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1.
J Clin Invest ; 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550240

RESUMO

Inherited optic neuropathies include complex phenotypes, mostly driven by mitochondrial dysfunction. We report an optic atrophy spectrum disorder, including retinal macular dystrophy and kidney insufficiency leading to transplantation, associated with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion without accumulation of multiple deletions. By whole-exome sequencing, we identified mutations affecting the mitochondrial single strand binding protein (SSBP1) in four families with dominant and one with recessive inheritance. We show that SSBP1 mutations in patient-derived fibroblasts variably affect its amount and alter multimer formation, but not the binding to ssDNA. SSBP1 mutations impaired mtDNA, nucleoids and 7S-DNA amounts as well as mtDNA replication, impacting replisome machinery. The variable mtDNA depletion in cells reflected in severity of mitochondrial dysfunction, including respiratory efficiency, OXPHOS subunits and complexes amount and assembly. mtDNA depletion and cytochrome c oxidase-negative cells were found ex-vivo in biopsies of affected tissues, like kidney and skeletal muscle. Reduced efficiency of mtDNA replication was also reproduced in vitro, confirming the pathogenic mechanism. Furthermore, ssbp1 suppression in zebrafish induced signs of nephropathy and reduced optic nerve size, the latter phenotype complemented by wild-type mRNA but not by SSBP1 mutant transcripts. This previously unrecognized disease of mtDNA maintenance implicates SSBP1 mutations as cause of human pathology.

2.
Ann Intern Med ; 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476771

RESUMO

Background: Mutations in the LMNA (lamin A/C) gene have been associated with neuromuscular and cardiac manifestations, but the clinical implications of these signs are not well understood. Objective: To learn more about the natural history of LMNA-related disease. Design: Observational study. Setting: 13 clinical centers in Italy from 2000 through 2018. Patients: 164 carriers of an LMNA mutation. Measurements: Detailed cardiologic and neurologic evaluation at study enrollment and for a median of 10 years of follow-up. Results: The median age at enrollment was 38 years, and 51% of participants were female. Neuromuscular manifestations preceded cardiac signs by a median of 11 years, but by the end of follow-up, 90% of the patients had electrical heart disease followed by structural heart disease. Overall, 10 patients (6%) died, 14 (9%) received a heart transplant, and 32 (20%) had malignant ventricular arrhythmias. Fifteen patients had gait loss, and 6 had respiratory failure. Atrial fibrillation and second- and third-degree atrioventricular block were observed, respectively, in 56% and 51% of patients with combined cardiac and neuromuscular manifestations and 37% and 33% of those with heart disease only. Limitations: Some of the data were collected retrospectively. Neuromuscular manifestations were more frequent in this analysis than in previous studies. Conclusion: Many patients with an LMNA mutation have neurologic symptoms by their 30s and develop progressive cardiac manifestations during the next decade. A substantial proportion of these patients will have life-threatening neurologic or cardiologic conditions. Primary Funding Source: None.

4.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 77(7): 470-477, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365638

RESUMO

METHODS: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) has gained much attention in the last few years because of the approval of the first intrathecal treatment for this neurodegenerative disease. Latin America needs to develop the demographics of SMA, timely access to diagnosis, and appropriate following of the standards of care recommendations for patients. These are essential steps to guide health policies. This was a descriptive study of a cohort of SMA patients from all over Chile. We analyzed the clinical, motor functional, and social data, as well as the care status of nutritional, respiratory and skeletal conditions. We also measured the SMN2 copy number in this population. RESULTS: We recruited 92 patients: 50 male; 23 SMA type-1, 36 SMA type-2 and 33 SMA type-3. The median age at genetic diagnosis was 5, 24 and 132 months. We evaluated the SMN2 copy number in 57 patients. The SMA type-1 patients were tracheostomized and fed by gastrostomy in a 69.6 % of cases, 65% of SMA type-2 patients received nocturnal noninvasive ventilation, and 37% of the whole cohort underwent scoliosis surgery. CONCLUSION: Ventilatory care for SMA type-1 is still based mainly on tracheostomy. This Chilean cohort of SMA patients had timely access to genetic diagnosis, ventilatory assistance, nutritional support, and scoliosis surgery. In this series, SMA type-1 is underrepresented, probably due to restrictions in access to early diagnosis and the high and early mortality rate.

