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1.
J Hum Genet ; 64(9): 885-890, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270375

RESUMO

Pediatric hypertension can cause hypertensive emergencies, including hemorrhagic stroke, contributing to rare but serious childhood morbidity and mortality. Renovascular hypertension (RVH) is one of the major causes of secondary hypertension in children. Grange syndrome (MIM#602531) is a rare disease characterized by multiple stenosis or occlusion of the renal, abdominal, coronary, and cerebral arteries, which can cause phenotypes of RVH and fibromuscular dysplasia (MIM#135580). We report the case of a 7-year-old girl with Grange syndrome who showed RVH and multiple seizure episodes. At 1 year of age, she experienced seizures and sequential hemiparesis caused by a left thalamic hemorrhage without cerebral vascular anomalies. Chronic hypertension was observed, and abdominal computed tomography angiography showed characteristic bilateral renal artery stenosis. Whole-exome sequencing revealed a novel homozygous pathogenic variant in the YY1AP1 gene (NM_001198903.1: c.1169del: p.Lys390Argfs*12). Biallelic YY1AP1 mutations are known to cause Grange syndrome. Unlike previously reported patients, our patient presented with intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke without anomalous brain artery or bone fragility. The phenotype in our patient may help better understand this ultra-rare syndrome. Grange syndrome should be considered in patients presenting with childhood-onset hypertension and/or hemorrhagic stroke for early clinical intervention.

2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(5): 925-935, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982609

RESUMO

Colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) plays key roles in regulating development and function of the monocyte/macrophage lineage, including microglia and osteoclasts. Mono-allelic mutations of CSF1R are known to cause hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids (HDLS), an adult-onset progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Here, we report seven affected individuals from three unrelated families who had bi-allelic CSF1R mutations. In addition to early-onset HDLS-like neurological disorders, they had brain malformations and skeletal dysplasia compatible to dysosteosclerosis (DOS) or Pyle disease. We identified five CSF1R mutations that were homozygous or compound heterozygous in these affected individuals. Two of them were deep intronic mutations resulting in abnormal inclusion of intron sequences in the mRNA. Compared with Csf1r-null mice, the skeletal and neural phenotypes of the affected individuals appeared milder and variable, suggesting that at least one of the mutations in each affected individual is hypomorphic. Our results characterized a unique human skeletal phenotype caused by CSF1R deficiency and implied that bi-allelic CSF1R mutations cause a spectrum of neurological and skeletal disorders, probably depending on the residual CSF1R function.

3.
Skeletal Radiol ; 48(8): 1201-1207, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30712120

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to provide orientation for clinicians and radiologists to recognize the most prevalent findings leading to diagnosis in mucolipidosis from a description of the natural history of five Brazilian cases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted an observational and retrospective study of five patients with clinical and radiological diagnosis of mucolipidosis. Clinical evaluation consisted of information obtained from records and including physical, neurologic, and dysmorphic evaluations. Radiologic studies consisted of complete skeletal radiographs of all patients. Enzyme assessment was performed for confirmation of the diagnosis. RESULTS: The five patients were referred for genetic evaluation due to disproportionate short stature with short trunk accompanied by waddling gait. Age at referral varied from 11 months to 28 years. The most prevalent findings were joint restriction (4/5 patients), neuropsychomotor developmental delay (3/5), coarse facies (2/5), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (2/5), and mental retardation (1/4 patients). The most common radiological findings were anterior beaking of the vertebral bodies (5/5), shallow acetabular fossae (5/5), epiphyseal dysplasia (5/5), platyspondyly (4/5), pelvic dysplasia (4/5), decreased bone mineralization (4/5), scoliosis (3/5), wide and oar-shaped ribs (3/5), generalized epiphyseal ossification delay (3/5), and hypoplasia of basilar portions of ilea (3/5). Enzyme assessment showed α-iduronidase, α-mannosidase, ß-glucuronidase, hexosaminidase A, and total hexosaminidase increased in plasma and normal glycosaminoglycans concentration. One patient was clinically classified as ML II and four patients as ML III. CONCLUSIONS: The follow-up of five patients showed the typical clinical and radiological findings allowing the diagnosis, thus improving clinical management and providing adequate genetic counseling. Clinicians and radiologists can take advantage of the information from this work, enhancing their differential diagnosis ability.

