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1.
Science ; 375(6576): 101-104, 2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34990239

RESUMO

Climate change is expected to result in smaller fish size, but the influence of fishing has made it difficult to substantiate the theorized link between size and ocean warming and deoxygenation. We reconstructed the fish community and oceanographic conditions of the most recent global warm period (last interglacial; 130 to 116 thousand years before present) by using sediments from the northern Humboldt Current system off the coast of Peru, a hotspot of small pelagic fish productivity. In contrast to the present-day anchovy-dominated state, the last interglacial was characterized by considerably smaller (mesopelagic and goby-like) fishes and very low anchovy abundance. These small fish species are more difficult to harvest and are less palatable than anchovies, indicating that our rapidly warming world poses a threat to the global fish supply.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Peixes , Sedimentos Geológicos , Oxigênio/análise , Água do Mar , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Oceano Pacífico , Paleontologia , Peru , Água do Mar/química , Temperatura
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 537, 2022 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35017566

RESUMO

The dispersal of marine organisms can be restricted by a set of isolation mechanisms including hard barriers or hydrological features. In the Western Atlantic Ocean, the Amazon River discharge has been shown to act as a biogeographical barrier responsible for the differences in reef fish communities between Caribbean Sea and Northeast Brazil continental shelves. Here, we compare the diversity of all Animalia phyla from biogeographic ecoregions along the Tropical Western Atlantic continental shelf to test the hypothesis that the Amazon River plume spatially structures species diversity. For that, we used beta diversity estimators and multivariate ecological analysis on a database of species occurrence of the whole animal kingdom including 175,477 occurrences of 8,375 species from six ecoregions along the Western Tropical Atlantic. Results of the whole animal kingdom and the richest phyla showed that the Caribbean Sea and Tropical Brazil ecoregions are isolated by the Amazon River Plume, broadening and confirming the hypothesis that it acts as a soft barrier to animal dispersal in the Western Tropical Atlantic. Species sharing is larger northwestwards, in direction of the Caribbean than the opposite direction. Beyond species isolation due to local characteristics such as low salinity and high turbidity, our results suggest the dominant northwestward currents probably play a major role in animal dispersion: it enhances the flux of larvae and other planktonic organisms with reduced mobility from Brazil to Caribbean and hinders their contrary movement. Thus, the Amazon area is a strong barrier for taxa with reduced dispersal capacity, while species of pelagic taxa with active swimming may transpose it more easily.

3.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(23): 15754-15765, 2021 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34797644

RESUMO

Climate change is expected to affect marine mercury (Hg) biogeochemistry and biomagnification. Recent modeling work suggested that ocean warming increases methylmercury (MeHg) levels in fish. Here, we studied the influence of El Niño Southern Oscillations (ENSO) on Hg concentrations and stable isotopes in time series of seabird blood from the Peruvian upwelling and oxygen minimum zone. Between 2009 and 2016, La Niña (2011) and El Niño conditions (2015-2016) were accompanied by sea surface temperature anomalies up to 3 °C, oxycline depth change (20-100 m), and strong primary production gradients. Seabird Hg levels were stable and did not co-vary significantly with oceanographic parameters, nor with anchovy biomass, the primary dietary source to seabirds (90%). In contrast, seabird Δ199Hg, proxy for marine photochemical MeHg breakdown, and δ15N showed strong interannual variability (up to 0.8 and 3‰, respectively) and sharply decreased during El Niño. We suggest that lower Δ199Hg during El Niño represents reduced MeHg photodegradation due to the deepening of the oxycline. This process was balanced by equally reduced Hg methylation due to reduced productivity, carbon export, and remineralization. The non-dependence of seabird MeHg levels on strong ENSO variability suggests that marine predator MeHg levels may not be as sensitive to climate change as is currently thought.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Compostos de Metilmercúrio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Aves , El Niño Oscilação Sul , Monitoramento Ambiental , Mercúrio/análise , Peru , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
4.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(3): e20191437, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287458

RESUMO

Specimens of Teissiera polypofera Xu, Huang & Chen, 1991 were found in waters off the northeast Brazilian coast between 8.858°S, 34.809°W and 9.005°S, 34.805°W and 56 to 717 m depth. The genus can be distinguished from other anthomedusae by the two opposite tentacles with cnidophores and four exumbrellar cnidocyst pouches with ocelli. Specimens were assigned to Teissiera polypofera due to the long and narrow manubrium transposing bell opening and polyp buds with medusoid buds on it, issuing from the base of manubrium. This study represents the first record of the genus in the Atlantic Ocean.


