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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33392844

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We evaluated the association of percent mammographic density (PMD), absolute dense area (DA), and non-dense area (NDA) with risk of "intrinsic" molecular breast cancer (BC) subtypes. METHODS: We pooled 3492 invasive BC and 10,148 controls across six studies with density measures from prediagnostic, digitized film-screen mammograms. We classified BC tumors into subtypes [63% Luminal A, 21% Luminal B, 5% HER2 expressing, and 11% as triple negative (TN)] using information on estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and tumor grade. We used polytomous logistic regression to calculate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for density measures (per SD) across the subtypes compared to controls, adjusting for age, body mass index and study, and examined differences by age group. RESULTS: All density measures were similarly associated with BC risk across subtypes. Significant interaction of PMD by age (P = 0.001) was observed for Luminal A tumors, with stronger effect sizes seen for younger women < 45 years (OR = 1.69 per SD PMD) relative to women of older ages (OR = 1.53, ages 65-74, OR = 1.44 ages 75 +). Similar but opposite trends were seen for NDA by age for risk of Luminal A: risk for women: < 45 years (OR = 0.71 per SD NDA) was lower than older women (OR = 0.83 and OR = 0.84 for ages 65-74 and 75 + , respectively) (P < 0.001). Although not significant, similar patterns of associations were seen by age for TN cancers. CONCLUSIONS: Mammographic density measures were associated with risk of all "intrinsic" molecular subtypes. However, findings of significant interactions between age and density measures may have implications for subtype-specific risk models.

2.
N Engl J Med ; 384(5): 440-451, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Population-based estimates of the risk of breast cancer associated with germline pathogenic variants in cancer-predisposition genes are critically needed for risk assessment and management in women with inherited pathogenic variants. METHODS: In a population-based case-control study, we performed sequencing using a custom multigene amplicon-based panel to identify germline pathogenic variants in 28 cancer-predisposition genes among 32,247 women with breast cancer (case patients) and 32,544 unaffected women (controls) from population-based studies in the Cancer Risk Estimates Related to Susceptibility (CARRIERS) consortium. Associations between pathogenic variants in each gene and the risk of breast cancer were assessed. RESULTS: Pathogenic variants in 12 established breast cancer-predisposition genes were detected in 5.03% of case patients and in 1.63% of controls. Pathogenic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 were associated with a high risk of breast cancer, with odds ratios of 7.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.33 to 11.27) and 5.23 (95% CI, 4.09 to 6.77), respectively. Pathogenic variants in PALB2 were associated with a moderate risk (odds ratio, 3.83; 95% CI, 2.68 to 5.63). Pathogenic variants in BARD1, RAD51C, and RAD51D were associated with increased risks of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer and triple-negative breast cancer, whereas pathogenic variants in ATM, CDH1, and CHEK2 were associated with an increased risk of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Pathogenic variants in 16 candidate breast cancer-predisposition genes, including the c.657_661del5 founder pathogenic variant in NBN, were not associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides estimates of the prevalence and risk of breast cancer associated with pathogenic variants in known breast cancer-predisposition genes in the U.S. population. These estimates can inform cancer testing and screening and improve clinical management strategies for women in the general population with inherited pathogenic variants in these genes. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Breast Cancer Research Foundation.).


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Razão de Chances , Risco , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
3.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(6): 1576-1583, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trans fatty acid (TFA) intake persists in much of the world, posing ongoing threats to public health that warrant further elucidation. Published evidence suggests a positive association of self-reported TFA intake with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) risk. OBJECTIVES: To confirm those reports, we conducted a prospective study of prediagnosis RBC membrane TFA levels and risk of NHL and common NHL histologic subtypes. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study in Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study participants with archived RBC specimens and no history of cancer at blood draw (1989-1090 and 1994-1995, respectively). We confirmed 583 incident NHL cases (332 women and 251 men) and individually matched 583 controls on cohort (sex), age, race, and blood draw date/time. We analyzed RBC membrane TFA using GLC (in 2013-2014) and expressed individual TFA levels as a percentage of total fatty acids. We used unconditional logistic regression adjusted for the matching factors to estimate ORs and 95% CIs for overall NHL risk per 1 SD increase in TFA level and assessed histologic subtype-specific associations with multivariable polytomous logistic regression. RESULTS: Total and individual TFA levels were not associated with risk of all NHL or most subtypes. We observed a positive association of total TFA levels with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) risk [n = 98 cases; OR (95% CI) per 1 SD increase: 1.30 (1.05, 1.61); P = 0.015], driven by trans 18:1n-9(ω-9)/elaidic acid [OR (95% CI): 1.34 (1.08, 1.66); P = 0.007], trans 18:1n-7/vaccenic acid [OR (95% CI): 1.28 (1.04, 1.58); P = 0.023], and trans 18:2n-6t,t [OR (95% CI): 1.26 (1.01, 1.57); P = 0.037]. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings extended evidence for TFA intake and DLBCL risk but not for other NHL subtypes. Reduced TFA consumption through dietary choices or health policy measures may support prevention of DLBCL, an aggressive NHL subtype.