4.
Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet ; 40(9): 570-576, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30231296

RESUMO

Atelosteogenesis type I (AOI) is an autosomal dominant skeletal dysplasia caused by mutations in the filaminB (FLNB) gene with classic and well-recognizable clinical findings. However, parents affected with a mild phenotype, probably with somatic mosaicism, can generate offspring with a much more severe phenotype of AOI. In the present report, we describe a female newborn with classic AOI leading to early neonatal death, whose diagnostic was based on prenatal radiological findings and on the physical examination of the father. Since her father had limb deformities and corporal asymmetry, suggesting somatic mosaicism, his biological samples were analyzed through a gene panel for skeletal dysplasias. A missense mutation not previously described in the literature was detected in the FLNB gene, affecting ∼ 20% of the evaluated cells and, therefore, confirming the diagnosis of mosaic AOI in the father. The molecular analysis of the father was crucial to suggest the diagnosis of AOI in the newborn, since she died early and there were no biological samples available.

5.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 40(9): 570-575, Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-977825

RESUMO

Abstract Atelosteogenesis type I (AOI) is an autosomal dominant skeletal dysplasia caused by mutations in the filamin B (FLNB) gene with classic and well-recognizable clinical findings. However, parents affected with a mild phenotype, probably with somatic mosaicism, can generate offspring with a much more severe phenotype of AOI. In the present report, we describe a female newborn with classic AOI leading to early neonatal death, whose diagnostic was based on prenatal radiological findings and on the physical examination of the father. Since her father had limb deformities and corporal asymmetry, suggesting somatic mosaicism, his biological samples were analyzed through a gene panel for skeletal dysplasias. A missense mutation not previously described in the literature was detected in the FLNB gene, affecting ~ 20% of the evaluated cells and, therefore, confirming the diagnosis ofmosaic AOI in the father. The molecular analysis of the father was crucial to suggest the diagnosis of AOI in the newborn, since she died early and there were no biological samples available.


Resumo A atelosteogênese tipo I (AOI) é uma displasia esquelética autossômica dominante causada por mutações no gene filamina B (FLNB) comachados clínicos clássicos e bem reconhecíveis. No entanto, pais afetados com um fenótipo mais leve, provavelmente commosaicismo somático, podem gerar uma prole comumfenótipomuito mais grave de AOI. No presente relato, descrevemos um recém-nascido do sexo feminino comAOI clássica, que levou à morte neonatal precoce, e cujo diagnóstico foi baseado em achados radiológicos pré-natais e no exame físico de seu genitor. Como o genitor apresentava deformidades em membros e assimetria corporal, que sugeriam mosaicismo somático, suas amostras biológicas foram analisadas por meio de um painel de genes para displasias esqueléticas. Umamutação missense, não descrita anteriormente na literatura, foi detectada no gene FLNB, afetando ~ 20% das células avaliadas, e, portanto, confirmando o diagnóstico de AOI em mosaico no genitor. A análise molecular realizada no genitor foi fundamental para sugerir o diagnóstico de AOI na recém-nascida, uma vez que esta morreu precocemente, e não havia amostras biológicas disponíveis.