Assuntos
Hidrozoários , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Brasil , Pele
5.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 19(2): e200151, 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1279477

RESUMO

The deep-sea anglerfishes of the suborder Ceratioidei (Lophiiformes) are represented by about 170 valid species with some of the most extraordinary morphological and reproductive adaptations among vertebrates, including extreme sexual dimorphism and male parasitism. Here we report on the diversity and distribution of rare ceratioids collected during the ABRACOS (Acoustics along the BRAzilian COaSt) expeditions off northeastern Brazil and the Fernando de Noronha Ridge (Rocas Atoll, Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, and associated seamounts). Chaenophryne ramifera, Oneirodes anisacanthus, O. carlsbergi, Gigantactis watermani, and unidentified specimens of Caulophryne, Dolopichthys, and Rhynchactis are recorded for the first time in the Brazilian Exclusive Economic Zone. Ceratias uranoscopus, Melanocetus johnsonii, and Chaenophryne draco have their distributions extended in Brazilian waters. Caulophryne, O. anisacanthus, and G. watermani are also recorded for the first time in the western South Atlantic. The specimen of G. watermani reported here represents the third known specimen of the species, and variations of its escal anatomy in relation to the holotype are described. Based on specimens examined and a review of records in the literature, 20 species of the Ceratioidei, in addition to unidentified species of Caulophryne, Dolopichthys, and Rhynchactis, are confirmed in the Brazilian Exclusive Economic Zone.(AU)


Os peixes-pescadores de profundidade da subordem Ceratioidei (Lophiiformes) são representados por cerca de 170 espécies válidas que apresentam algumas das adaptações anatômicas e reprodutivas mais extraordinárias entre os vertebrados, incluindo extremo dimorfismo sexual e parasitismo masculino. No presente estudo reportamos sobre a diversidade e distribuição de espécies raras de Ceratioidei coletadas durante as expedições ABRACOS (Acoustics along the BRAzilian COaSt) realizadas ao largo do nordeste do Brasil e na Cadeia de Fernando de Noronha (Atol das Rocas, Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha e montes submarinos associados). Chaenophryne ramifera, Oneirodes anisacanthus, O. carlsbergi, Gigantactis watermani e espécimes não identificados de Caulophryne, Dolopichthys e Rhynchactis são registrados pela primeira vez na Zona Econômica Exclusiva brasileira. Ceratias uranoscopus, Melanocetus johnsonii e Chaenophryne draco tiveram suas distribuições estendidas em águas brasileiras. Caulophryne, O. anisacanthus e G. watermani também são registrados pela primeira vez no Atlântico Sul ocidental. O espécime de G. watermani reportado aqui representa o terceiro espécime conhecido da espécie, e variações anatômicas de sua esca em relação à do holótipo são descritas. Com base nos espécimes examinados e na revisão de registros na literatura, 20 espécies de Ceratioidei, além de espécies não identificadas de Caulophryne, Dolopichthys, and Rhynchactis, são confirmadas na Zona Econômica Exclusiva brasileira.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Perciformes/genética , Caracteres Sexuais , Peixes , Doenças Parasitárias
6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20996, 2020 12 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33268805

