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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033282

RESUMO

Background: Medication use during pregnancy is a common practice that has been increasing in recent years. The aim of this study is to describe medication use among pregnant women from the 2015 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study. Methods: This paper relies on a population-based cohort study including 4270 women. Participants completed a questionnaire about the antenatal period, including information about medication use. We performed descriptive analyses of the sample and the medications used and adjusted analyses for the use of medications and self-medication. Results: The prevalence of medication use was 92.5% (95% CI 91.7-93.3), excluding iron salts, folic acid, vitamins, and other minerals. The prevalence of self-medication was 27.7% (95% CI 26.3-29.1). In the adjusted analysis, women who had three or more health problems during pregnancy demonstrated higher use of medicines. Self-medication was higher in lower income groups and among smokers and multiparous women (three pregnancies or more). Acetaminophen, scopolamine, and dimenhydrinate were the medications most commonly used. Conclusions: This study describes the pattern of drug use among pregnant women in a population-based cohort study, with a high prevalence of self-medication. Greater awareness of the risks of self-medication during pregnancy is required, focusing on groups more prone to this practice, as well as ensuring qualified multidisciplinary prenatal care.

2.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 24, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914972

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing medicines availability and affordability is a key goal of Brazilian health policies. "Farmácia Popular" (FP) Program is one of the government's key strategies to achieve this goal. Under FP, antihypertension (HTN) and antiglycemic (DM) medicines have been provided at subsidized prices in private retail settings since 2006, and free of charge since 2011. We aim to assess the impact of sequential changes in FP benefits on patient affordability and government expenditures for HTN and DM treatment under the FP, and examine their implications for public financing mechanisms and program sustainability. METHODS: Longitudinal, retrospective study using interrupted time series to analyze: HTN and DM treatment coverage; total and per capita expenditure; percentage paid by MoH; and patient cost sharing. Analyzes were conducted in the dispensing database of the FP program (from 2006 to 2012). RESULTS: FP has increased its coverage over time; by December 2012 FP covered on average 13% of DM and 11.5% of HTN utilization, a growth of over 600 and 1500%, respectively. The overall cost per treatment to the MoH declined from R$36.43 (R$ = reais, the Brazilian currency) to 18.74 for HTN and from R$33.07to R$15.05 for DM over the period analyzed, representing a reduction in per capita cost greater than 50%. The amount paid by patients for the medicines covered increased over time until 2011, but then declined to zero. We estimate that to treat all patients in need for HTN and DM in 2012 under FP, the Government would need to expend 97% of the total medicines budget. CONCLUSIONS: FP rapidly increased its coverage in terms of both program reach and proportion of cost subsidized during the period analyzed. Costs of individual HTN and DM treatments in FP were reduced after 2011 for both patients (free) and government (better negotiated prices). However, overall FP expenditures by MoH increased due to markedly increased utilization. The FP is sustainable as a complementary policy but cannot feasibly substitute for the distribution of medicines by the SUS.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31963112

RESUMO

Background: This study describes medication use by women up to 3 months postpartum and evaluates the association between medication use by women who were still breastfeeding at 3 months postpartum and weaning at 6 and 12 months. Methods: Population-based cohort, including women who breastfed (n = 3988). Medications were classified according to Hale's lactation risk categories and Brazilian Ministry of Health criteria. Duration of breastfeeding was analysed using Cox regression models and Kaplan-Meier curves, including only women who were still breastfeeding at three months postpartum. Results: Medication use with some risk for lactation was frequent (79.6% regarding Hale's risk categories and 12.3% regarding Brazilian Ministry of Health criteria). We did not find statistically significant differences for weaning at 6 or 12 months between the group who did not use medication or used only compatible medications and the group who used medications with some risk for lactation, according to both criteria. Conclusions: Our study found no association between weaning rates across the different breastfeeding safety categories of medications in women who were still breastfeeding at three months postpartum. Therefore, women who took medications and stopped breastfeeding in the first three months postpartum because of adverse side-effects associated with medications could not be addressed in this analysis.