6.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 73: e324, 2018 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29972438

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To characterize the natural history of 39 achondroplastic patients diagnosed by clinical, radiological and molecular assessments. METHODS: Observational and retrospective study of 39 patients who were attended at a public tertiary level hospital between 1995 and 2016. RESULTS: Diagnosis was made prenatally in 11 patients, at birth in 9 patients and within the first year of life in 13 patients. The most prevalent clinical findings were short stature, high forehead, trident hands, genu varum and macrocephaly. The most prevalent radiographic findings were rhizomelic shortening of the long bones and narrowing of the interpediculate distance of the caudal spine. There was motor developmental delay in 18 patients and speech delay in 16 patients. The most common clinical intercurrences were middle ear dysfunction, sleep apnea, limb pain and obesity from 2 to 9 years of age. One patient was large for the gestational age but did not develop obesity. One patient developed hydrocephalus at 10 years old. The current age of the patients varies from 15 months to 36 years. The molecular study performed by Sanger sequencing of the common heterozygous mutation 1138G>A in FGFR3 was positive in all patients. Four cases were inherited, and 35 were sporadic (paternal age from 19 to 66 years). CONCLUSIONS: The diagnoses were made early based on clinical and radiographic findings. All cases were confirmed molecularly. Despite presenting a benign course, it is necessary to establish a systematic protocol for the surveillance of these patients due to the common clinical intercurrences.


Assuntos
Acondroplasia/diagnóstico , Acondroplasia/patologia , Acondroplasia/genética , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Mutação , Radiografia , Receptor Tipo 3 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Mol Cytogenet ; 11: 14, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29441128

RESUMO

Background: Syndromic obesity is an umbrella term used to describe cases where obesity occurs with additional phenotypes. It often arises as part of a distinct genetic syndrome with Prader-Willi syndrome being a classical example. These rare forms of obesity provide a unique source for identifying obesity-related genetic changes. Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) has allowed the characterization of new genetic forms of syndromic obesity, which are due to copy number variants (CNVs); however, CMA in large cohorts requires more study. The aim of this study was to characterize the CNVs detected by CMA in 279 patients with a syndromic obesity phenotype. Results: Pathogenic CNVs were detected in 61 patients (22%) and, among them, 35 had overlapping/recurrent CNVs. Genomic imbalance disorders known to cause syndromic obesity were found in 8.2% of cases, most commonly deletions of 1p36, 2q37 and 17p11.2 (5.4%), and we also detected deletions at 1p21.3, 2p25.3, 6q16, 9q34, 16p11.2 distal and proximal, as well as an unbalanced translocation resulting in duplication of the GNB3 gene responsible for a syndromic for of childhood obesity. Deletions of 9p terminal and 22q11.2 proximal/distal were found in 1% and 3% of cases, respectively. They thus emerge as being new putative obesity-susceptibility loci. We found additional CNVs in our study that overlapped with CNVs previously reported in cases of syndromic obesity, including a new case of 13q34 deletion (CHAMP1), bringing to 7 the number of patients in whom such defects have been described in association with obesity. Our findings implicate many genes previously associated with obesity (e.g. PTBP2, TMEM18, MYT1L, POU3F2, SIM1, SH2B1), and also identified other potentially relevant candidates including TAS1R3, ALOX5AP, and GAS6. Conclusion: Understanding the genetics of obesity has proven difficult, and considerable insight has been obtained from the study of genomic disorders with obesity associated as part of the phenotype. In our study, CNVs known to be causal for syndromic obesity were detected in 8.2% of patients, but we provide evidence for a genetic basis of obesity in as many as 14% of cases. Overall, our results underscore the genetic heterogeneity in syndromic forms of obesity, which imposes a substantial challenge for diagnosis.