RESUMO

Mesopelagic fishes are numerically the most important vertebrate group of all world's oceans. While these species are increasingly threatened by anthropogenic activities, basic biological knowledge is still lacking. For instance, major uncertainties remain on the behaviour, ecology, and thus functional roles of mesopelagic micronektivores, particularly regarding their interactions with physicochemical features. Here, we examine the trophic ecology, habitat, and migratory behaviour of the viperfish (Chauliodus sloani)-a poorly known and abundant deep-sea species-to further understand the ecology and thus functional role of mesopelagic micronektivores. Moreover, we explore how physical drivers may affect these features and how these relationships are likely to change over large oceanic areas. The viperfish heavily preys on epipelagic migrant species, especially myctophids, and presents spatial and trophic ontogenetic shifts. Temperature restricts its vertical distribution. Therefore, its trophodynamics, migratory behaviour, and functional roles are expected to be modulated by the latitudinal change in temperature. For instance, in most tropical regions the viperfish stay full-time feeding, excreting, and serving as prey (e.g. for bathypelagic predators) at deep layers. On the contrary, in temperate regions, the viperfish ascend to superficial waters where they trophically interact with epipelagic predators and may release carbon where its remineralization is the greatest.


Assuntos
Migração Animal , Peixes , Animais , Ecologia , Ecossistema , Peixes/fisiologia , Oceanos e Mares , Dinâmica Populacional
7.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0231574, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374742

RESUMO

The phylogeography of the holoplanktonic chaetognath Flaccisagitta enflata was investigated in the Tropical Western Atlantic (TWA). Considering the cosmopolitan range of this species and the fact that its entire life cycle is planktonic, the central hypothesis of this study is that F. enflata exhibits connectivity due to its high dispersal capacity, forming a panmictic population among the study sites. The evaluated areas included neritic (Port of Recife-PR, and Tamandaré - TA) and oceanic (Fernando de Noronha Archipelago-FN, Rocas Atoll-RA, Guará seamount-GS and Saint Peter and Saint Paul's Archipelago-SPSPA) locations of the Brazilian Blue Amazon. We used COI gene sequences as molecular marker. Partial sequences (425 bp) were obtained for 116 specimens and employed to reconstruct the phylogeny, build an haplotype network, evaluate gene flow through a migration model, and estimate diversity indices, population structuring and demographic history. High levels of haplotype diversity (mean: 0.98) and moderate to high levels of nucleotide diversity (mean: 0.023) were observed. The phylogeny and the haplotype network topologies showed some geographic clustering, indicating local structuring in GS and PR. This finding was supported by the AMOVA high global Φst (0.033, significant) and some pairwise Φst comparisons (7 out of 15 were significantly >0). Significant differences suggested lower levels of connectivity when GS population was compared to those of FN and SPSPA; as well as when TA was compared to FN. These results might be related to particularities of the oceanic dynamics which rules the TWA, sustaining such dissimilarities. Structuring was also observed between PR and all oceanic locations. We hypothesize that the topography of the port inlet, enclosured by a reef barrier, may constrain the water turnover ratio and thus migration rates of F. enflata in the TWA. Accordingly, Migrate-N yielded a four metapopulations model (PR ⇌ TA ⇌ SPSPA+FN ⇌ GS+RA) as the best (highest probability; ~0.90) to represent the structuring of F. enflata in the TWA. Therefore, the null hypothesis of one randomly mating population cannot be accepted. The demographic evaluation demonstrated that the neutral hypothesis of stable populations may not be rejected for most of the locations. This work is the start point to broaden the knowledge on the phylogeography and population genetic structure of a numerically dominant species in the Western Atlantic, with key role in the marine trophic web.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Plâncton/classificação , Plâncton/genética , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Brasil , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Fluxo Gênico , Genética Populacional , Haplótipos , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Plâncton/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clima Tropical
8.
Zootaxa ; 4613(3): zootaxa.4613.3.1, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716397