4.
Breast Cancer Res ; 22(1): 96, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Use of aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has been hypothesized to be associated with reduced risk of breast cancer; however, results of epidemiological studies have been mixed. Few studies have investigated these associations among African American women. METHODS: To assess the relation of aspirin use to risk of breast cancer in African American women, we conducted a prospective analysis within the Black Women's Health Study, an ongoing nationwide cohort study of 59,000 African American women. On baseline and follow-up questionnaires, women reported regular use of aspirin (defined as use at least 3 days per week) and years of use. During follow-up from 1995 through 2017, 1919 invasive breast cancers occurred, including 1112 ER+, 569 ER-, and 284 triple-negative (TN) tumors. We used age-stratified Cox proportional hazards regression models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations of aspirin use with risk of ER+, ER-, and TN breast cancer, adjusted for established breast cancer risk factors. RESULTS: Overall, the HR for current regular use of aspirin relative to non-use was 0.92 (95% CI 0.81, 1.04). For ER+, ER-, and TN breast cancer, corresponding HRs were 0.98 (0.84, 1.15), 0.81 (0.64, 1.04), and 0.70 (0.49, 0.99), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings with regard to ER- and TN breast cancer are consistent with hypothesized inflammatory mechanisms of ER- and TN breast cancer, rather than hormone-dependent pathways. Aspirin may represent a potential opportunity for chemoprevention of ER- and TN breast cancer.

5.
Adipocyte ; 9(1): 313-325, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32633194

RESUMO

The size distribution of adipocytes in fat tissue provides important information about metabolic status and overall health of patients. Histological measurements of biopsied adipose tissue can reveal cardiovascular and/or cancer risks, to complement typical prognosis parameters such as body mass index, hypertension or diabetes. Yet, current methods for adipocyte quantification are problematic and insufficient. Methods such as hand-tracing are tedious and time-consuming, ellipse approximation lacks precision, and fully automated methods have not proven reliable. A semi-automated method fills the gap in goal-directed computational algorithms, specifically for high-throughput adipocyte quantification. Here, we design and develop a tool, AdipoCyze, which incorporates a novel semi-automated tracing algorithm, along with benchmark methods, and use breast histological images from the Komen for the Cure Foundation to assess utility. Speed and precision of the new approach are superior to conventional methods and accuracy is comparable, suggesting a viable option to quantify adipocytes, while increasing user flexibility. This platform is the first to provide multiple methods of quantification in a single tool. Widespread laboratory and clinical use of this program may enhance productivity and performance, and yield insight into patient metabolism, which may help evaluate risks for breast cancer progression in patients with comorbidities of obesity. ABBREVIATIONS: BMI: body mass index.

6.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32427313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The risks of breast cancer in African American (AA) women associated with inherited mutations in breast cancer predisposition genes are not well defined. Thus, whether multigene germline hereditary cancer testing panels are applicable to this population is unknown. We assessed associations between mutations in panel-based genes and breast cancer risk in 5054 AA women with breast cancer and 4993 unaffected AA women drawn from 10 epidemiologic studies. METHODS: Germline DNA samples were sequenced for mutations in 23 cancer predisposition genes using a QIAseq multiplex amplicon panel. Prevalence of mutations and odds ratios (ORs) for associations with breast cancer risk were estimated with adjustment for study design, age, and family history of breast cancer. RESULTS: Pathogenic mutations were identified in 10.3% of women with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer, 5.2% of women with ER-positive breast cancer, and 2.3% of unaffected women. Mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, and PALB2 were associated with high risks of breast cancer (OR = 47.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 10.43 to >100; OR = 7.25, 95% CI = 4.07 to 14.12; OR = 8.54, 95% CI = 3.67 to 24.95, respectively). RAD51D mutations were associated with high risk of ER-negative disease (OR = 7.82, 95% CI = 1.61 to 57.42). Moderate risks were observed for CHEK2, ATM, ERCC3, and FANCC mutations with ER-positive cancer, and RECQL mutations with all breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The study identifies genes that predispose to breast cancer in the AA population, demonstrates the validity of current breast cancer testing panels for use in AA women, and provides a basis for increased referral of AA patients for cancer genetic testing.

