutations. TH were more likely than SH1 and SH2 women to have been ever diagnosed with breast cancer (BC; p = 0.002). TH were more likely to be diagnosed with ovarian cancer (OC) than SH2 (p = 0.017), but not SH1. Age at BC diagnosis was the same in TH vs. SH1 (p = 0.231), but was on average 4.5 years younger in TH than in SH2 (p < 0.001). BC in TH was more likely to be estrogen receptor (ER) positive (p = 0.010) or progesterone receptor (PR) positive (p = 0.013) than in SH1, but less likely to be ER positive (p < 0.001) or PR positive (p = 0.012) than SH2. Among 15 tumors from TH patients, there was no clear pattern of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) for BRCA1 or BRCA2 in either BC or OC. CONCLUSIONS: Our observations suggest that clinical TH phenotypes resemble SH1. However, TH breast tumor marker characteristics are phenotypically intermediate to SH1 and SH2.


Assuntos
Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Vigilância da População , Alelos , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Éxons , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Perda de Heterozigosidade , Fenótipo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
15.
BMC Cancer ; 16: 13, 2016 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26758370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Less than 20% of familial breast cancer patients who undergo genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 carry a pathogenic mutation in one of these two genes. The GENESIS (GENE SISter) study was designed to identify new breast cancer susceptibility genes in women attending cancer genetics clinics and with no BRCA1/2 mutation. METHODS: The study involved the French national network of family cancer clinics. It was based on enrichment in genetic factors of the recruited population through case selection relying on familial criteria, but also on the consideration of environmental factors and endophenotypes like mammary density or tumor characteristics to assess potential genetic heterogeneity. One of the initial aims of GENESIS was to recruit affected sibpairs. Siblings were eligible when index cases and at least one affected sister were diagnosed with infiltrating mammary or ductal adenocarcinoma, with no BRCA1/2 mutation. In addition, unrelated controls and unaffected sisters were recruited. The enrolment of patients, their relatives and their controls, the collection of the clinical, epidemiological, familial and biological data were centralized by a coordinating center. RESULTS: Inclusion of participants started in February 2007 and ended in December 2013. A total of 1721 index cases, 826 affected sisters, 599 unaffected sisters and 1419 controls were included. 98% of participants completed the epidemiological questionnaire, 97% provided a blood sample, and 76% were able to provide mammograms. Index cases were on average 59 years old at inclusion, were born in 1950, and were 49.7 years of age at breast cancer diagnosis. The mean age at diagnosis of affected sisters was slightly higher (51.4 years). The representativeness of the control group was verified. CONCLUSIONS: The size of the study, the availability of biological specimens and the clinical data collection together with the detailed and complete epidemiological questionnaire make this a unique national resource for investigation of the missing heritability of breast cancer, by taking into account environmental and life style factors and stratifying data on endophenotypes to decrease genetic heterogeneity.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 24(1): 99-105, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25873010

RESUMO

To determine if the at-risk single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) alleles for colorectal cancer (CRC) could contribute to clinical situations suggestive of an increased genetic risk for CRC, we performed a prospective national case-control study based on highly selected patients (CRC in two first-degree relatives, one before 61 years of age; or CRC diagnosed before 51 years of age; or multiple primary CRCs, the first before 61 years of age; exclusion of Lynch syndrome and polyposes) and controls without personal or familial history of CRC. SNPs were genotyped using SNaPshot, and statistical analyses were performed using Pearson's χ(2) test, Cochran-Armitage test of trend and logistic regression. We included 1029 patients and 350 controls. We confirmed the association of CRC risk with four SNPs, with odds ratio (OR) higher than previously reported: rs16892766 on 8q23.3 (OR: 1.88, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.30-2.72; P=0.0007); rs4779584 on 15q13.3 (OR: 1.42, CI: 1.11-1.83; P=0.0061) and rs4939827 and rs58920878/Novel 1 on 18q21.1 (OR: 1.49, CI: 1.13-1.98; P=0.007 and OR: 1.49, CI: 1.14-1.95; P=0.0035). We found a significant (P<0.0001) cumulative effect of the at-risk alleles or genotypes with OR at 1.62 (CI: 1.10-2.37), 2.09 (CI: 1.43-3.07), 2.87 (CI: 1.76-4.70) and 3.88 (CI: 1.72-8.76) for 1, 2, 3 and at least 4 at-risk alleles, respectively, and OR at 1.71 (CI: 1.18-2.46), 2.29 (CI: 1.55-3.38) and 6.21 (CI: 2.67-14.42) for 1, 2 and 3 at-risk genotypes, respectively. Combination of SNPs may therefore explain a fraction of clinical situations suggestive of an increased risk for CRC.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 15 , Cromossomos Humanos Par 18 , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8 , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
17.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 154(3): 463-71, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26564480