RESUMO

In this paper, we provide some available information about the occurrence and some taxonomic aspects of 19 species from the Superfamily Oplophoroidea in the southwestern Atlantic (Brazilian waters), with the update to 22 species of Oplophoroidea occurring in Brazilian waters. Samples were collected during two sets of surveys. The first was performed in 2009 and 2011 in the Potiguar Basin in northeast of Brazil (03-05°S; 38-35°W; between the States of Ceará and Rio Grande do Norte) under the framework of the project "Avaliação da biota bentônica e planctônica da Bacia Potiguar e Ceará (Bpot)", with samples collected from bottom trawls in the continental slope at depth ranging from 150-2068 m. Second, under the in the framework of the ABRACOS (Acoustic along the Brazilian coast), performed in 2015 and 2017 on seamounts and offshore areas in Northeast Brazil (Ceará Chain, Rio Grande do Norte and Rocas Atoll, Fernando de Noronha Archipelago and Pernambuco State), with samples with pelagic micronekton and mesopelagic nets, in depths ranging from 50-1260 m. We highlight the occurrence of 14 species of the family Acanthephyridae and 5 species of the family Oplophoridae, including the first occurrences of five species to Brazilian deep waters: Acanthephyra kingsleyi Spence Bate, 1888, Ephyrina ombango Crosnier Forest, 1973, Meningodora compsa (Chace, 1940), M. longisulca Kikuchi, 1985 and Systellapsis curvispina Crosnier, 1987. These records increase the knowledge on deep-sea shrimps occurring in Southwestern Atlantic.


Assuntos
Decápodes , Acústica , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Brasil , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Zootaxa ; 4450(3): 376-384, 2018 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30313841

RESUMO

Here, we report the new occurrences of four deep-water prawn of the genus Gennadas in the southwestern Atlantic: G. gilchristi recorded from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge region; G. capensis recorded from Brazilian waters off Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, Atol das Rocas and Ceará Chain; G. talismani and G. scutatus recorded both to Mid-Atlantic Ridge and to Brazilian waters.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Decápodes , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Brasil
10.
J Fish Biol ; 93(5): 992-995, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30203540

RESUMO

This study reports on the first record of the intermediate scabbardfish Aphanopus intermedius in the western South Atlantic Ocean, based on a single specimen 725 mm standard length collected between 0 and 610 m depth around Rocas Atoll off north-eastern Brazil. Measurements and counts are provided and compared with those available in the literature.


Assuntos
Peixes/fisiologia , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Brasil , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Peixes/classificação
11.
Glob Chang Biol ; 24(3): 1055-1068, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29156091

RESUMO

The Humboldt Current System (HCS) has the highest production of forage fish in the world, although it is highly variable and the future of the primary component, anchovy, is uncertain in the context of global warming. Paradigms based on late 20th century observations suggest that large-scale forcing controls decadal-scale fluctuations of anchovy and sardine across different boundary currents of the Pacific. We develop records of anchovy and sardine fluctuations since 1860 AD using fish scales from multiple sites containing laminated sediments and compare them with Pacific basin-scale and regional indices of ocean climate variability. Our records reveal two main anchovy and sardine phases with a timescale that is not consistent with previously proposed periodicities. Rather, the regime shifts in the HCS are related to 3D habitat changes driven by changes in upwelling intensity from both regional and large-scale forcing. Moreover, we show that a long-term increase in coastal upwelling translates via a bottom-up mechanism to top predators suggesting that the warming climate, at least up to the start of the 21st century, was favorable for fishery productivity in the HCS.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Peixes/fisiologia , Animais , Clima , Ecossistema , Oceano Pacífico , Dinâmica Populacional
12.
Zootaxa ; 4184(1): 193-200, 2016 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27811663

RESUMO

This paper reports two deep-sea shrimps, Acanthephyra acanthitelsonis and A. armata from southwestern Atlantic waters. The samples were collected in two different moments, the first in the Potiguar Basin, northeast of Brazil (03/05° S; 38/35° W), covering the states of Rio Grande do Norte (RN) and Ceará (CE) in the year of 2011, and afterward on Rocas Atoll, located in the state of Rio Grande do Norte (RN) (3° 51' S, 033° 49' W; 3° 52' S, 033° 47' W) in the year of 2015. The occurrence of A. acanthitelsonis on Rocas Atoll and A. armata found along the continental slope in the Potiguar Basin, comprising both species, which were recorded for the first time in the southwestern Atlantic. This paper increases the number of Acanthephyra species recorded in Brazilian waters up to six and adds to our knowledge and distribution of deep-sea fauna in the south Atlantic.


