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1.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(43): 23916-23921, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657396

RESUMO

Gold nanoclusters (Au NCs) are an emerging class of luminescent nanomaterials but still suffer from moderate photoluminescence quantum yields. Recent efforts have focused on tailoring their emission properties. Introducing zwitterionic ligands to cap the metallic kernel is an efficient approach to enhance their one-photon excitation fluorescence intensity. In this work, we extend this concept to the nonlinear optical regime, i.e., two-photon excitation fluorescence. For a proper comparison between theory and experiment, both ligand and solvent effects should be considered. The effects of ligand shell size and of aqueous solvent on the optical properties of zwitterion functionalized gold nanoclusters have been studied by performing quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) simulations.

2.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(23): 12091-12099, 2019 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31080974

RESUMO

The ability of gold(i) thiolates to self-assemble into supramolecular architectures opens the route for a new class of nanomaterials with a unique structure-optical property relationship. However, for a confirmed structure-optical property relationship, a control of the supramolecular architectures is required. In this work, we report a simple synthesis of sub-100 nanometer gold-cysteine and silver doped gold-cysteine supramolecular assemblies. We explore in particular silver-doping as a strategy to enhance the optical properties of these supramolecular assemblies. By an accurate characterization of as-synthesized supramolecular nanoparticles, we have been able to measure for the first time, their absolute two-photon absorption cross-section, two-photon excited fluorescence cross-section and first hyperpolarizabilities at different near-IR wavelengths. Huge values are obtained for silver doped gold-cysteine supramolecular assemblies, as compared to their corresponding undoped counterpart. In addition, we employ DFT and TD-DFT methods to study the geometric and electronic structures of model gold-cysteine and silver doped gold-cysteine compounds in order to address the structure-linear/nonlinear optical property relationship. The aim is to gain insights into the origin of the nonlinear optical enhancement of silver-doped gold supramolecular assemblies.

3.
Nanotoxicology ; 13(3): 285-304, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30691378

RESUMO

Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) have unique physicochemical properties and have been used as delivery vehicles, contrast agents, and therapeutic compounds. Although the effects of AuNPs on peripheral tissues and immortalized cell lines have been extensively characterized, their effects on the central nervous system (CNS) are predominantly unknown. The main objective of the current study was to evaluate how AuNPs of varying sizes (1-100 nm), shapes (clusters, spheres, rods, flowers), and surfaces impact synaptic structures in the hippocampus, a brain structure often affected in neurodegeneration. Using a combination of organotypic hippocampal, as well as, primary neuronal, glial, and astrocytic cultures, we examined AuNPs impact on hippocampal dendritic spine density, internalization in various neural cells, and lysosomal status in astrocytes. Considering that neurons interact with astrocytes, and that lysosomes play a role in dendritic spine status, transcription factor TFEB and abundance of lysosomal marker, LAMP1 were evaluated. Both biomarkers were significantly increased in astrocytes exposed to AuNPs, suggesting that AuNPs not only enter lysosomes, but also increase lysosome biogenesis. Results from our studies show that AuNPs with poly(ethylene glycol) (AuNPs-PEG) or glutathione (AuNP-GSH) surfaces do not substantially decrease hippocampal dendritic spine density. Conversely, AuNPs coated with the detergent, CTAB, significantly decreased total spine density. Interestingly small gold nanoclusters (Au15(SG)13) with GSH reduced spine density, whereas larger gold nanoclusters (Au25(SG)18) with the same ligand did not. Thus, assessment of dendritic morphology, spine densities can reveal subtler changes of neural cells than cell death when exposed to nanoparticles, including AuNPs.