7.
Environ Res ; 186: 109516, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32305677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dioxins are persistent organic pollutants generated from industrial combustion processes such as waste incineration. To date, results from epidemiologic studies of dioxin exposure and breast cancer risk have been mixed. OBJECTIVES: To prospectively examine the association between ambient dioxin exposure using a nationwide spatial database of industrial dioxin-emitting facilities and invasive breast cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII). METHODS: NHSII includes female registered nurses in the US who have completed self-administered biennial questionnaires since 1989. Incident invasive breast cancer diagnoses were self-reported and confirmed by medical record review. Dioxin exposure was estimated based on residential proximity, duration of residence, and emissions from facilities located within 3, 5, and 10 km around geocoded residential addresses updated throughout follow-up. Cox regression models adjusted for breast cancer risk factors were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: From 1989 to 2013, 3840 invasive breast cancer cases occurred among 112,397 participants. There was no association between residential proximity to any dioxin facilities (all facilities combined) and breast cancer risk overall. However, women who resided within 10 km of any municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) compared to none had increased breast cancer risk (adjusted HR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.28), with stronger associations noted for women who lived within 5 km (adjusted HR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.52). Positive associations were also observed for longer duration of residence and higher dioxin emissions from MSWIs within 3, 5, and 10 km. There were no clear differences in patterns of association for ER + vs. ER-breast cancer or by menopausal status. DISCUSSION: Results from this study support positive associations between dioxin exposure from MSWIs and invasive breast cancer risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Dioxinas , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Neoplasias da Mama/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Dioxinas/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco
8.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(7): 1509-1511, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32317301

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been hypothesized to increase breast cancer risk, but results from the few prior epidemiologic studies are conflicting, and no studies have examined the association in African American women. METHODS: We analyzed data from the prospective Black Women's Health Study to evaluate associations of history of GDM with breast cancer risk among 41,767 parous African American women, adjusting for potential confounders. HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated from multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models. RESULTS: There was no evidence of an association between history of GDM and risk of invasive breast cancer, overall or by estrogen receptor status. CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study do not support the hypothesis that GDM is an important risk factor for breast cancer in African American women overall. IMPACT: On the basis of these data, breast cancer risk is not increased among African American women with a history of GDM compared with parous women without a history of GDM.

9.
Int J Cancer ; 147(5): 1306-1314, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012248

RESUMO

Early-adulthood body size is strongly inversely associated with risk of premenopausal breast cancer. It is unclear whether subsequent changes in weight affect risk. We pooled individual-level data from 17 prospective studies to investigate the association of weight change with premenopausal breast cancer risk, considering strata of initial weight, timing of weight change, other breast cancer risk factors and breast cancer subtype. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained using Cox regression. Among 628,463 women, 10,886 were diagnosed with breast cancer before menopause. Models adjusted for initial weight at ages 18-24 years and other breast cancer risk factors showed that weight gain from ages 18-24 to 35-44 or to 45-54 years was inversely associated with breast cancer overall (e.g., HR per 5 kg to ages 45-54: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.95-0.98) and with oestrogen-receptor(ER)-positive breast cancer (HR per 5 kg to ages 45-54: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.94-0.98). Weight gain from ages 25-34 was inversely associated with ER-positive breast cancer only and weight gain from ages 35-44 was not associated with risk. None of these weight gains were associated with ER-negative breast cancer. Weight loss was not consistently associated with overall or ER-specific risk after adjusting for initial weight. Weight increase from early-adulthood to ages 45-54 years is associated with a reduced premenopausal breast cancer risk independently of early-adulthood weight. Biological explanations are needed to account for these two separate factors.