Assuntos
Decápodes/anatomia & histologia , Decápodes/classificação , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Feminino , Masculino , Especificidade da Espécie
13.
Ecology ; 97(1): 182-93, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27008787

RESUMO

In fluctuating environments, matching breeding timing to periods of high resource availability is crucial for the fitness of many vertebrate species, and may have major consequences on population health. Yet, our understanding of the proximate environmental cues driving seasonal breeding is limited. This is particularly the case in marine ecosystems, where key environmental factors and prey abundance and availability are seldom quantified. The Northern Humboldt Current System (NHCS) is a highly productive, low-latitude ecosystem of moderate seasonality. In this ecosystem, three tropical seabird species (the Guanay Cormorant Phalacrocorax bougainvillii, the Peruvian Booby Sula variegata, and the Peruvian Pelican Pelecanus thagus) live in sympatry and prey almost exclusively on anchovy, Engraulis ringens. From January 2003 to December 2012, we monitored 31 breeding sites along the Peruvian coast to investigate the breeding cycle of these species. We tested for relationships between breeding timing, oceanographic conditions, and prey availability using occupancy models. We found that all three seabird species exhibited seasonal breeding patterns, with marked interspecific differences. Whereas breeding mainly started during the austral winter/early spring and ended in summer/early fall, this pattern was stronger in boobies and pelicans than in cormorants. Breeding onset mainly occurred when upwelling was intense but ecosystem productivity was below its annual maxima, and when anchovy were less available and in poor physiological condition. Conversely, the abundance and availability of anchovy improved during chick rearing and peaked around the time of fledging. These results suggest that breeding timing is adjusted so that fledging may occur under optimal environmental conditions, rather than being constrained by nutritional requirements during egg laying. Adjusting breeding time so that fledglings meet optimal conditions at independence is unique compared with other upwelling ecosystems and could be explained by the relatively high abundances of anchovy occurring throughout the year in the NHCS.


Assuntos
Aves/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Peixes/fisiologia , Oceanos e Mares , Comportamento Predatório , Estações do Ano , Animais , Peru , Reprodução/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Nat Commun ; 5: 5239, 2014 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25316164

RESUMO

In marine ecosystems, like most natural systems, patchiness is the rule. A characteristic of pelagic ecosystems is that their 'substrate' consists of constantly moving water masses, where ocean surface turbulence creates ephemeral oases. Identifying where and when hotspots occur and how predators manage those vagaries in their preyscape is challenging because wide-ranging observations are lacking. Here we use a unique data set, gathering high-resolution and wide-range acoustic and GPS-tracking data. We show that the upper ocean dynamics at scales less than 10 km play the foremost role in shaping the seascape from zooplankton to seabirds. Short internal waves (100 m-1 km) play a major role, while submesoscale (~1-20 km) and mesoscale (~20-100 km) turbulence have a comparatively modest effect. Predicted changes in surface stratification due to global change are expected to have an impact on the number and intensity of physical structures and thus biological interactions from plankton to top predators.


Assuntos
Aves/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Água do Mar/química , Zooplâncton/fisiologia , Animais , Som , Movimentos da Água
15.
PLoS One ; 9(2): e88054, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24505374

RESUMO

Bifrequency acoustic data, hydrological measurements and satellite data were used to study the vertical distribution of macrozooplankton in the Bay of Biscay in relation to the hydrological conditions and fish distribution during spring 2009. The most noticeable result was the observation of a 'biocline' during the day i.e., the interface where zooplankton biomass changes more rapidly with depth than it does in the layers above or below. The biocline separated the surface layer, almost devoid of macrozooplankton, from the macrozooplankton-rich deeper layers. It is a specific vertical feature which ties in with the classic diel vertical migration pattern. Spatiotemporal correlations between macrozooplankton and environmental variables (photic depth, thermohaline vertical structure, stratification index and chlorophyll-a) indicate that no single factor explains the macrozooplankton vertical distribution. Rather a set of factors, the respective influence of which varies from region to region depending on the habitat characteristics and the progress of the spring stratification, jointly influence the distribution. In this context, the macrozooplankton biocline is potentially a biophysical response to the search for a particular depth range where light attenuation, thermohaline vertical structure and stratification conditions together provide a suitable alternative to the need for expending energy in reaching deeper water without the risk of being eaten.