5.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 7(9): 695-706, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deficiency of the thyroid hormone transporter monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) causes severe intellectual and motor disability and high serum tri-iodothyronine (T3) concentrations (Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome). This chronic thyrotoxicosis leads to progressive deterioration in bodyweight, tachycardia, and muscle wasting, predisposing affected individuals to substantial morbidity and mortality. Treatment that safely alleviates peripheral thyrotoxicosis and reverses cerebral hypothyroidism is not yet available. We aimed to investigate the effects of treatment with the T3 analogue Triac (3,3',5-tri-iodothyroacetic acid, or tiratricol), in patients with MCT8 deficiency. METHODS: In this investigator-initiated, multicentre, open-label, single-arm, phase 2, pragmatic trial, we investigated the effectiveness and safety of oral Triac in male paediatric and adult patients with MCT8 deficiency in eight countries in Europe and one site in South Africa. Triac was administered in a predefined escalating dose schedule-after the initial dose of once-daily 350 µg Triac, the daily dose was increased progressively in 350 µg increments, with the goal of attaining serum total T3 concentrations within the target range of 1·4-2·5 nmol/L. We assessed changes in several clinical and biochemical signs of hyperthyroidism between baseline and 12 months of treatment. The prespecified primary endpoint was the change in serum T3 concentrations from baseline to month 12. The co-primary endpoints were changes in concentrations of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free and total thyroxine (T4), and total reverse T3 from baseline to month 12. These analyses were done in patients who received at least one dose of Triac and had at least one post-baseline evaluation of serum throid function. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02060474. FINDINGS: Between Oct 15, 2014, and June 1, 2017, we screened 50 patients, all of whom were eligible. Of these patients, four (8%) patients decided not to participate because of travel commitments. 46 (92%) patients were therefore enrolled in the trial to receive Triac (median age 7·1 years [range 0·8-66·8]). 45 (98%) participants received Triac and had at least one follow-up measurement of thyroid function and thus were included in the analyses of the primary endpoints. Of these 45 patients, five did not complete the trial (two patients withdrew [travel burden, severe pre-existing comorbidity], one was lost to follow-up, one developed of Graves disease, and one died of sepsis). Patients required a mean dose of 38.3 µg/kg of bodyweight (range 6·4-84·3) to attain T3 concentrations within the target range. Serum T3 concentration decreased from 4·97 nmol/L (SD 1·55) at baseline to 1·82 nmol/L (0·69) at month 12 (mean decrease 3·15 nmol/L, 95% CI 2·68-3·62; p<0·0001), while serum TSH concentrations decreased from 2·91 mU/L (SD 1·68) to 1·02 mU/L (1·14; mean decrease 1·89 mU/L, 1·39-2·39; p<0·0001) and serum free T4 concentrations decreased from 9·5 pmol/L (SD 2·5) to 3·4 (1·6; mean decrease 6·1 pmol/L (5·4-6·8; p<0·0001). Additionally, serum total T4 concentrations decreased by 31·6 nmol/L (28·0-35·2; p<0·0001) and reverse T3 by 0·08 nmol/L (0·05-0·10; p<0·0001). Seven treatment-related adverse events (transiently increased perspiration or irritability) occurred in six (13%) patients. 26 serious adverse events that were considered unrelated to treatment occurred in 18 (39%) patients (mostly hospital admissions because of infections). One patient died from pulmonary sepsis leading to multi-organ failure, which was unrelated to Triac treatment. INTERPRETATION: Key features of peripheral thyrotoxicosis were alleviated in paediatric and adult patients with MCT8 deficiency who were treated with Triac. Triac seems a reasonable treatment strategy to ameliorate the consequences of untreated peripheral thyrotoxicosis in patients with MCT8 deficiency. FUNDING: Dutch Scientific Organization, Sherman Foundation, NeMO Foundation, Wellcome Trust, UK National Institute for Health Research Cambridge Biomedical Centre, Toulouse University Hospital, and Una Vita Rara ONLUS.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(3): 493-508, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447100