4.
Nano Lett ; 18(11): 6842-6849, 2018 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30247927

RESUMO

Acoustic vibrations of small nanoparticles are still ruled by continuum mechanics laws down to diameters of a few nanometers. The elastic behavior at lower sizes (<1-2 nm), where nanoparticles become molecular clusters made by few tens to few atoms, is still little explored. The question remains to which extent the transition from small continuous-mass solids to discrete-atom molecular clusters affects their specific low-frequency vibrational modes, whose period is classically expected to linearly scale with diameter. Here, we investigate experimentally by ultrafast time-resolved optical spectroscopy the acoustic response of atomically defined ligand-protected metal clusters Au n(SR) m with a number n of atoms ranging from 10 to 102 (0.5-1.5 nm diameter range). Two periods, corresponding to fundamental breathing- and quadrupolar-like acoustic modes, are detected, with the latter scaling linearly with cluster diameters and the former taking a constant value. Theoretical calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) predict in the case of bare clusters vibrational periods scaling with size down to diatomic molecules. For ligand-protected clusters, they show a pronounced effect of the ligand molecules on the breathing-like mode vibrational period at the origin of its constant value. This deviation from classical elasticity predictions results from mechanical mass-loading effects due to the protecting layer. This study shows that clusters characteristic vibrational frequencies are compatible with extrapolation of continuum mechanics model down to few atoms, which is in agreement with DFT computations.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29885254

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Calf-thymus (CT-DNA) is widely used as a binding agent. The commercial samples are known to be "highly polymerized DNA" samples. CT-DNA is known to be fragile in particular upon ultrasonic wave irradiation. Degradation products could have dramatic consequences on its bio-sensing activity, and an accurate determination of the molecular weight distribution and stability of commercial samples is highly demanded. METHODS: We investigated the sensitivity of charge detection mass spectrometry (CDMS), a single-molecule MS method, both with single-pass and ion trap CDMS ("Benner" trap) modes to the determination of the composition and stability (under multiphoton IR irradiation) of calf-thymus DNAs. We also investigated the changes in molecular weight distributions in the course of sonication by irradiating ultrasonic waves to CT-DNA. RESULTS: We report, for the first time, the direct molecular weight (MW) distribution of DNA sodium salt from calf-thymus revealing two populations at high (~10 MDa) and low (~3 MDa) molecular weights. We evidence a transition between the high-MW to the low-MW distribution, confirming that the low-MW distribution results from degradation of CT-DNA. Finally, we report also IRMPD experiments carried out on trapped single-stranded linear DNAs from calf-thymus allowing extraction of their activation energy for unimolecular dissociation. CONCLUSIONS: We show that single-pass CDMS is a direct, efficient and accurate MS-based approach to determine the composition of calf-thymus DNAs. Furthermore, ion trap CDMS allows us to evaluate the stability (both under multiphoton IR irradiation and in the course of sonication by irradiating ultrasonic wave) of calf-thymus DNAs.

6.
Nanoscale ; 10(24): 11335-11341, 2018 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29713724

RESUMO

Thiolate-protected gold nanoclusters have recently attracted considerable attention due to their size-dependent luminescence characterized by a long lifetime and large Stokes shift. However, the optimization of nanocluster properties such as the luminescence quantum yield is still a challenge. We report here the transformation of Au25Capt18 (Capt labels captopril) nanoclusters occurring at low pH and yielding a product with a much increased luminescence quantum yield which we have identified as Au23Capt17. We applied a simple method of treatment with HCl to accomplish this transformation and we characterized the absorption and emission of the newly created ligated nanoclusters as well as their morphology. Based on DFT calculations we show which Au nanocluster size transformations can lead to highly luminescent species such as Au23Capt17.

7.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 193: 283-288, 2018 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29258023

RESUMO

Protein-templated gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) are very attractive due to their unique fluorescence properties. A major problem however may arise due to protein structure changes upon the nucleation of an AuNC within the protein for any future use as in vivo probes, for instance. In this work, we propose a simple and reliable fluorescence based technique measuring the hydrodynamic size of protein-templated gold nanoclusters. This technique uses the relation between the time resolved fluorescence anisotropy decay and the hydrodynamic volume, through the rotational correlation time. We determine the molecular size of protein-directed AuNCs, with protein templates of increasing sizes, e.g. insulin, lysozyme, and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The comparison of sizes obtained by other techniques (e.g. dynamic light scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering) between bare and gold clusters containing proteins allows us to address the volume changes induced either by conformational changes (for BSA) or the formation of protein dimers (for insulin and lysozyme) during cluster formation and incorporation.