8.
J Bone Miner Res ; 33(4): 753-760, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29178448

RESUMO

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a strikingly heterogeneous group of disorders with a broad range of phenotypic variations. It is also one of the differential diagnoses in bent bone dysplasias along with campomelic dysplasia and thanatophoric dysplasia and can usually be distinguished by decreased bone mineralization and bone fractures. Bent bone dysplasias also include syndromes such as kyphomelic dysplasia (MIM:211350) and mesomelic dysplasia Kozlowski-Reardon (MIM249710), both of which have been under debate regarding whether or not they are a real entity or simply a phenotypic manifestation of another dysplasia including OI. Bruck syndrome type 2 (BRKS2; MIM:609220) is a rare form of autosomal recessive OI caused by biallelic PLOD2 variants and is associated with congenital joint contractures with pterygia. In this report, we present six patients from four families with novel PLOD2 variants. All cases had multiple fractures. Other features ranged from prenatal lethal severe angulation of the long bones as in kyphomelic dysplasia and mesomelic dysplasia Kozlowski-Reardon through classical Bruck syndrome to moderate OI with normal joints. Two siblings with a kyphomelic dysplasia-like phenotype who were stillborn had compound heterozygous variants in PLOD2 (p.Asp585Val and p.Ser166*). One infant who succumbed at age 4 months had a bent bone phenotype phenotypically like skeletal dysplasia Kozlowski-Reardon (with mesomelic shortening, camptodactyly, retrognathia, cleft palate, skin dimples, but also with fractures). He was homozygous for the nonsense variant (p.Trp561*). Two siblings had various degrees of Bruck syndrome caused by the homozygous missense variant, p.His687Arg. Furthermore a boy with a clinical presentation of moderate OI had a possibly pathogenic homozygous variant p.Trp588Cys. Our experience of six patients with biallelic pathogenic variants in PLOD2 expands the phenotypic spectrum in the PLOD2-related phenotypes. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

9.
Clinics ; 73: e324, 2018. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-952808

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To characterize the natural history of 39 achondroplastic patients diagnosed by clinical, radiological and molecular assessments. METHODS: Observational and retrospective study of 39 patients who were attended at a public tertiary level hospital between 1995 and 2016. RESULTS: Diagnosis was made prenatally in 11 patients, at birth in 9 patients and within the first year of life in 13 patients. The most prevalent clinical findings were short stature, high forehead, trident hands, genu varum and macrocephaly. The most prevalent radiographic findings were rhizomelic shortening of the long bones and narrowing of the interpediculate distance of the caudal spine. There was motor developmental delay in 18 patients and speech delay in 16 patients. The most common clinical intercurrences were middle ear dysfunction, sleep apnea, limb pain and obesity from 2 to 9 years of age. One patient was large for the gestational age but did not develop obesity. One patient developed hydrocephalus at 10 years old. The current age of the patients varies from 15 months to 36 years. The molecular study performed by Sanger sequencing of the common heterozygous mutation 1138G>A in FGFR3 was positive in all patients. Four cases were inherited, and 35 were sporadic (paternal age from 19 to 66 years). CONCLUSIONS: The diagnoses were made early based on clinical and radiographic findings. All cases were confirmed molecularly. Despite presenting a benign course, it is necessary to establish a systematic protocol for the surveillance of these patients due to the common clinical intercurrences.

10.
Genes (Basel) ; 7(11)2016 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27834868

RESUMO

Most histone methyltransferases (HMTase) harbor a predicted Su(var)3-9, Enhancer-of-zeste, Trithorax (SET) domain, which transfers a methyl group to a lysine residue in their substrates. Mutations of the SET domains were reported to cause intellectual disability syndromes such as Sotos, Weaver, or Kabuki syndromes. Sotos syndrome is an overgrowth syndrome with intellectual disability caused by haploinsufficiency of the nuclear receptor binding SET domain protein 1 (NSD1) gene, an HMTase at 5q35.2-35.3. Here, we analyzed NSD1 in 34 Brazilian Sotos patients and identified three novel and eight known mutations. Using protein modeling and bioinformatic approaches, we evaluated the effects of one novel (I2007F) and 21 previously reported missense mutations in the SET domain. For the I2007F mutation, we observed conformational change and loss of structural stability in Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations which may lead to loss-of-function of the SET domain. For six mutations near the ligand-binding site we observed in simulations steric clashes with neighboring side chains near the substrate S-Adenosyl methionine (SAM) binding site, which may disrupt the enzymatic activity of NSD1. These results point to a structural mechanism underlying the pathology of the NSD1 missense mutations in the SET domain in Sotos syndrome. NSD1 mutations were identified in only 32% of the Brazilian Sotos patients in our study cohort suggesting other genes (including unknown disease genes) underlie the molecular etiology for the majority of these patients. Our studies also found NSD1 expression to be profound in human fetal brain and cerebellum, accounting for prenatal onset and hypoplasia of cerebellar vermis seen in Sotos syndrome.