RESUMO

Histones mediate dynamic packaging of nuclear DNA in chromatin, a process that is precisely controlled to guarantee efficient compaction of the genome and proper chromosomal segregation during cell division and to accomplish DNA replication, transcription, and repair. Due to the important structural and regulatory roles played by histones, it is not surprising that histone functional dysregulation or aberrant levels of histones can have severe consequences for multiple cellular processes and ultimately might affect development or contribute to cell transformation. Recently, germline frameshift mutations involving the C-terminal tail of HIST1H1E, which is a widely expressed member of the linker histone family and facilitates higher-order chromatin folding, have been causally linked to an as-yet poorly defined syndrome that includes intellectual disability. We report that these mutations result in stable proteins that reside in the nucleus, bind to chromatin, disrupt proper compaction of DNA, and are associated with a specific methylation pattern. Cells expressing these mutant proteins have a dramatically reduced proliferation rate and competence, hardly enter into the S phase, and undergo accelerated senescence. Remarkably, clinical assessment of a relatively large cohort of subjects sharing these mutations revealed a premature aging phenotype as a previously unrecognized feature of the disorder. Our findings identify a direct link between aberrant chromatin remodeling, cellular senescence, and accelerated aging.

7.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 14(1): 208, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria (HHH) syndrome is a rare disorder of urea cycle characterized by progressive pyramidal and cerebellar dysfunction, whose pathophysiology is not yet fully understood. Here we describe the spectrum of the long fibers involvement in HHH syndrome, attempting a correlation between clinical, electrophysiological and neuro-radiological data. METHODS: Nine HHH patients were longitudinally evaluated by clinical examination, neurophysiological assessment including motor (MEPs), somato-sensory evoked potentials (PESS) and nerve conduction velocity (NCV), brain and spinal cord MRI RESULTS: All patients had pyramidal dysfunction and 3/9 an overt spastic paraplegia. Mild to moderate cerebellar signs were found in 7/9, intellectual disability in 8/9. At lower limbs, MEPs resulted abnormal in 7/8 patients and PESS in 2/8; peripheral sensory-motor neuropathy was found in 1/9. MRI documented atrophic changes in supra-tentorial brain regions in 6/9 patients, cerebellum in 6/9, spinal cord in 3/7. CONCLUSIONS: A predominant corticospinal dysfunction is evident in HHH syndrome, along with milder cerebellar signs, intellectual disability of variable degree and rare peripheral neuropathy. Phenotypical similarities with other disorders affecting the urea cycle (argininemia and pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase deficiency) suggest possible common mechanisms contributing in the maintenance of the corticospinal tract integrity. HHH syndrome phenotype largely overlaps with complex Hereditary Spastic Paraplegias (HSPs), in the list of which it should be included, emphasizing the importance to screen all the unsolved cases of HSPs for metabolic biomarkers.

8.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(7): 470-477, July 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1011362

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) has gained much attention in the last few years because of the approval of the first intrathecal treatment for this neurodegenerative disease. Latin America needs to develop the demographics of SMA, timely access to diagnosis, and appropriate following of the standards of care recommendations for patients. These are essential steps to guide health policies. Methods This was a descriptive study of a cohort of SMA patients from all over Chile. We analyzed the clinical, motor functional, and social data, as well as the care status of nutritional, respiratory and skeletal conditions. We also measured the SMN2 copy number in this population. Results We recruited 92 patients: 50 male; 23 SMA type-1, 36 SMA type-2 and 33 SMA type-3. The median age at genetic diagnosis was 5, 24 and 132 months. We evaluated the SMN2 copy number in 57 patients. The SMA type-1 patients were tracheostomized and fed by gastrostomy in a 69.6 % of cases, 65% of SMA type-2 patients received nocturnal noninvasive ventilation, and 37% of the whole cohort underwent scoliosis surgery. Conclusion Ventilatory care for SMA type-1 is still based mainly on tracheostomy. This Chilean cohort of SMA patients had timely access to genetic diagnosis, ventilatory assistance, nutritional support, and scoliosis surgery. In this series, SMA type-1 is underrepresented, probably due to restrictions in access to early diagnosis and the high and early mortality rate.