Assuntos
Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/química , Polarização de Fluorescência/métodos , Ouro/química , Insulina/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Muramidase/química , Soroalbumina Bovina/química , Animais , Bovinos , Humanos
8.
Chemphyschem ; 19(2): 165-168, 2018 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29105296

RESUMO

Increasing fluorescence quantum yields of ligand-protected gold nanoclusters has attracted wide research interest. The strategy consisting in using bulky counterions has been found to dramatically enhance the fluorescence. In this Communication, we push forward this concept to the nonlinear optical regime. We show that by an appropriate choice of bulky counterions and of solvent, a 30-fold increase in two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) signal at ≈600 nm for gold nanoclusters can be obtained. This would correspond to a TPEF cross-section in the range of 0.1 to 1 GM.

9.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 8(9): 1979-1985, 2017 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28398738

RESUMO

We report facile synthesis of the Au10(SG)10 nanoclusters, where SG stands for glutathione, found to be promising as a new class of radiosensitizers for cancer radiotherapy. The homoleptic catenane structure with two Au5SG5 interconnected rings, among different isomer structures, gives the best agreement between theoretical and experimental optical spectra and XRD patterns. This catenane structure exhibits a centrosymmetry-broken structure, resulting in enhanced second harmonic response and new characteristic circular dichroism signals in the spectral region of 250-400 nm. This is the first determination of the nonlinear optical properties of a ligated cluster with an equal Au-to-ligand ratio, thus without a metallic core and therefore zero confined electrons. Insight into the nonlinear and chiroptical efficiencies arising from interplay between structural and electronic properties is provided by the TD-DFT approach.

10.
Nanoscale ; 9(3): 1221-1228, 2017 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28050616

RESUMO

We report a combined experimental and theoretical study of the two-photon absorption and excited emission properties of monodisperse ligand stabilized Ag11, Ag15 and Ag31 nanoclusters in aqueous solutions. The nanoclusters were synthesized using a cyclic reduction under oxidative conditions and separated by vertical gel electrophoresis. The two-photon absorption cross-sections of these protected noble metal nanoclusters measured within the biologically attractive 750-900 nm window are several orders of magnitude larger than that reported for commercially available standard organic dyes. The two-photon excited fluorescence spectra are also presented for excitation wavelengths within the same excitation spectral window. They exhibit size-tunability. Because the fundamental photophysical mechanisms underlying these multiphoton processes in ligand protected clusters with only a few metal atoms are not fully understood yet, a theoretical model is proposed to identify the key driving elements. Elements that regulate the dipole moments and the nonlinear optical properties are the nanocluster size, its structure and the charge distribution on both the metal core and the bound ligands. We coined this new class of NLO materials as "Ligand-Core" NLO-phores.

11.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 18(18): 12404-8, 2016 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26821589

RESUMO

We report theoretical and experimental results on two-photon absorption (TPA) cross section of thiolated small silver cluster Ag15L11 exhibiting extraordinary large TPA in red. Our findings provide the responsible mechanism and allow proposing new classes of nanoclusters with large TPAs which are promising for biological and medical applications.

12.
Nanoscale ; 8(5): 2892-8, 2016 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26765164

RESUMO

We demonstrate that the tuning of the light emission from red to blue in dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) capped Ag29 nanoclusters can be trigged with one and two photon excitations. The cluster stoichiometry was determined with mass spectrometry and found to be Ag29(DHLA)12. In a detailed optical investigation, we show that these silver nanoclusters exhibit a strong red photoluminescence visible to the naked eye and characterized by a quantum yield of nearly ∼2% upon one-photon excitation. In the nonlinear optical (NLO) study of the properties of the clusters, the two-photon excited fluorescence spectra were recorded and their first hyperpolarizability obtained. The two-photon absorption cross-section at ∼800 nm for Ag29(DHLA)12 is higher than 10(4) GM and the hyperpolarizability is 106 × 10(-30) esu at the same excitation wavelength. The two-photon excited fluorescence spectrum appears strongly blue-shifted as compared to the one-photon excited spectrum, displaying a broad band between 400 and 700 nm. The density functional theory (DFT) provides insight into the structural and electronic properties of Ag29(DHLA)12 as well as into interplay between metallic subunit or core and ligands which is responsible for unique optical properties.