4.
Subst Use Misuse ; : 1-9, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790311

RESUMO

Background: College students are susceptible to using cognitive enhancement drugs, also known as smart drugs. Objectives: estimate the prevalence of smart drug use and investigate the factors related to access and use among undergraduate students. Methods: cross-sectional study performed among all students who entered the university in 2017 using an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire. Smart drug usage was defined as taking methylphenidate, modafinil or piracetam at any point in life and in the preceding 12 months. We characterized the means of obtaining smart drugs, reasons for using and students' residential situation. We asked students who did not use any medication if they were interested in taking it and the reasons for not using. Results: Out of 1865 respondents, 4.2% had used smart drugs in the last 12 months, and the prevalence among law students reached 14.3%. The most commonly used smart drug was methylphenidate. Among the students who did not present ADD diagnosis, the drug was obtained mostly through a friend. More than 300 students reported a desire to use some smart drug, but they did not, mainly due to the fear of side effects. Conclusions: The current study has found a variety of frequency of smart drug use among college students and has also showed that many students are willing to take some kind of cognitive enhancement drug. Therefore, it is important to discuss this issue from a public health perspective.

5.
Health Policy Plan ; 34(Supplement_3): iii27-iii35, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816070

RESUMO

This article aims to describe the inappropriate use of medicines in the Brazilian urban population and to identify associated factors. We conducted a data analysis of a household survey carried out in Brazil in 2013-14. The sampling plan was done by clusters with representativeness of the urban population and large regions of the country, according to gender and age domains. For this analysis, we considered a sample of adults (≥20 years) who reported having chronic non-communicable diseases, medical indication for drug treatment and medicine use (n = 12 283). We evaluated the prevalence of inappropriate use in the domains: non-adherence, inappropriate use behaviour and inadequate care with medicines, all verified in the following groups of independent variables: demographic and socio-economic characteristics, health and pharmaceutical care, health status and use of medicines. Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios were obtained using robust Poisson regression. It was found 46.1% of people having at least one behaviour of inappropriate use of medicines. The worst results were found for the domain of inappropriate use behaviour, a situation of 36.6% of the users, which included unauthorized prescriber, inadequate source of information and indication of the medicines by non-authorized prescribers. The best result was found for the lack of medicines care, informed by only 4.6% of users who kept expired drugs at home. The inappropriate use of medicines was associated with gender (female), region of residence (Northeast), not visiting the doctor regularly or visiting more than one doctor, not having free access to medicines and using of five or more medicines. There was a high prevalence of inappropriate use, which was associated with both individual and health system characteristics pointing out the need to set priorities as for health education and public interventions.

6.
J Pediatr (Rio J) ; 95(6): 657-666, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679611

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the occurrence of infectious morbidities according to day care attendance during the first year of life. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional analysis of data from the 12-month follow-up of a medium-sized city birth cohort from children born in 2015, in the Southern Brazil. Main exposure variables were day care attendance from 0 to 11 months of age, type of day care center (public or private), and age at entering day care. Health outcomes were classified as follows: "non-specific respiratory symptoms," "upper respiratory tract infection," "lower respiratory tract infection," "flu/cold," "diarrhea," or "no health problem," considering the two weeks prior to the interview administered at 12 months of life. Associations were assessed using Poisson regression adjusted by demographic, behavioral, and socioeconomic variables. RESULTS: The sample included 4018 children. Day care attendance was associated with all classifications of health outcomes mentioned above, except for flu/cold. These were stronger among children who entered day care at an age closer to the outcome time-point. An example are the results for lower respiratory tract infection and diarrhea, with adjusted prevalence ratios of 2.79 (95% CI: 1.67-4.64) and 2.04 (95% CI: 1.48-2.82), respectively, for those who entered day care after 8 months of age when compared with those who never attended day care. CONCLUSIONS: The present study consistently demonstrated the association between day care attendance and higher occurrence of infectious morbidities and symptoms at 12 months of life. Hence, measures to prevent infectious diseases should give special attention to children attending day care centers.