La Atrofia Muscular Espinal (AME) ha concitado mucha atención en los últimos 2 años debido a la aprobación del primer tratamiento intratecal para esta enfermedad neurodegenerativa. América Latina necesita desarrollar la demografía de AME, un acceso oportuno al diagnóstico y un seguimiento apropiado de los pacientes que incorporen los estándares de atención recomendados por expertos. Estos son pasos esenciales para orientar las futuras políticas de salud en esta enfermedad. Métodos Este es un estudio descriptivo de una cohorte de pacientes con AME de todo el país. Se analizaron los datos clínicos, motores, funcionales, sociales y el estado nutricional, respiratorio y esquelético de los pacientes. También medimos el número de copias del gen SMN2 en esta población. Resultados se reclutaron 92 pacientes, 50 varones; 23 AME tipo 1, 36 AME tipo 2 y 33 AME tipo 3. La edad media al diagnóstico genético fue de 5, 24 y 132 meses respectivamente. Evaluamos el número de copias de SMN2 en 57 pacientes. Un 69,6% de los pacientes con AME tipo 1 estaban traqueostomízados y gastrostomizados , un 65% de los pacientes con AME tipo 2 usaban ventilación nocturna no invasiva y el 37% de toda la cohorte presentaba una cirugía de escoliosis. Conclusión Esta cohorte chilena de pacientes con AME tuvo acceso oportuno al diagnóstico genético, asistencia ventilatoria, apoyo nutricional y cirugía de escoliosis, sin embargo, la atención ventilatoria para AME tipo 1 continúa aun basándose principalmente en la traqueostomía. En esta serie, AME tipo 1 está subrepresentada, probablemente debido a las restricciones en el acceso al diagnóstico temprano y la tasa de mortalidad alta y temprana.

9.
J Neurol ; 2019 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302745

RESUMO

Recessive mutations in DDHD2 cause SPG54, a complex hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) with less than forty patients reported worldwide. In this retrospective, multicenter study we describe eight additional SPG54 cases harboring homozygous or compound heterozygous DDHD2 variants. Finally, we reviewed literature data on SPG54, with the aim to better define the phenotype and the brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) pattern as well as genotype-phenotype correlations. SPG54 is typically characterized by early-onset (i.e., congenital or, more frequently, infantile) delay in motor and cognitive milestones, coupled or followed by appearance of spasticity. Cognitive impairment is absent in adult-onset cases. Spasticity progresses over time. Abnormal eye movement, found in about 50% of cases, is the feature most frequently associated with spasticity and developmental delay. Cerebellar ataxia is a prominent sign in several patients, including one adult of this study, suggesting to include SPG54 in the differential diagnosis of spastic-ataxia syndromes. Brain MRI shows thin corpus callosum and non-specific periventricular white matter lesions in about 90% and 70% of cases, respectively. Brain MR spectroscopy reveals abnormal lipid peak in 90% of investigated patients. Twenty-one pathogenic changes have been reported so far, many of which are nonsense or small deletion/duplication. Most mutations appear to be private, with only two mutations recurring in three (i.e., R287*) or more families (i.e., D660H). The identification of nine novel variants expands the molecular spectrum of DDHD2-related HSP and corroborates the notion of a quite homogeneous clinical and neuroradiological phenotype in spite of different genotypes.