Assuntos
Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Zooplâncton/fisiologia , Animais , Baías , Biomassa , Ecossistema , Meio Ambiente , Peixes/fisiologia , Água Doce , Hidrologia/métodos
16.
PLoS One ; 9(1): e85919, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24465788

RESUMO

The jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas plays an important role in marine food webs both as predator and prey. We investigated the ontogenetic and spatiotemporal variability of the diet composition of jumbo squid in the northern Humboldt Current system. For that purpose we applied several statistical methods to an extensive dataset of 3,618 jumbo squid non empty stomachs collected off Peru from 2004 to 2011. A total of 55 prey taxa was identified that we aggregated into eleven groups. Our results evidenced a large variability in prey composition as already observed in other systems. However, our data do not support the hypothesis that jumbo squids select the most abundant or energetic taxon in a prey assemblage, neglecting the other available prey. Indeed, multinomial model predictions showed that stomach fullness increased with the number of prey taxa, while most stomachs with low contents contained one or two prey taxa only. Our results therefore question the common hypothesis that predators seek locally dense aggregations of monospecific prey. In addition D. gigas consumes very few anchovy Engraulis ringens in Peru, whereas a tremendous biomass of anchovy is potentially available. It seems that D. gigas cannot reach the oxygen unsaturated waters very close to the coast, where the bulk of anchovy occurs. Indeed, even if jumbo squid can forage in hypoxic deep waters during the day, surface normoxic waters are then required to recover its maintenance respiration (or energy?). Oxygen concentration could thus limit the co-occurrence of both species and then preclude predator-prey interactions. Finally we propose a conceptual model illustrating the opportunistic foraging behaviour of jumbo squid impacted by ontogenetic migration and potentially constrained by oxygen saturation in surface waters.


Assuntos
Decapodiformes/fisiologia , Dieta , Cadeia Alimentar , Animais , Modelos Teóricos , Estado Nutricional , Oceano Pacífico
17.
Glob Chang Biol ; 19(6): 1841-53, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23554213

RESUMO

The Humboldt Current System (HCS) sustains the world's largest small pelagic fishery. While a cooling of this system has been observed during recent decades, there is debate about the potential impacts of rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations on upwelling dynamics and productivity. Recent studies suggest that under increased atmospheric CO2 scenarios the oceanic stratification may strongly increase and upwelling-favorable winds may remain nearly constant off Peru and increase off Chile. Here we investigate the impact of such climatic conditions on egg and larval dispersal phases, a key stage of small pelagic fish reproduction. We used larval retention rate in a predefined nursery area to provide a proxy for the recruitment level. Numerical experiments are based on hydrodynamics downscaled to the HCS from global simulations forced by pre-industrial (PI), 2 × CO2 and 4 × CO2 scenarios. A biogeochemical model is applied to the PI and 4 × CO2 scenarios to define a time-variable nursery area where larval survival is optimum. We test two distinct values of the oxycline depth that limits larval vertical distribution: One corresponding to the present-day situation and the other corresponding to a shallower oxycline potentially produced by climate change. It appeared that larval retention over the continental shelf increases with enhanced stratification due to regional warming. However, this increase in retention is largely compensated for by a decrease of the nursery area and the shoaling of the oxycline. The underlying dynamics are explained by a combination of stratification effects and mesoscale activity changes. Our results therefore show that future climate change may significantly reduce fish capacity in the HCS with strong ecological, economic and social consequences.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Peixes/fisiologia , Animais , Hidrodinâmica
18.
PLoS One ; 6(7): e22194, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21779391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cephalopods play a major role in marine ecosystems, but knowledge of their feeding ecology is limited. In particular, intra- and inter-individual variations in their use of resources has not been adequatly explored, although there is growing evidence that individual organisms can vary considerably in the way they use their habitats and resources. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using δ(13)C and δ(15)N values of serially sampled gladius (an archival tissue), we examined high resolution variations in the trophic niche of five large (>60 cm mantle length) jumbo squids (Dosidicus gigas) that were collected off the coast of Peru. We report the first evidence of large inter-individual differences in jumbo squid foraging strategies with no systematic increase of trophic level with size. Overall, gladius δ(13)C values indicated one or several migrations through the squid's lifetime (∼8-9 months), during which δ(15)N values also fluctuated (range: 1 to 5‰). One individual showed an unexpected terminal 4.6‰ δ(15)N decrease (more than one trophic level), thus indicating a shift from higher- to lower-trophic level prey at that time. The data illustrate the high diversity of prey types and foraging histories of this species at the individual level. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The isotopic signature of gladii proved to be a powerful tool to depict high resolution and ontogenic variations in individual foraging strategies of squids, thus complementing traditional information offered by stomach content analysis and stable isotopes on metabolically active tissues. The observed differences in life history strategies highlight the high degree of plasticity of the jumbo squid and its high potential to adapt to environmental changes.