10.
Breast ; 49: 108-114, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Compared to U.S. white women, African American women are more likely to die from ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Elucidation of risk factors for DCIS in African American women may provide opportunities for risk reduction. METHODS: We used data from three epidemiologic studies in the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk Consortium to study risk factors for estrogen receptor (ER) positive DCIS (488 cases; 13,830 controls). Results were compared to associations observed for ER+ invasive breast cancer (n = 2,099). RESULTS: First degree family history of breast cancer was associated with increased risk of ER+ DCIS [odds ratio (OR): 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.31, 2.17]. Oral contraceptive use within the past 10 years (vs. never) was also associated with increased risk (OR: 1.43, 95%CI: 1.03, 1.97), as was late age at first birth (≥25 years vs. <20 years) (OR: 1.26, 95%CI: 0.96, 1.67). Risk was reduced in women with older age at menarche (≥15 years vs. <11 years) (OR: 0.62, 95%CI: 0.42, 0.93) and higher body mass index (BMI) in early adulthood (≥25 vs. <20 kg/m2 at age 18 or 21) (OR: 0.75, 95%CI: 0.55, 1.01). There was a positive association of recent BMI with risk in postmenopausal women only. In general, associations of risk factors for ER+ DCIS were similar in magnitude and direction to those for invasive ER+ breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that most risk factors for invasive ER+ breast cancer are also associated with increased risk of ER+ DCIS among African American women.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(2): 343-351, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The V measure captures grayscale intensity variation on a mammogram and is positively associated with breast cancer risk, independent of percent mammographic density (PMD), an established marker of breast cancer risk. We examined whether anthropometrics are associated with V, independent of PMD. METHODS: The analysis included 1,700 premenopausal and 1,947 postmenopausal women without breast cancer within the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and NHSII. Participants recalled their body fatness at ages 5, 10, and 20 years using a 9-level pictogram (level 1: most lean) and reported weight at age 18 years, current adult weight, and adult height. V was estimated by calculating standard deviation of pixels on screening mammograms. Linear mixed models were used to estimate beta coefficients (ß) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the relationships between anthropometric measures and V, adjusting for confounders and PMD. RESULTS: V and PMD were positively correlated (Spearman r = 0.60). Higher average body fatness at ages 5 to 10 years (level ≥ 4.5 vs. 1) was significantly associated with lower V in premenopausal (ß = -0.32; 95% CI, -0.48 to -0.16) and postmenopausal (ß = -0.24; 95% CI, -0.37 to -0.10) women, independent of current body mass index (BMI) and PMD. Similar inverse associations were observed with average body fatness at ages 10 to 20 years and BMI at age 18 years. Current BMI was inversely associated with V, but the associations were largely attenuated after adjustment for PMD. Height was not associated with V. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that early-life body fatness may reflect lifelong impact on breast tissue architecture beyond breast density. However, further studies are needed to confirm the results. IMPACT: This study highlights strong inverse associations of early-life adiposity with mammographic image intensity variation.

12.
Environ Res ; 194: 110651, 2020 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Air pollution contains numerous carcinogens and endocrine disruptors which may be relevant for breast cancer. Previous research has predominantly been conducted in White women; however, Black women may have higher air pollution exposure due to geographic and residential factors. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the association between air pollution and breast cancer risk in a large prospective population of Black women. METHODS: We estimated annual average ambient levels of particulate matter <2.5 µm (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) at the 1995 residence of 41,317 participants in the Black Women's Health Study who resided in 56 metropolitan areas across the United States. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for an interquartile range (IQR) increase in each pollutant. We evaluated whether the association varied by menopausal status, estrogen receptor (ER) status of the tumor and geographic region of residence. RESULTS: With follow-up through 2015 (mean = 18.3 years), 2146 incident cases of breast cancer were confirmed. Higher exposure to NO2 or O3 was not associated with a higher risk of breast cancer. For PM2.5, although we observed no association overall, there was evidence of modification by geographic region for both ER- (p for heterogeneity = 0.01) and premenopausal breast cancer (p for heterogeneity = 0.01). Among women living in the Midwest, an IQR increase in PM2.5 (2.87 µg/m3), was associated with a higher risk of ER- (HR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.07-2.19) and premenopausal breast cancer (HR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.03-1.71). In contrast, among women living in the South, PM2.5 was inversely associated with both ER- (HR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.56-0.97) and premenopausal breast cancer risk (HR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.62-0.91). DISCUSSION: Overall, we observed no association between air pollution and increased breast cancer risk among Black women, except perhaps among women living in the Midwestern US.