7.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 410, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies of healthcare service use during the pregnancy-postpartum cycle often rely on self-reported data. The reliability of self-reported information is often questioned as administrative data or medical records, such as antenatal care cards, are usually preferred. In this study, we measured the agreement of antenatal care indicators from self-reported information and antenatal care cards of pregnant women in the 2015 Pelotas Birth Cohort, Brazil. METHODS: In a sample of 3923 mothers, indicator agreement strengths were estimated from Kappa and prevalence-and-bias-adjusted Kappa (PABAK) coefficients. Maternal characteristics associated with indicator agreements were assessed with heterogeneity chi-squared tests. RESULTS: The self-reported questionnaire and the antenatal care card showed a moderate to high agreement in 10 of 21 (48%) antenatal care indicators that assessed care service use, clinical examination and diseases during pregnancy. Counseling indicators performed poorly. Self-reported information presented a higher frequency data and a higher sensitivity but slightly lower specificity when compared to the antenatal card. Factors associated with higher agreement between both data sources included lower maternal age, higher level of education, primiparous status, and being a recipient of health care in the public sector. CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported questionnaire and antenatal care cards provided substantially different information on indicator performance. Reliance on only one source of data to assess antenatal care quality may be questionable for some indicators. From a public health perspective, it is recommended that antenatal care programs use multiple data sources to estimate quality and effectiveness of health promotion and disease prevention in pregnant women and their offspring.

8.
Int J Adolesc Youth ; 24(4): 474-483, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709130

RESUMO

To analyze how socio-economic factors and behavioural characteristics are related to the failure of academic progress. Data of the 1993 Birth Cohort of the city of Pelotas, Brazil, were analyzed using four follow-up waves. As a measure of the failure of academic progress, we used indicators of the age-grade gap. We analyzed the association of demographic, socio-economic, and behavioural characteristics. Factors associated with failure of academic progress were assessed through logistic regression. There are a higher odds of the age-grade gap when the adolescent is not white, man, of low socio-economic status, whose parents have low schooling and living in large families. In relation to risk behaviours, alcohol and tobacco consumption represent higher odds of the age-grade gap at age 18. The results show that socio-economic factors and behavioural characteristics are important predictors of academic progress. Public policies that seek to promote education should be targeted at the most vulnerable groups, decreasing the observed inequalities.

9.
Cad Saude Publica ; 35(11): e00010719, 2019.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691774

RESUMO

The objective was to estimate the prevalence of artificial sweetener use by the adult Brazilian population and users' characteristics. Analysis of data from the Brazilian National Survey on Access, Utilization, and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines (PNAUM, 2014), a nationwide population-based survey. The target outcome was self-reported use of sweeteners by Brazilians 20 years and older. The independent variables were sex, age, major geographic region of Brazil, schooling in complete years, and economic status according to the Brazilian Economic Classification Criterion of the Brazilian Association of Research Companies (ABEP). The health condition indicators were: self-reported noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), number of NCDs, and body mass index (BMI). Prevalence of sweetener use in the Brazilian adult population was 13.4% (95%CI: 12.5-14.3), and it was higher in females and in persons 60 years or older, in the Northeast and Southeast, among individuals from economic classes A and B, and among obese individuals. Persons with chronic diseases (especially diabetes) showed the highest prevalence of use of sweeteners, and their use increased with the number of reported comorbidities. Prevalence of use of artificial sweeteners was 13.4% and was associated with sociodemographic and health characteristics.