10.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218683, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237898

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this international collaborative effort was to report 36-month longitudinal changes using the 6MWT in ambulant patients affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy amenable to skip exons 44, 45, 51 or 53. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Of the 92 patients included in the study, 24 had deletions amenable to skip exon 44, 27 exon 45, 18 exon 51, and 28 exon 53. Five patients with a single deletion of exon 52 were counted in both subgroups skipping exon 51 and 53. RESULTS: The difference between subgroups amenable to skip different exons was not significant at 12 months but became significant at both 24 (p≤0.05) and 36 months (p≤0.01). DISCUSSION: Mutations amenable to skip exon 53 had lower baseline values and more negative changes than the other subgroups while those amenable to skip exon 44 had better results both at baseline and at follow up. Deletions amenable to skip exon 45 were associated with a more variable pattern of progression. Single exon deletions were more often associated with less drastic changes but this was not always true in individual cases. CONCLUSION: Our results confirm that the progression of disease can differ between patients with different deletions, although the changes only become significant from 24 months onwards. This information is relevant because there are current clinical trials specifically targeting patients with these subgroups of mutations.

11.
Ann Neurol ; 86(3): 443-451, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228281

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to report 12-month changes after treatment with nusinersen in a cohort of 85 type I spinal muscular atrophy patients of ages ranging from 2 months to 15 years and 11 months. METHODS: All patients were assessed using the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Infant Test of Neuromuscular Disorders (CHOP INTEND) and the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination-Section 2 (HINE-2). RESULTS: Two of the 85 patients had 1 SMN2 copy, 61 had 2 copies, and 18 had 3 copies. In 4 patients the SMN2 copy number was not available. At baseline, the mean CHOP INTEND scores ranged between 0 and 52 (mean = 15.66, standard deviation [SD] = ±13.48), and the mean HINE-2 score was between 0 and 5 (mean = 0.69, SD = ±1.23). There was a difference between baseline and the 12-month scores on both the CHOP INTEND and the HINE-2 for the whole group (p < 0.001), the subgroups with 2 SMN2 copies (p < 0.001), and those with 3 SMN2 copies (p < 0.001). The difference was found not only in patients younger than 210 days at baseline (p < 0.001) but also in those younger than 5 years on the CHOP INTEND and younger than 2 years on the HINE-2. INTERPRETATION: Our results, expanding the age range and the severity of type I patients treated with nusinersen over 1 year, provide additional data on the range of efficacy of the drug that will be helpful in making an informed decision on whether to start treatment in patients of different ages and severity. ANN NEUROL 2019;86:443-451.

12.
Clin Genet ; 96(2): 169-175, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066025

RESUMO

Heterozygous missense variants in the SPTBN2 gene, encoding the non-erythrocytic beta spectrin 2 subunit (beta-III spectrin), have been identified in autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia type 5 (SCA5), a rare adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia, whereas homozygous loss of function variants in SPTBN2 have been associated with early onset cerebellar ataxia and global developmental delay (SCAR14). Recently, heterozygous SPTBN2 missense variants have been identified in a few patients with an early-onset ataxic phenotype. We report five patients with non-progressive congenital ataxia and psychomotor delay, 4/5 harboring novel heterozygous missense variants in SPTBN2 and one patient with compound heterozygous SPTBN2 variants. With an overall prevalence of 5% in our cohort of unrelated patients screened by targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) for congenital or early-onset cerebellar ataxia, this study indicates that both dominant and recessive mutations of SPTBN2 together with CACNA1A and ITPR1, are a frequent cause of early-onset/congenital non-progressive ataxia and that their screening should be implemented in this subgroup of disorders.

13.
Hum Mutat ; 40(10): 1731-1748, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31045291

RESUMO

Mutations in either the mitochondrial or nuclear genomes are associated with a diverse group of human disorders characterized by impaired mitochondrial respiration. Within this group, an increasing number of mutations have been identified in nuclear genes involved in mitochondrial RNA metabolism, including ELAC2. The ELAC2 gene codes for the mitochondrial RNase Z, responsible for endonucleolytic cleavage of the 3' ends of mitochondrial pre-tRNAs. Here, we report the identification of 16 novel ELAC2 variants in individuals presenting with mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiency, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and lactic acidosis. We provide evidence for the pathogenicity of the novel missense variants by studying the RNase Z activity in an in vitro system. We also modeled the residues affected by a missense mutation in solved RNase Z structures, providing insight into enzyme structure and function. Finally, we show that primary fibroblasts from the affected individuals have elevated levels of unprocessed mitochondrial RNA precursors. Our study thus broadly confirms the correlation of ELAC2 variants with severe infantile-onset forms of HCM and mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction. One rare missense variant associated with the occurrence of prostate cancer (p.Arg781His) impairs the mitochondrial RNase Z activity of ELAC2, suggesting a functional link between tumorigenesis and mitochondrial RNA metabolism.