13.
Nanoscale ; 6(22): 13572-8, 2014 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25268982

RESUMO

By developing a new method for synthesizing atomically monodisperse Au15 nanoclusters stabilized with glutathione molecules and using the current state-of-the-art methods for synthesizing monodisperse protected Au25 nanoclusters, we investigated their nonlinear optical (NLO) properties after two-photon absorption. The two-photon emission spectra and the first hyperpolarizabilities of these particles were obtained using, in particular, a hyper-Rayleigh scattering technique. The influence on NLO of the excitation wavelength, the size as well as the nature of the ligands is also explored and discussed. Au15, the smallest stable thiolated gold nanocluster, presents remarkable nonlinear properties with respect to two-photon processes. The two-photon absorption cross-section at 780 nm for Au15 is ∼65,700 GM. This experimental cross-section value points to a quantum yield for two-photon emission of about 3 × 10(-7) at 475 nm for Au15. The first hyperpolarizability ß for Au15 clusters (509 × 10(-30) esu), as compared to Au25 clusters (128 × 10(-30) esu), is larger considering the difference in the number of gold atoms. Also, 10(30) ß per atom values reported for Au15 and Au25 clusters are more than two orders of magnitude larger than the values reported for Au NPs in the size range 10-50 nm, outlining the quantum cluster regime.

14.
Anal Chem ; 86(17): 8798-804, 2014 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25073016

RESUMO

The use of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) as a probe of the structure of biological molecules through fluorescence measurements in solution is well-attested. The transposition of this technique to the gas phase is appealing since it opens the perspective of combining the structural accuracy of FRET with the specificity and selectivity of mass spectrometry (MS). Here, we report FRET results on gas-phase polyalanine ions obtained by measuring FRET efficiency through specific photofragmentation rather than fluorescence. The structural sensitivity of the method was tested using commercially available chromophores (QSY 7 and carboxyrhodamine 575) grafted on a series of small, alanine-based peptides of differing sizes. The photofragmentation of these systems was investigated through action spectroscopy, and their conformations were probed using ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) and Monte Carlo minimization (MCM) simulations. We show that specific excitation of the donor chromophore results in the observation of fragments that are specific to the electronic excitation of the acceptor chromophore. This shows that energy transfer took place between the two chromophores and hence that the action-FRET technique can be used as a new and sensitive probe of the structure of gas-phase biomolecules, which opens perspectives as a new tool in structural biology.


Assuntos
Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Gases/química , Peptídeos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Método de Monte Carlo , Peptídeos/química , Rodaminas/química
15.
Nanoscale ; 5(12): 5637-43, 2013 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23685431

RESUMO

We report a simple synthesis of silver:glutathione (Ag:SG) clusters using a cyclic reduction under oxidative conditions. Two syntheses are described which lead to solutions containing well-defined Ag31(SG)19 and Ag15(SG)11 clusters that have been characterized by mass spectrometry. The optical properties of silver:glutathione (Ag:SG) cluster solutions have been investigated experimentally. In particular, the solution containing Ag15(SG)11 clusters shows a bright and photostable emission. For Ag31(SG)19 and Ag15(SG)11 clusters, the comparison of experimental findings with DFT and TDDFT calculations allowed us to reveal the structural and electronic properties of such low nuclearity liganded silver clusters.

16.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 24(12): 124104, 2012 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22395007

RESUMO

We have measured the first hyperpolarizabilities of thioalkane capped silver and gold metallic nanoparticles. The values found are ß(AgC 12-10 nm) = (2.10 ± 0.23) × 10(-26) esu for 10 nm diameter silver nanoparticles and ß(AuC 18-18 nm) = (3.37 ± 0.08) × 10(-26) esu for 18 nm diameter gold nanoparticles at the fundamental wavelength of 784 nm. By comparison to the corresponding values reported for citrate capped silver and gold metallic nanoparticles, after size corrections, decreases by factors of 4.3 and 6.5 respectively are observed. These decreases are tentatively attributed to the bonds formed between the gold and silver surface atoms and the sulfur atoms of the capping layer.