10.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 92, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644723

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the use of the first dose of antibiotics in the health care unit in children from the 2015 Pelotas Birth Cohort at 24 months. METHODS: A total of 4,014 children were monitored. We used descriptive statistics and Poisson regression to analyze the association between socioeconomic and demographic variables, participation in daycare units, in the activities of the Pastoral da Criança and in the Primeira Infância Melhor program, low birth weight, hospitalization between 12 and 24 months, place of medical appointment, prevalence of medical appointment in the last 30 days, prescription of antibiotics, and administration of the first dose in the health care unit. RESULTS: A total of 1,044 children had medical appointments in the last 30 days, of which 45% were prescribed antibiotics and only 10.5% were administered the first dose of this medication in the health care unit. Children with brown, yellow or indigenous skin color were administered 2.5 times more antibiotics than white children. Children whose mothers had 12 years or more of education were administered 83.0% fewer antibiotics than those whose mothers had up to 4 years of education. Among those who were hospitalized for 12 to 24 months, the use of antibiotics was almost four times higher than among those who were not. Among the children served by the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS), only 15.3% were administered the first dose of antibiotic in the health care unit. When compared with children served by private health care or health plan, administration of the first dose in the SUS was 76.0% higher. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the efforts related to the Pastoral da Criança campaign "Antibiotic: first dose immediately," adherence to the provision of antibiotics in the health care unit is still low. Strategies are necessary and urgent so children have access to the first dose of antibiotics in the health care unit.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Agendamento de Consultas , Brasil/epidemiologia , Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mães , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
11.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 94, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644724

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate trends in the use of generic and non-generic medicines to treat hypertension and diabetes under the Farmácia Popular Program (FP) and its impact on generic medicines sales volume and market share in the Brazilian pharmaceutical market. METHODS: This longitudinal, retrospective study used interrupted time series design to analyze changes in monthly sales volume and proportion of medicines sales (market share) for oral antidiabetic and antihypertensive medicines for generic versus non-generic products. Analyses were conducted in a combined dataset that aggregate monthly sales volumes from the Farmácia Popular program and from the QuintilesIMS™ (IQVIA) national market sales data from January 2007 to December 2012. The Farmácia Popular program phases analyzed included: a) 2009 reductions in medicines reference prices (AFP-II) and b) 2011 implementation of free medicines program for hypertension and diabetes, the Saúde não tem preço (SNTP - Health has no price). RESULTS: Patterns of use for FP-covered antidiabetic and antihypertensive medicines were similar to their use in the market in general. After one year of the decreases in government subsidies in April 2010, market share of antidiabetic and antihypertensive medicines experienced relative declines of -54.5% and -59.9%, respectively. However, when FP-covered medicines were made free to patients, overall market volume for antidiabetic and antihypertensive generics increased dramatically, with 242.6% and 277.0% relative increases by February 2012, as well as non-generics with relative increase of 209.7% and 279% for antidiabetic and antihypertensive medicines, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Ministry of Health policies on the amount of patient cost sharing and on the choice of medicines on coverage lists have substantial impacts on overall generic sales volume in retail pharmacies.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Comércio/tendências , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/tendências , Medicamentos Genéricos/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/tendências , Brasil , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Estudos Longitudinais , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Farmácias/estatística & dados numéricos , Farmácias/tendências , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Valores de Referência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Cad Saude Publica ; 35(7): e00072918, 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411283

RESUMO

This study aimed to describe fetal, neonatal, and post-neonatal mortality and associated factors in participants of the 2015 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort. The child mortality sub-study followed up all deaths in the first year of life. Data were collected on intrauterine fetal deaths (weight ≥ 500g and/or gestational age ≥ 20 weeks), neonatal deaths (< 28 days of life), and post-neonatal deaths (from 28 days to the end of the first year of life). Descriptive analyses using the Pearson chi-square test and a multinomial logistic regression to estimate the risk of fetal, neonatal, and post-neonatal deaths compared to live infants in the cohort (reference group) were performed. Data from 4,329 eligible births were collected, of which 54 died during the fetal period. Of the 4,275 eligible live births, 59 died in the first year of life. An association between fetal, neonatal, and post-neonatal deaths (OR = 15.60, 7.63, and 5.51 respectively) was found, as well as less than six prenatal consultations. Compared to live infants, fetal deaths were more likely to occur in non-white mothers, and neonatal deaths were 14.09 times more likely to occur in a preterm gestational age (< 37 weeks). Compared to live infants, infants that were born in a C-section delivery had 3.71 increased odds of post-neonatal death. Additionally, neonatal deaths were 102.37 times more likely to have a low Apgar score on the fifth minute after birth. These findings show the need for early interventions during pregnancy, ensuring access to adequate prenatal care.