14.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0214250, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30921410

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial disease is a family of genetic disorders characterized by defects in the generation and regulation of energy. Epilepsy is a common symptom of mitochondrial disease, and in the vast majority of cases, refractory to commonly used antiepileptic drugs. Ferroptosis is a recently-described form of iron- and lipid-dependent regulated cell death associated with glutathione depletion and production of lipid peroxides by lipoxygenase enzymes. Activation of the ferroptosis pathway has been implicated in a growing number of disorders, including epilepsy. Given that ferroptosis is regulated by balancing the activities of glutathione peroxidase-4 (GPX4) and 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO), targeting these enzymes may provide a rational therapeutic strategy to modulate seizure. The clinical-stage therapeutic vatiquinone (EPI-743, α-tocotrienol quinone) was reported to reduce seizure frequency and associated morbidity in children with the mitochondrial disorder pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 6. We sought to elucidate the molecular mechanism of EPI-743 and explore the potential of targeting 15-LO to treat additional mitochondrial disease-associated epilepsies. METHODS: Primary fibroblasts and B-lymphocytes derived from patients with mitochondrial disease-associated epilepsy were cultured under standardized conditions. Ferroptosis was induced by treatment with the irreversible GPX4 inhibitor RSL3 or a combination of pharmacological glutathione depletion and excess iron. EPI-743 was co-administered and endpoints, including cell viability and 15-LO-dependent lipid oxidation, were measured. RESULTS: EPI-743 potently prevented ferroptosis in patient cells representing five distinct pediatric disease syndromes with associated epilepsy. Cytoprotection was preceded by a dose-dependent decrease in general lipid oxidation and the specific 15-LO product 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE). CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the continued clinical evaluation of EPI-743 as a therapeutic agent for PCH6 and other mitochondrial diseases with associated epilepsy.

15.
Hum Mutat ; 40(5): 601-618, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30801875

RESUMO

Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles, undergoing continuous fission and fusion. The DNM1L (dynamin-1 like) gene encodes for the DRP1 protein, an evolutionary conserved member of the dynamin family, responsible for fission of mitochondria, and having a role in the division of peroxisomes, as well. DRP1 impairment is implicated in several neurological disorders and associated with either de novo dominant or compound heterozygous mutations. In five patients presenting with severe epileptic encephalopathy, we identified five de novo dominant DNM1L variants, the pathogenicity of which was validated in a yeast model. Fluorescence microscopy revealed abnormally elongated mitochondria and aberrant peroxisomes in mutant fibroblasts, indicating impaired fission of these organelles. Moreover, a very peculiar finding in our cohort of patients was the presence, in muscle biopsy, of core like areas with oxidative enzyme alterations, suggesting an abnormal distribution of mitochondria in the muscle tissue.

17.
Eur J Paediatr Neurol ; 23(2): 329-332, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30616884

RESUMO

SLC2A1 mutations cause glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome, whose phenotypic spectrum is a continuum, ranging from classic to variant phenotypes, the latter accounting for about 10% of cases. Very few SLC2A1-mutated patients with a spastic paraplegia phenotype have been reported so far, and they are associated with paroxysmal choreo-athetosis (i.e., DYT9). The authors describe two sporadic children with pure and complex hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) without paroxysmal non-epileptic movement disorders harboring heterozygous de novo SLC2A1 pathogenic variants. These patients have been identified by a targeted panel for HSP among 140 pediatric- and adult-onset unrelated cases with pure and complex HSP, thus indicating an overall prevalence of 1.4% of SLC2A1 mutations, which increases to 3% if only pediatric-onset patients are considered. The implications of these findings in the diagnostic work-up of HSP patients are discussed.