11.
Am J Med Genet A ; 170(11): 2965-2974, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27481187

RESUMO

Visceral motility dysfunction is a key feature of genetic disorders such as megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS, MIM moved from 249210 to 155310), chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO, MIM609629), and multisystemic smooth muscle dysfunction syndrome (MSMDS, MIM613834). The genetic bases of these conditions recently begun to be clarified with the identification of pathogenic variants in ACTG2, ACTA2, and MYH11 in individuals with visceral motility dysfunction. The MMIHS was associated with the heterozygous variant in ACTG2 and homozygous variant in MYH11, while the heterozygous variant in ACTA2 was observed in patients with MSMDS. In this study, we describe the clinical data as well as the molecular investigation of seven individuals with visceral myopathy phenotypes. Five patients presented with MMIHS, including two siblings from consanguineous parents, one had CIPO, and the other had MSMDS. In three individuals with MMIHS and in one with CIPO we identified heterozygous variant in ACTG2, one being a novel variant (c.584C>T-p.Thr195Ile). In the individual with MSMDS we identified a heterozygous variant in ACTA2. We performed the whole-exome sequencing in one sibling with MMIHS and her parents; however, the pathogenic variant responsible for her phenotype could not be identified. These results reinforce the clinical and genetic heterogeneity of the visceral myopathies. Although many cases of MMIHS are associated with ACTG2 variants, we suggest that other genes, besides MYH11, could cause the MMIHS with autosomal recessive pattern. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Pseudo-Obstrução Intestinal/diagnóstico , Pseudo-Obstrução Intestinal/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/terapia , Actinas/genética , Pré-Escolar , Colo/anormalidades , Consanguinidade , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pseudo-Obstrução Intestinal/terapia , Masculino , Mutação , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Bexiga Urinária/anormalidades
12.
Exp Mol Pathol ; 101(1): 116-23, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27450648

RESUMO

Congenital anomalies are the second highest cause of infant deaths, and, in most cases, diagnosis is a challenge. In this study, we characterize patterns of DNA copy number aberrations in different samples of post-mortem tissues from patients with congenital malformations. Twenty-eight patients undergoing autopsy were cytogenomically evaluated using several methods, specifically, Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA), microsatellite marker analysis with a MiniFiler kit, FISH, a cytogenomic array technique and bidirectional Sanger sequencing, which were performed on samples of different tissues (brain, heart, liver, skin and diaphragm) preserved in RNAlater, in formaldehyde or by paraffin-embedding. The results identified 13 patients with pathogenic copy number variations (CNVs). Of these, eight presented aneuploidies involving chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X and Y (two presented inter- and intra-tissue mosaicism). In addition, other abnormalities were found, including duplication of the TYMS gene (18p11.32); deletion of the CHL1 gene (3p26.3); deletion of the HIC1 gene (17p13.3); and deletion of the TOM1L2 gene (17p11.2). One patient had a pathogenic missense mutation of g.8535C>G (c.746C>G) in exon 7 of the FGFR3 gene consistent with Thanatophoric Dysplasia type I. Cytogenomic techniques were reliable for the analysis of autopsy material and allowed the identification of inter- and intra-tissue mosaicism and a better understanding of the pathogenesis of congenital malformations.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/genética , Citogenética/métodos , Genoma Humano , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex
13.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 62(3): 202-6, 2016 May-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27310541