17.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 14(26): 9282-90, 2012 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22414868

RESUMO

We focus on the functional role of small silver clusters in model hybrid systems involving peptides in the context of a new generation of nanostructured materials for biosensing. The optical properties of hybrids in the gas phase and at support will be addressed with the aim to bridge fundamental and application aspects. We show that extension and enhancement of absorption of peptides can be achieved by small silver clusters due to the interaction of intense intracluster excitations with the π-π* excitations of chromophoric aminoacids. Moreover, we demonstrate that the binding of a peptide to a supported silver cluster can be detected by the optical fingerprint. This illustrates that supported silver clusters can serve as building blocks for biosensing materials. Moreover, the clusters can be used simultaneously to immobilize biomolecules and to increase the sensitivity of detection, thus replacing the standard use of organic dyes and providing label-free detection. Complementary to that, we show that protected silver clusters containing a cluster core and a shell liganded by thiolates exhibit absorption properties with intense transitions in the visible regime which are also suitable for biosensing applications.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Modelos Biológicos , Nanoestruturas/química , Peptídeos/química , Prata/química , Gases , Modelos Moleculares , Transição de Fase
18.
ACS Nano ; 5(12): 9450-62, 2011 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22087471

RESUMO

Absolute extinction cross sections of individual silver nanocube dimers are measured using spatial modulation spectroscopy in correlation with their transmission electron microscopy images. For very small interparticle distances and an incident light polarized along the dimer axis, we give evidence for a clear splitting of the main dipolar surface plasmon resonance which is found to be essentially induced by cube edge rounding effects. Supported by discrete dipole approximation and finite element method calculations, this phenomenon highlights the high sensitivity of the plasmonic coupling to the exact shape of the effective capacitor formed by the facing surfaces of both particles, especially in the regime of very close proximity.


Assuntos
Modelos Químicos , Nanoestruturas/química , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Prata/química , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície/métodos , Simulação por Computador , Dimerização , Luz , Teste de Materiais , Espalhamento de Radiação , Propriedades de Superfície
19.
Opt Express ; 18(21): 22314-23, 2010 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20941132

RESUMO

We report the three-dimensional mapping of 150 nm gold metallic nanoparticles dispersed in a homogeneous transparent polyacrylamide matrix using second-harmonic generation. We demonstrate that the position of single nanoparticles can be well defined using only one incident fundamental beam and the harmonic photon detection performed at right angle. The fundamental laser beam properties are determined using its spatial autocorrelation function and used to prove that single nanoparticles are observed. Polarization resolved measurements are also performed allowing for a clear separation of the second-harmonic response of the single gold metallic nanoparticles from that of aggregates of such nanoparticles.


Assuntos
Ouro/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Óptica e Fotônica , Algoritmos , Lasers , Modelos Estatísticos , Nanoestruturas/química , Fótons , Polímeros/química , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície
20.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 12(14): 3399-403, 2010 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20352677

RESUMO

The UV photoexcitation spectrum of deprotonated tryptophan anion is presented. Singly deprotonated amino-acid tryptophan has been produced in an electrospray ionization source, isolated in a quadrupole ion trap and photoexcited with a UV tunable laser, resulting in the photodetachment of the excess electron. Whereas no influence of the proton on the UV spectrum of tryptophan was previously reported (Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2004, 6, 2633; J. Chem. Phys., 2005, 122, 074310), we observe a strong bathochromism due to the presence of the negatively charged group in the vicinity of the chromophore. An excellent agreement with TD-DFT (time dependent density functional theory) predictions for the absorption spectrum of the lowest energy conformer is found. The sensitivity of the tryptophan chromophore to the presence of a remote negative charge offers new perspectives for charge mapping in large biomolecules.


Assuntos
Triptofano/química , Ânions , Elétrons , Fotoquímica , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
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