Assuntos
Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1/genética , Paraplegia Espástica Hereditária/genética , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/genética , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas de Transporte de Monossacarídeos/deficiência , Proteínas de Transporte de Monossacarídeos/genética , Mutação , Linhagem , Fenótipo
18.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 42(2): 264-275, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30689204

RESUMO

Mitochondrial aconitase is the second enzyme in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle catalyzing the interconversion of citrate into isocitrate and encoded by the nuclear gene ACO2. A homozygous pathogenic variant in the ACO2 gene was initially described in 2012 resulting in a novel disorder termed "infantile cerebellar retinal degeneration" (ICRD, OMIM#614559). Subsequently, additional studies reported patients with pathogenic ACO2 variants, further expanding the genetic and clinical spectrum of this disorder to include milder and later onset manifestations. Here, we report an international multicenter cohort of 16 patients (of whom 7 are newly diagnosed) with biallelic pathogenic variants in ACO2 gene. Most patients present in early infancy with severe truncal hypotonia, truncal ataxia, variable seizures, evolving microcephaly, and ophthalmological abnormalities of which the most dominant are esotropia and optic atrophy with later development of retinal dystrophy. Most patients remain nonambulatory and do no acquire any language, but a subgroup of patients share a more favorable course. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is typically normal within the first months but global atrophy gradually develops affecting predominantly the cerebellum. Ten of our patients were homozygous to the previously reported c.336C>G founder mutation while the other six patients were all compound heterozygotes displaying 10 novel mutations of whom 2 were nonsense predicting a deleterious effect on enzyme function. Structural protein modeling predicted significant impairment in aconitase substrate binding in the additional missense mutations. This study provides the most extensive cohort of patients and further delineates the clinical, radiological, biochemical, and molecular features of ACO2 deficiency.

19.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 61: 19-25, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30642806

RESUMO

GNAO1 variants were recently discovered as causes of epileptic encephalopathies and heterogeneous syndromes presenting with movement disorders (MDs), whose phenomenology and clinical course are yet undefined. We herein focused on GNAO1-related MD, providing an analytical review of existing data to outline the main MD phenomenology and management, clinical evolution and genotype-phenotype correlations. Reviewing 41 previously published patients and assessing 5 novel cases, a comprehensive cohort of 46 patients was analyzed, reassuming knowledge about genotypes, phenotypes, disease course and treatment of this condition. GNAO1-related MD consisted of a severe early-onset hyperkinetic syndrome, with prominent chorea, dystonia and orofacial dyskinesia. Symptoms are poorly responsive to medical therapy and fluctuate, with critical and life-threatening exacerbations, such as status dystonicus. The presence of a choreiform MD appears to be predictive of a higher risk of movement disorder emergency. Surgical treatments are sometimes effective, although severe disabilities persist. Differently from the early infantile epileptic encephalopathy phenotype (associated with loss of function variants), no clear correlation between genotype and MD phenotype emerged, although some variants recurred more frequently, mainly affecting exons 6 and 7.

20.
J Med Genet ; 56(3): 123-130, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683676

RESUMO

Primary genetic mitochondrial diseases are often difficult to diagnose, and the term 'possible' mitochondrial disease is used frequently by clinicians when such a diagnosis is suspected. There are now many known phenocopies of mitochondrial disease. Advances in genomic testing have shown that some patients with a clinical phenotype and biochemical abnormalities suggesting mitochondrial disease may have other genetic disorders. In instances when a genetic diagnosis cannot be confirmed, a diagnosis of 'possible' mitochondrial disease may result in harm to patients and their families, creating anxiety, delaying appropriate diagnosis and leading to inappropriate management or care. A categorisation of 'diagnosis uncertain', together with a specific description of the metabolic or genetic abnormalities identified, is preferred when a mitochondrial disease cannot be genetically confirmed.

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