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the most prominent clinical features of a cohort of patients with oculo-auriculo-vertebral (OAV) dysplasia in Brazil. METHOD: A review of medical records of patients with diagnosis of OAV from 1990 to 2010 was performed in a medical genetics center. RESULTS: 41 patients were included in the study. Their average age at diagnosis was 2y 10mo (34,4±48,8 months) and the female proportion was 53.7%. Mean maternal age at patient's birth was 28.5y (min: 17, max: 46y) for mothers and 31.4y (min: 21, max: 51y) for fathers. Most patients (97.5%) had auricular involvement, with facial manifestation in 90.2%, spinal in 65.9%, ocular in 53.7%, 36.6% with cardiovascular involvement, 29.3% urogenital, and 17% of the cases with central nervous system (CNS) involvement. The classic OAV triad was present in only 34%. All patients except one had concomitant problems in other organs or systems. CONCLUSION: Since the diagnosis of OAV dysplasia relies only on a comprehensive medical evaluation, it is imperative that clinicians be aware of the most common presentation of the syndrome. Once suspected, every patient should undergo a complete medical evaluation of multiple systems including complementary exams. Treatment of these patients is based on surgical correction of malformations and rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Goldenhar/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Goldenhar/patologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Orelha/anormalidades , Anormalidades do Olho , Face/anormalidades , Feminino , Síndrome de Goldenhar/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Registros Médicos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Coluna Vertebral/anormalidades
14.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 62(3): 202-206, May-June 2016. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-784311

RESUMO

SUMMARY Objective: To describe the most prominent clinical features of a cohort of patients with oculo-auriculo-vertebral (OAV) dysplasia in Brazil. Method: A review of medical records of patients with diagnosis of OAV from 1990 to 2010 was performed in a medical genetics center. Results: 41 patients were included in the study. Their average age at diagnosis was 2y 10mo (34,4±48,8 months) and the female proportion was 53.7%. Mean maternal age at patient’s birth was 28.5y (min: 17, max: 46y) for mothers and 31.4y (min: 21, max: 51y) for fathers. Most patients (97.5%) had auricular involvement, with facial manifestation in 90.2%, spinal in 65.9%, ocular in 53.7%, 36.6% with cardiovascular involvement, 29.3% urogenital, and 17% of the cases with central nervous system (CNS) involvement. The classic OAV triad was present in only 34%. All patients except one had concomitant problems in other organs or systems. Conclusion: Since the diagnosis of OAV dysplasia relies only on a comprehensive medical evaluation, it is imperative that clinicians be aware of the most common presentation of the syndrome. Once suspected, every patient should undergo a complete medical evaluation of multiple systems including complementary exams. Treatment of these patients is based on surgical correction of malformations and rehabilitation.


RESUMO Objetivo: descrever os principais achados clínicos de uma coorte de pacientes com a displasia óculo-aurículo-vertebral (OAV). Método: revisão de prontuários médicos dos pacientes com diagnóstico de OAV no período de 1990 a 2010, acompanhados em um centro de genética médica. Resultados: foram incluídos no estudo 41 pacientes. A média de idade ao diagnóstico foi de 2 anos e 10 meses (34,4±48,8 meses) e a proporção de pacientes do sexo feminino foi de 53,7%. A média de idade dos pais ao nascimento do paciente foi de 28,5±6,9 anos para as mães e 31,4±7,4 anos para os pais. A maioria dos indivíduos (97,5%) possuía acometimento auricular, 90,2% tinham manifestações faciais, 65,9%, vertebrais, 53,7%, oculares, 36,6%, cardiovasculares, 29,3%, urogenitais e 17%, no sistema nervoso central. Além disso, 34% dos pacientes apresentavam a tríade clássica óculo-aurículo-vertebral, e todos os pacientes exceto um apresentavam concomitantemente problemas em outros órgãos ou sistemas. Conclusão: já que o diagnóstico desta entidade é eminentemente clínico, é imprescindível que os médicos das mais diversas especialidades conheçam os achados mais frequentes na OAV. Diante de um paciente com suspeita diagnóstica, deve ser realizada avaliação detalhada de outros órgãos, tanto clínica como por meio de exames complementares. O tratamento é baseado na correção cirúrgica das malformações e na reabilitação.