13.
Int J Womens Dermatol ; 5(4): 261-266, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31700983

RESUMO

Background: Hair loss on the central scalp commonly occurs among African American (AA) women and can pose substantial psychosocial burdens. The causes of hair loss remain obscure, although type 2 diabetes has been hypothesized to increase the risk of hair loss. The objective of the present study was to prospectively estimate the association between type 2 diabetes and severe central hair loss in AA women. Methods: The Black Women's Health Study has collected data on medical and lifestyle factors, including diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, biennially since 1995 from AA women across the United States. The present analysis was based on responses from 5389 women to an online hair loss questionnaire in 2015. Respondents indicated severity of central hair loss on a validated six-item photographic scale; the highest levels, levels 3 to 5, were designated as severe. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate multivariable hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for type 2 diabetes in relation to severe central hair loss. Results: During the follow-up period, 850 cases of severe hair loss occurred. The multivariable hazard ratio for severe hair loss associated with diabetes was 1.68 (95% CI, 1.38-2.06) overall, and 2.05 (95% CI, 1.48-2.85) for diabetes duration of ≥ 10 years. Conclusion: Type 2 diabetes was associated with an increased risk of severe central scalp hair loss in AA women. Patients with type 2 diabetes should be followed closely for central scalp hair loss so that appropriate treatment can be offered.

14.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(9): 943-953, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264139

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Epidemiologic evidence supports an association between high mammographic density and increased breast cancer risk yet etiologic mechanisms remain largely unknown. Mixed evidence exists as to whether circulating lipid levels influence mammographic density and breast cancer risk. Therefore, we examined these associations in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII), two large prospective cohorts with information on PMD and circulating lipid measures, long follow-up, and breast cancer risk factor and outcome data. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study among women in the NHS and NHSII. Percent mammographic density (PMD) was measured using Cumulus software, a computer-assisted method, on digitized film mammograms. Cross-sectional associations between circulating lipids [total cholesterol (n = 1,502), high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C; n = 579), and triglycerides (n = 655)] and PMD were evaluated among controls. All analyses were stratified by menopausal status at time of mammogram. Relative risks for breast cancer by lipid and PMD measures were estimated among postmenopausal women in the full nested case-control study (cases/controls for cholesterol, HDL-C, and triglycerides were 937/975, 416/449, and 506/537, respectively). RESULTS: There were no significant associations between circulating lipid levels and PMD among healthy women, irrespective of menopausal status. The association between PMD and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women was not modified by circulating lipid levels (p interaction = 0.83, 0.80, and 0.34 for total cholesterol, HDL-C, and triglycerides, respectively). CONCLUSION: Overall, no association was observed between lipid levels and PMD, and there was no evidence that lipid levels modified the association between PMD and breast cancer risk.


Assuntos
Densidade da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Adulto , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Mamografia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Pós-Menopausa , Risco
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321375

RESUMO

Background: Ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure, the primary source of vitamin D for most people, may reduce breast cancer risk. To date, epidemiologic studies have shown inconsistent results. Methods: The Nurses' Health Study II is a U.S. nationwide prospective cohort of female registered nurses. A UV exposure model was linked with geocoded residential address histories. Early-life UV exposure was estimated based on the state of residence at birth, age 15, and age 30. Self-reported breast cancer was confirmed from medical records. Time-varying Cox regression models adjusted for established breast cancer risk factors were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: From 1989 to 2013, 3,959 invasive breast cancer cases occurred among 112,447 participants. Higher UV exposure during adulthood was not associated with invasive breast cancer risk overall (adjusted HR comparing highest to lowest quintile = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.90, 1.11, p for trend = 0.64) or according to estrogen receptor (ER) status. There were suggestive inverse associations between ER- breast cancer and early-life UV exposure at birth (adjusted HR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.88, 1.01 per interquartile range increase [15.7 mW/m2]), age 15 (adjusted HR = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.04 per 18.0 mW/m2), and age 30 (adjusted HR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.82, 1.00 per 27.7 mW/m2). Conclusions: Ambient UV exposure during adulthood was not associated with risk of invasive breast cancer overall or by ER status. However, we observed suggestive inverse associations between early-life UV exposure and ER- breast cancer risk.