Assuntos
Decapodiformes/fisiologia , Adaptação Biológica , Animais , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Decapodiformes/metabolismo , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise
19.
PLoS One ; 6(12): e29558, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22216315

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the southeastern tropical Pacific anchovy (Engraulis ringens) and sardine (Sardinops sagax) abundance have recently fluctuated on multidecadal scales and food and temperature have been proposed as the key parameters explaining these changes. However, ecological and paleoecological studies, and the fact that anchovies and sardines are favored differently in other regions, raise questions about the role of temperature. Here we investigate the role of oxygen in structuring fish populations in the Peruvian upwelling ecosystem that has evolved over anoxic conditions and is one of the world's most productive ecosystems in terms of forage fish. This study is particularly relevant given that the distribution of oxygen in the ocean is changing with uncertain consequences. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A comprehensive data set is used to show how oxygen concentration and oxycline depth affect the abundance and distribution of pelagic fish. We show that the effects of oxygen on anchovy and sardine are opposite. Anchovy flourishes under relatively low oxygen conditions while sardine avoid periods/areas with low oxygen concentration and restricted habitat. Oxygen consumption, trophic structure and habitat compression play a fundamental role in fish dynamics in this important ecosystem. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: For the ocean off Peru we suggest that a key process, the need to breathe, has been neglected previously. Inclusion of this missing piece allows the development of a comprehensive conceptual model of pelagic fish populations and change in an ocean ecosystem impacted by low oxygen. Should current trends in oxygen in the ocean continue similar effects may be evident in other coastal upwelling ecosystems.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Oxigênio , Clima Tropical , Animais , Peixes , Oceano Pacífico
20.
PLoS One ; 5(4): e10330, 2010 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20442791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) are expanding in the World Ocean as a result of climate change and direct anthropogenic influence. OMZ expansion greatly affects biogeochemical processes and marine life, especially by constraining the vertical habitat of most marine organisms. Currently, monitoring the variability of the upper limit of the OMZs relies on time intensive sampling protocols, causing poor spatial resolution. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using routine underwater acoustic observations of the vertical distribution of marine organisms, we propose a new method that allows determination of the upper limit of the OMZ with a high precision. Applied in the eastern South-Pacific, this original sampling technique provides high-resolution information on the depth of the upper OMZ allowing documentation of mesoscale and submesoscale features (e.g., eddies and filaments) that structure the upper ocean and the marine ecosystems. We also use this information to estimate the habitable volume for the world's most exploited fish, the Peruvian anchovy (Engraulis ringens). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This opportunistic method could be implemented on any vessel geared with multi-frequency echosounders to perform comprehensive high-resolution monitoring of the upper limit of the OMZ. Our approach is a novel way of studying the impact of physical processes on marine life and extracting valid information about the pelagic habitat and its spatial structure, a crucial aspect of Ecosystem-based Fisheries Management in the current context of climate change.


Assuntos
Acústica , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Oxigênio/análise , Animais , Mudança Climática , Peixes , Biologia Marinha , Oceanos e Mares
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