13.
J Pharm Policy Pract ; 12: 18, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417682

RESUMO

Objectives: To describe changes in the private market for selected originators, branded generics ('similares'), and generic products during the 10 years following passage of the Brazilian Generics Law. Methods: We analyzed longitudinal data collected by IQVIA® on quarterly sales by wholesalers to retail pharmacies in Brazil from 1998 through 2010, grouped by originators, branded generics, and generic products in three therapeutic classes (antibiotics, antidiabetics, and antihypertensives). Outcomes included market share (proportion of the total private market volume), sales volume per capita, prices and number of manufacturers by group. Results: In the private market share, generics became dominant in each therapeutic class but the speed of uptake varied. Originators consistently lost most market share while branded generics varied over time. By the end of the study period, generics were the most sold product type in all classes, followed by branded generics. The number of generic manufacturers increased in all classes, while branded generics increased just after the policy but then decreased slowly through the end of 2010. For approximately 50% of the antibiotics analyzed, branded generics and generics had lower prices than originators. For antidiabetics, branded generic and generic prices were quite similar during the period analyzed. Price trends for the various subclasses of antihypertensive exhibited very different patterns over time. Conclusion: Sales of branded generics and originators decreased substantially in the three therapeutic classes analysed following the introduction of the generics policy in Brazil, but the time to market dominance of generics varied by class.

14.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 37: 1-5, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445361

RESUMO

The aim of the current study was to investigate the prevalence of the use the integrative and complementary practices (ICP) and its associated factors in Brazil. Data was obtained from the cross-sectional National Health Survey 2013 (NHS), which had 145,580 adults aged 18 or over were interviewed. The outcome was the use of any ICP over the last 12 months and independent variables were macro-region, sex, age, educational attainment, skin color/race, and chronic disease. The results show that the prevalence of ICPs use in Brazil was 4.1%, while the most used types were medicinal plants and phytotherapy (2.5%), acupuncture (0.9%) and homeopathy (0.6%). The prevalence of ICPs use was higher in the North Region, among older people, women, participants with higher educational attainment, and with a higher number of chronic diseases. The findings from the current study provide valuable evidence that can inform future evidence-based public policies in Brazil.

15.
BMC Pediatr ; 19(1): 235, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unintentional child poisoning represents a significant public health problem across the globe, placing a substantial burden on health services emergency departments. Around the world, every year, thousands of children die as a result of physical injuries, most of which involve children under 5 years old. Medicines are the main products involved in poisoning, and children under 5 years old are the most vulnerable age group. The objective of this study was to measure the prevalence of unsafe storage of medicines in households with a 4-year-old child. METHODS: We used data from the follow-up of 4-year-old in the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study in Brazil (N = 3799). "Unsafe storage" was considered present when medicines were stored unlocked and within reach of children (at a height below the eye level of the average adult). Independent variables included maternal and family socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and the child's health care. All information was collected during household interviews with the mothers using a standardized questionnaire. The overall prevalence rate with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI) and the prevalence associated with various independent variables were determined. RESULTS: The storage of medicines in unlocked areas was reported by 80.9% of the mothers, and, within reach of children for 26.5%. The overall prevalence rate of unsafe storage of medicines was 21.4% (20.1-22.7%). The main storage locations used were the kitchen (57.0%) and bedroom (53.3%). CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that medicines were unsafely stored in a 21.4% number of homes, which can contribute to the vulnerability of children to poisoning from medicines. To minimize this risk, education about the safe storage of medicines should be reinforced by health professionals.