16.
Breast Cancer Res ; 21(1): 48, 2019 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30944014

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity and elevated breast density are common risk factors for breast cancer, and their effects may vary by estrogen receptor (ER) subtype. However, their joint effects on ER subtype-specific risk are unknown. Understanding this relationship could enhance risk stratification for screening and prevention. Thus, we assessed the association between breast density and ER subtype according to body mass index (BMI) and menopausal status. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study nested within two mammography screening cohorts, the Mayo Mammography Health Study and the San Francisco Bay Area Breast Cancer SPORE/San Francisco Mammography Registry. Our pooled analysis contained 1538 ER-positive and 285 ER-negative invasive breast cancer cases and 4720 controls matched on age, menopausal status at time of mammogram, and year of mammogram. Percent density was measured on digitized film mammograms using computer-assisted techniques. We used polytomous logistic regression to evaluate the association between percent density and ER subtype by BMI subgroup (normal/underweight, < 25 kg/m2 versus overweight/obese, ≥ 25 kg/m2). We used Wald chi-squared tests to assess for interactions between percent density and BMI. Our analysis was stratified by menopausal status and hormone therapy usage at the time of index mammogram. RESULTS: Percent density was associated with increased risk of overall breast cancer regardless of menopausal status or BMI. However, when analyzing breast cancer across ER subtype, we found a statistically significant (p = 0.008) interaction between percent density and BMI in premenopausal women only. Specifically, elevated percent density was associated with a higher risk of ER-negative than ER-positive cancer in overweight/obese premenopausal women [OR per standard deviation increment 2.17 (95% CI 1.50-3.16) vs 1.33 (95% CI 1.11-1.61) respectively, Pheterogeneity = 0.01]. In postmenopausal women, elevated percent density was associated with similar risk of ER-positive and ER-negative cancers, and no substantive differences were seen after accounting for BMI or hormone therapy usage. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of overweight/obesity and elevated breast density in premenopausal women is associated with a higher risk of ER-negative compared with ER-positive cancer. Eighteen percent of premenopausal women in the USA have elevated BMI and breast density and may benefit from lifestyle modifications involving weight loss and exercise.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Densidade da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
17.
Ann Intern Med ; 170(1): 22-30, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30534999

RESUMO

Background: Parity is widely recognized as protective for breast cancer, but breast cancer risk may be increased shortly after childbirth. Whether this risk varies with breastfeeding, family history of breast cancer, or specific tumor subtype has rarely been evaluated. Objective: To characterize breast cancer risk in relation to recent childbirth. Design: Pooled analysis of individual-level data from 15 prospective cohort studies. Setting: The international Premenopausal Breast Cancer Collaborative Group. Participants: Women younger than 55 years. Measurements: During 9.6 million person-years of follow-up, 18 826 incident cases of breast cancer were diagnosed. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for breast cancer were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression. Results: Compared with nulliparous women, parous women had an HR for breast cancer that peaked about 5 years after birth (HR, 1.80 [95% CI, 1.63 to 1.99]) before decreasing to 0.77 (CI, 0.67 to 0.88) after 34 years. The association crossed over from positive to negative about 24 years after birth. The overall pattern was driven by estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer; no crossover was seen for ER-negative cancer. Increases in breast cancer risk after childbirth were pronounced when combined with a family history of breast cancer and were greater for women who were older at first birth or who had more births. Breastfeeding did not modify overall risk patterns. Limitations: Breast cancer diagnoses during pregnancy were not uniformly distinguishable from early postpartum diagnoses. Data on human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) oncogene overexpression were limited. Conclusion: Compared with nulliparous women, parous women have an increased risk for breast cancer for more than 20 years after childbirth. Health care providers should consider recent childbirth a risk factor for breast cancer in young women. Primary Funding Source: The Avon Foundation, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Breast Cancer Now and the UK National Health Service, and the Institute of Cancer Research.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Parto , Adolescente , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Idade Materna , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paridade , Gravidez , Pré-Menopausa , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Receptores Estrogênicos/análise , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
18.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(1): 87-95, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30498869