16.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 61(5): 407-10, 2015 Sep-Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26603002

RESUMO

Menkes disease is a congenital disorder caused by changes in copper metabolism derived from mutations in the ATP7A gene. It is characterized by physical and neurological alterations. In the neonatal period, these alterations can be nonspecific, which makes early diagnosis a challenge. Diagnosis can be suspected when there are low levels of ceruloplasmin and serum copper. Molecular analysis confirms the diagnosis. Treatment is parenteral administration of copper histidine. We report a familial case with molecular confirmation. The proband had clinical and biochemical suspicious. Treatment with copper histidine was indicated, but initiated at the age of 2 months and 27 days only. He did not present improvements and died at 6 months. The mother became pregnant again, a male fetus was identified and copper histidine was manufactured during pregnancy. He was born healthy, biochemical markers were reduced and treatment was indicated. Molecular analysis was performed confirming mutation in both the mother and the proband, while the other son did not have mutation, so treatment was discontinued. We support the clinical relevance of molecular confirmation for the correct diagnosis and genetic counseling, once clinical findings in the neonatal period are nonspecific and early treatment with parenteral copper histidine must be indicated.


Assuntos
Histidina/análogos & derivados , Síndrome dos Cabelos Torcidos/genética , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Compostos Organometálicos/uso terapêutico , Adenosina Trifosfatases/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Ceruloplasmina/análise , Cobre/análise , ATPases Transportadoras de Cobre , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Doenças do Cabelo/diagnóstico , Histidina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Síndrome dos Cabelos Torcidos/diagnóstico , Síndrome dos Cabelos Torcidos/tratamento farmacológico , Gravidez
17.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 61(5): 407-410, Sept.-Oct. 2015. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-766263

RESUMO

Summary Menkes disease is a congenital disorder caused by changes in copper metabolism derived from mutations in the ATP7A gene. It is characterized by physical and neurological alterations. In the neonatal period, these alterations can be nonspecific, which makes early diagnosis a challenge. Diagnosis can be suspected when there are low levels of ceruloplasmin and serum copper. Molecular analysis confirms the diagnosis. Treatment is parenteral administration of copper histidine. We report a familial case with molecular confirmation. The proband had clinical and biochemical suspicious. Treatment with copper histidine was indicated, but initiated at the age of 2 months and 27 days only. He did not present improvements and died at 6 months. The mother became pregnant again, a male fetus was identified and copper histidine was manufactured during pregnancy. He was born healthy, biochemical markers were reduced and treatment was indicated. Molecular analysis was performed confirming mutation in both the mother and the proband, while the other son did not have mutation, so treatment was discontinued. We support the clinical relevance of molecular confirmation for the correct diagnosis and genetic counseling, once clinical findings in the neonatal period are nonspecific and early treatment with parenteral copper histidine must be indicated.


Resumo A doença de Menkes é causada por uma alteração genética no metabolismo do cobre, por mutações no gene ATP7A. Caracteriza-se por alterações neurológicas e no exame físico. No período neonatal, essas alterações podem ser inespecíficas, o que torna o diagnóstico precoce um desafio. O diagnóstico pode ser suspeitado quando há baixos níveis séricos de cobre e ceruloplasmina. A análise molecular confirma o diagnóstico, e o tratamento deve ser feito com histidina de cobre. Nós relatamos um caso familial de doença de Menkes. O probando apresentava quadro clínico e alterações bioquímicas compatíveis com a doença de Menkes, em consulta com 1 mês de vida. O tratamento foi indicado, mas apenas iniciado com 2 meses e 27 dias. Ele não apresentou melhora clínica e veio a óbito com 6 meses. A mãe teve uma nova gestação, foi identificado um feto do sexo masculino e foi solicitada a manipulação da histidina de cobre ainda durante a gestação. O bebê nasceu saudável, os marcadores bioquímicos estavam diminuídos e o tratamento com histidina de cobre foi indicado. Realizamos a análise molecular, que confirmou mutação no gene ATP7A na mãe e no probando; porém, o outro filho não apresentava mutação e o tratamento foi interrompido. Nós defendemos a importância clínica da confirmação molecular para o correto diagnóstico e o aconselhamento genético da doença de Menkes, uma vez que os achados clínicos e as alterações bioquímicas no período neonatal são inespecíficos, e o tratamento com histidina de cobre parenteral deve ser rapidamente instituído.