16.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 889, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many low- and middle-income countries recommend micronutrient supplements for pregnant women to improve their nutritional status, prevent possible deficiencies and avoid fetal healgth consequences. This study evaluated the influence of socioeconomic status on the use of folic acid, iron salts and other vitamins and minerals among pregnant women in the 2015 Pelotas Birth Cohort. METHODS: This population-based birth cohort study was carried out with 4270 women. Participants were interviewed during pregnancy and at the maternity hospital about the antenatal period; including the use of iron salts, vitamins and other minerals. Descriptive analyses were performed to characterize the sample. The analyses were adjusted according to socioeconomic variables (maternal education, ethnicity, household income). RESULTS: The overall prevalence of the use of folic acid, iron salts or other vitamins and minerals was 91.0% (95% CI: 90.1-91.8). Specifically, 70.9% (95% CI: 69.5-72.3) used folic acid, 72.9% (95% CI: 71.5-74.3) used iron compounds, and 31.8% (95% CI: 30.3-33.2) used other vitamins or minerals. In the adjusted analysis, the use of iron salts was associated with nonwhite mothers, with ≤4 years of education and whose family income was less than or equal to the monthly minimum wage. The use of folic acid and other vitamins and minerals was associated with white mothers who were more highly educated and had a higher family income. CONCLUSION: Although folic acid and other vitamins and minerals were more frequently used in white, richer and more educated mothers, which indicates inequality, iron supplements were more frequently used in the poorer, less educated nonwhite mothers, suggesting the opposite association for this supplement.


Assuntos
Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Ferro na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gestantes , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 51, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166379

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Trace the pattern of drug use during delivery hospitalization. METHOD: Cross-sectional study carried out from June to October 2015, included in the 2015 Pelotas births cohort. All women living in the urban area of the city who were hospitalized for delivery were part of the sample. We collected information regarding drug prescription and drug use by mothers during the whole period of hospitalization. Sociodemographic data were obtained in interview after delivery, and other data were obtained from medical charts. The drugs were classified according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical system. RESULTS: All study participants (1,392 women) used at least one drug, with the mean amount being larger the higher the age of the mother, both prepartum/during delivery and postpartum. It was also higher in cases of spinal anesthesia or general anesthesia, cesarean deliveries, school hospitals, and longer hospitalizations. Analysis of the sample as a whole showed no significant difference in the number of drugs used according to hospitalization type, but when stratified by length of hospital stay the mean was higher in SUS hospitalizations than in private and health insurance hospitalizations. Drugs for the nervous system were the most used (30.5%), followed by drugs for the alimentary tract and metabolism (13.8%). The use of anti-infective agents and drugs that act on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems was higher in mothers who underwent cesarean delivery. This study showed high drug consumption in the delivery hospitalization period, and showed cesarean delivery and epidural anesthesia as the main factors related to high drug consumption in this period. CONCLUSIONS: We found high drug consumption in the delivery hospitalization period, and the main factors were cesarean delivery and epidural anesthesia. Drugs that act on the nervous system were the most used.


Assuntos
Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anestesia Epidural , Anestesia Geral , Raquianestesia , Brasil , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Prescrições de Medicamentos/classificação , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Affect Disord ; 256: 441-447, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study examined the association between disrespect and abuse of women during facility-based childbirth and postpartum depression (PD) occurrence. METHODS: We used data from the 2015 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort, a population-based cohort of all live births in the city. We assessed 3065 mothers at pregnancy and 3-months after birth. Self-reported disrespect and abuse experiences included physical abuse, verbal abuse, denial of care, and undesired procedures. We estimate the occurrence of each disrespect and abuse type, one or more types and disrespect and abuse score. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was used to assess PD. EPDS scores ≥13 and ≥15 indicated at least moderate PD and marked/severe. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated by logistic regression. RESULTS: The prevalence of at least moderate PD and marked/severe PD was 9.4% and 5.7%, respectively. 18% of the women experienced at least one type of disrespect and abuse. Verbal abuse increased the odds of having at least moderate PD (OR = 1.58; 95%CI 1.06-2.33) and marked/severe PD (OR = 1.69; 95%CI 1.06-2.70) and the effect among women who did not experience antenatal depressive symptoms was greater in comparison to those who did (OR = 2.51; 95%CI 1.26-5.04 and OR = 4.27; 95%CI 1.80-10.12). Physical abuse increased the odds of having marked/severe PD (OR = 2.28; 95%CI 1.26-4.12). Having experienced three or more mistreatment types increased the odds of at least moderate PD (OR = 2.90; 95%CI 1.30 - 35.74) and marked/severe PD (OR=3.86; 95%CI 1.58-9.42). LIMITATIONS: Disrespect and abuse experiences during childbirth were self-reported. CONCLUSIONS: Disrespect and abuse during childbirth increased the odds of PD three months after birth. Strategies to promote high quality and respectful maternal health care are needed to prevent mother-child adverse outcomes.