RESUMO

Several population-based and family-based studies have demonstrated that germline mutations of the PALB2 gene (Partner and Localizer of BRCA2) are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. Distinct mutation frequencies and spectrums have been described depending on the population studied. Here we describe the first complete PALB2 coding sequence screening in the French population. We screened the complete coding sequence and intron-exon boundaries of PALB2, using the EMMA technique, to assess the contribution of pathogenic mutations in a set of 835 familial breast cancer cases and 662 unrelated controls from the French national study GENESIS and the Paul Strauss Cancer Centre, all previously tested negative for BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic mutations. Our analysis revealed the presence of four novel deleterious mutations: c.1186insT, c.1857delT and c.2850delC in three cases, c.3418dupT in one control. In addition, we identified two in-frame insertion/deletion, 19 missense substitutions (two of them predicted as pathogenic), 9 synonymous variants, 28 variants located in introns and 2 in UTRs, as well as frequent variants. Truncating PALB2 mutations were found in 0.36% of familial breast cancer cases, a frequency lower than the one detected in comparable studies in other populations (0.73-3.40%). This suggests a small but significant contribution of PALB2 mutations to the breast cancer susceptibility in the French population.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Éxons , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação N da Anemia de Fanconi , Feminino , França , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genética Populacional , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética
18.
PLoS One ; 10(9): e0136192, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26406445

RESUMO

Breast Cancer is a complex multifactorial disease for which high-penetrance mutations have been identified. Approaches used to date have identified genomic features explaining about 50% of breast cancer heritability. A number of low- to medium penetrance alleles (per-allele odds ratio < 1.5 and 4.0, respectively) have been identified, suggesting that the remaining heritability is likely to be explained by the cumulative effect of such alleles and/or by rare high-penetrance alleles. Relatively few studies have specifically explored the mitochondrial genome for variants potentially implicated in breast cancer risk. For these reasons, we propose an exploration of the variability of the mitochondrial genome in individuals diagnosed with breast cancer, having a positive breast cancer family history but testing negative for BRCA1/2 pathogenic mutations. We sequenced the mitochondrial genome of 436 index breast cancer cases from the GENESIS study. As expected, no pathogenic genomic pattern common to the 436 women included in our study was observed. The mitochondrial genes MT-ATP6 and MT-CYB were observed to carry the highest number of variants in the study. The proteins encoded by these genes are involved in the structure of the mitochondrial respiration chain, and variants in these genes may impact reactive oxygen species production contributing to carcinogenesis. More functional and epidemiological studies are needed to further investigate to what extent variants identified may influence familial breast cancer risk.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1 , Proteína BRCA2 , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , ATPases Mitocondriais Próton-Translocadoras/genética , Mutação , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Penetrância
19.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 24(4): 698-707, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25613119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in BRCA1/2 confer a high risk of breast cancer, but literature values of this risk vary. A genotype-phenotype correlation has been found in both genes, and the effect of reproductive factors differs according to mutation location. Therefore, we hypothesize that such a variation may exist for other factors related to estrogen exposure. METHODS: We used a weighted Cox regression model to assess variation in breast cancer risk with these factors using location of mutation in homogeneous breast cancer risk region of BRCA1/2 in the GENEPSO study. RESULTS: We found that late age at menarche reduced breast cancer risk by 31% and that among BRCA1 carriers, a long or a short menstrual cycle increased risk (by 65% and 73%, respectively). Among premenopausal women, overweight was associated with a 45% decrease in risk whereas underweight was associated with an increased risk (HR, 2.40). A natural menopause, mainly after age 50, was associated with a high breast cancer risk (HR, 2.46), and a significant interaction between menopause status and the location of mutations was found leading up to 10% variation in absolute risk according to the age at menopause. CONCLUSIONS: As observed in the general population, a late menarche, a long or a short menstrual cycle, over- or underweight, and being postmenopausal were associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA1/2 carriers. The association with the menopause was observed only when the mutation was located in the "high-risk" zones. IMPACT: Taking into account modifier factors, location of mutation might be important for the clinical management of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estrogênios/efeitos adversos , Mutação/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Menarca , Menopausa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , História Reprodutiva , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
20.
Bull Cancer ; 101(9): 795-802, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25295380

RESUMO

BRCA is a tumor suppressor gene implicated in the major mechanisms of cellular stability in every type of cell. Its mutations are described in numerous cancers, mainly breast and ovarian in women. It was also found an increase of lifetime risk of pancreas, colon, prostate cancer or lymphoma in men carriers. We report the cases of two female patients aged 40 and 58-years-old female patients and one 35-years-old male patient, with brain or medullar gliomas, carriers of a germline mutation of BRCA gene. Those gliomas were particularly aggressive and were not responding to the standard treatment, with chemo and radiotherapy. The very unusual characteristics in location and evolutive profile of these central nervous system tumors raise the question of a genetical underlying mechanism, maybe linked to the BRCA gene mutation that carry these patients. In addition, a non-fortuitous association between germline mutation of BRCA and occurrence of a glioma can be evoked according to the embryological, epidemiological and biomolecular findings noted in the literature. Other clinical and experimental studies are necessary to precise the physiopathological link existing between BRCA mutations and the occurrence of a glioma; this could have therapeutical and clinical implications in the future.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Glioma/genética , Mutação , Neoplasias da Medula Espinal/genética , Adulto , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Feminino , Glioma/patologia , Glioma/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Neoplasias da Medula Espinal/patologia , Neoplasias da Medula Espinal/terapia
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