Assuntos
Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Histidina/análogos & derivados , Síndrome dos Cabelos Torcidos/genética , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Compostos Organometálicos/uso terapêutico , Adenosina Trifosfatases/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Ceruloplasmina/análise , Cobre/análise , Evolução Fatal , Doenças do Cabelo/diagnóstico , Histidina/uso terapêutico , Síndrome dos Cabelos Torcidos/diagnóstico , Síndrome dos Cabelos Torcidos/tratamento farmacológico
18.
Biomed Res Int ; 2015: 903175, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26090456

RESUMO

Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a genetic disease caused by a microdeletion in the 7q11.23 region. It is characterized by congenital heart disease, mainly supravalvular aortic stenosis, mental retardation, mild short stature, facial dysmorphisms, and variable abnormalities in different systems. Objectives. To report the clinical findings of 55 Brazilian patients confirmed by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). Methods. Patients were followed up for 4 years at the Genetics Unit of the Instituto da Criança of the Hospital das Clínicas, FMUSP, Brazil. A kit specific for WBS was used to detect the 7q11.23 microdeletion. Results. Two patients with negative FISH results had positive MLPA results for WBS. The characteristics of the patients with the deletion were as follows: typical WBS facies (98.2%), neuropsychomotor delay (98.2%), hypersocial behavior (94.5%), hyperacusis (94.5%), and congenital heart disease (81.8%). Conclusions. MLPA was effective in detecting the microdeletion in the 7q11.23 region to confirm the diagnosis of WBS. MLPA was also able to confirm the diagnosis of WBS in two patients with typical clinical characteristics but negative FISH results. Thus, MLPA is a promising method in the diagnostic investigation of WBS. WBS is a multisystemic disorder and therefore requires multidisciplinary care and specific follow-up to prevent complications.


Assuntos
Deleção Cromossômica , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Síndrome de Williams/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico , Cardiopatias Congênitas/patologia , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Masculino , Fenótipo , Síndrome de Williams/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Williams/patologia
19.
J Med Genet ; 52(6): 413-21, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25795793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Noonan syndrome is an autosomal dominant, multisystemic disorder caused by dysregulation of the RAS/mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Heterozygous, pathogenic variants in 11 known genes account for approximately 80% of cases. The identification of novel genes associated with Noonan syndrome has become increasingly challenging, since they might be responsible for very small fractions of the cases. METHODS: A cohort of 50 Brazilian probands negative for pathogenic variants in the known genes associated with Noonan syndrome was tested through whole-exome sequencing along with the relatives in the familial cases. Families from the USA and Poland with mutations in the newly identified genes were included subsequently. RESULTS: We identified rare, segregating or de novo missense variants in SOS2 and LZTR1 in 4% and 8%, respectively, of the 50 Brazilian probands. SOS2 and LZTR1 variants were also found to segregate in one American and one Polish family. Notably, SOS2 variants were identified in patients with marked ectodermal involvement, similar to patients with SOS1 mutations. CONCLUSIONS: We identified two novel genes, SOS2 and LZTR1, associated with Noonan syndrome, thereby expanding the molecular spectrum of RASopathies. Mutations in these genes are responsible for approximately 3% of all patients with Noonan syndrome. While SOS2 is a natural candidate, because of its homology with SOS1, the functional role of LZTR1 in the RAS/MAPK pathway is not known, and it could not have been identified without the large pedigrees. Additional functional studies are needed to elucidate the role of LZTR1 in RAS/MAPK signalling and in the pathogenesis of Noonan syndrome.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Variação Genética , Síndrome de Noonan/genética , Proteínas Son Of Sevenless/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Facies , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Síndrome de Noonan/diagnóstico , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas ras/metabolismo
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