19.
BMC Pediatr ; 19(1): 165, 2019 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-supine infant sleep position is an important modifiable risk factor for sudden unexpected death in infancy. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of supine sleep position and associated factors among 3-month-old infants from a birth cohort in the city of Pelotas, southern Brazil. METHODS: The present study evaluated longitudinal data from the 2015 Pelotas Birth Cohort. Study outcome was supine infant sleep position, defined as the appropriate position, among 3-month-old children. Demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral, and health characteristics collected at birth and at the 3-month follow-up were investigated as possible associated factors. The prevalence of each associated factor was investigated, and crude and hierarchical adjusted analyses were performed using Poisson regression. RESULTS: Among the 4108 infants assessed in this study, 2274 (55.4%) slept in supine position at 3 months and only 66 (1.6%) in prone position. Maternal white skin color, higher family income and maternal schooling, advanced maternal age, maternal cohabiting with a partner, receiving counseling from health care professionals and non-bed-sharing were associated with higher prevalence of infants sleeping in supine position at 3 months. All these variables remained associated in our hierarchical adjusted analyses except maternal cohabitation with a partner. Participants with white mothers were more likely to sleep in supine position (PR: 1.23; 95%CI: 0.75-0.89) compared to participants with black mothers. Those belonging to the richest quintile were more likely to sleep in supine position (PR: 1.49; 95%CI: 1.35-1.65) compared to those who belong to the poorest. Mothers aged 31-36 years were more likely to choose supine sleep position (PR: 1.65; 95%CI: 1.42-1.92) compared to mothers younger than 19 years. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the present study showed the influence of maternal age, socioeconomic status, and counseling on infant sleep habits as predictors of choice of infant sleep position in a Brazilian population. It is recommended to implement informative campaigns and public policies to at-risk population and to improve recommendations from health care professionals.

20.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22: e190009, 2019 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30892472

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The written information on medicines has been acknowledged as an important tool for health education. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the use and understanding of medicine package inserts by users and assess sociodemographic and medical factors associated with their comprehension. METHOD: Data in this analysis are part of the PNAUM National Survey - a cross-sectional population-based study conducted in Brazil. Descriptive statistics and the Pearson χ2 tests were performed to compare proportions between sociodemographic and medical characteristics, as well as use and understanding of medicine package inserts. RESULTS: A total of 28.427 individuals responded to questions related to medicine package inserts. From these, 59.6% (95%CI 57.7 - 61.5) said they usually read the inserts, and 98.4% (95%CI 98.0 - 98.8) considered them necessary. Among people who read the medicine package inserts, more than half indicated difficulties with legibility (57.4%; 95%CI 55,2 - 59,6) and readability (54.1%; 95%CI 52.1 - 56.1). People from a lower education level reported greater difficulty in understanding them. CONCLUSION: The larger portion of the population usually read medicine package inserts. Nevertheless, people have difficulty in reading and understanding them.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Serviços de Informação sobre Medicamentos/normas , Rotulagem de Produtos , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Alfabetização em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
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