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to investigate the association between pre- or perinatal factors and breast cancer risk among African American women. METHODS: Participants in the Black Women's Health Study, a prospective cohort of 59,000 African American women, reported birth weight, preterm birth, twin or triplet status, maternal age at birth, birth order, and having been breastfed during infancy at various times during follow-up from 1997 to 2015. Numbers of incident cases ranged from 312 for breastfed analyses to 1,583 for twin or triplet analyses. Using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression, we estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between each factor and breast cancer risk overall and by estrogen receptor (ER) status. RESULTS: Compared to birth weights of 5 lbs. 8 oz.-8 lbs. 13 oz., low (< 5 lbs. 8 oz.) and high (> 8 lbs. 13 oz.) birth weights were associated with increased breast cancer risk; HRs (95% CI) were 1.19 (0.98-1.44) and 1.26 (0.97-1.63), respectively. Associations were similar by ER status. Having been born to a mother aged ≥ 35 years versus < 20 years was associated with risk of ER+ (HR 1.59, 95% CI 1.10-2.29), but not ER- breast cancer. Other perinatal factors were not associated with breast cancer. CONCLUSION: African American women with a low or high birth weight or born to older mothers may have increased breast cancer risk. Trends towards delayed child birth and higher birth weights, coupled with disproportionately high rates of low birth weight among African Americans, may contribute to increases in breast cancer incidence.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Peso ao Nascer , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Adulto , Ordem de Nascimento , Aleitamento Materno , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parto , Gravidez , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Saúde da Mulher
19.
Haematologica ; 103(10): 1679-1687, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29930163

RESUMO

Inflammation and B-cell hyperactivation have been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma development. This prospective analysis aimed to further elucidate pre-diagnosis plasma immune marker profiles associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma risk. We identified 598 incident lymphoma cases and 601 matched controls in Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study participants with archived pre-diagnosis plasma samples and measured 13 immune marker levels with multiplexed immunoassays. Using multivariable logistic regression we calculated Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) per standard deviation unit increase in biomarker concentration for risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and major histological subtype, stratifying additional models by years (<5, 5 to <10, ≥10) after blood draw. Soluble interleukin-2 receptor-α, CXC chemokine ligand 13, soluble CD30, and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-2 were individually positively associated, and B-cell activating factor of the tumor necrosis factor family inversely associated, with all non-Hodgkin lymphoma and one or more subtypes. The biomarker combinations associated independently with lymphoma varied somewhat by subtype and years after blood draw. Of note, the unexpected inverse association between B-cell activating factor and chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma risk (OR: 95%CI: 0.51, 0.43-0.62) persisted more than ten years after blood draw (OR: 0.70; 95%CI: 0.52-0.93). In conclusion, immune activation precedes non-Hodgkin lymphoma diagnosis by several years. Decreased B-cell activating factor levels may denote nascent chronic lymphocytic leukemia many years pre-diagnosis.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Linfoma não Hodgkin , Proteínas de Neoplasias , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Linfoma não Hodgkin/sangue , Linfoma não Hodgkin/diagnóstico , Linfoma não Hodgkin/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Neoplasias/sangue , Proteínas de Neoplasias/imunologia , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
JAMA Oncol ; 4(11): e181771, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29931120

RESUMO

Importance: The association between increasing body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) and risk of breast cancer is unique in cancer epidemiology in that a crossover effect exists, with risk reduction before and risk increase after menopause. The inverse association with premenopausal breast cancer risk is poorly characterized but might be important in the understanding of breast cancer causation. Objective: To investigate the association of BMI with premenopausal breast cancer risk, in particular by age at BMI, attained age, risk factors for breast cancer, and tumor characteristics. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter analysis used pooled individual-level data from 758 592 premenopausal women from 19 prospective cohorts to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of premenopausal breast cancer in association with BMI from ages 18 through 54 years using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Median follow-up was 9.3 years (interquartile range, 4.9-13.5 years) per participant, with 13 082 incident cases of breast cancer. Participants were recruited from January 1, 1963, through December 31, 2013, and data were analyzed from September 1, 2013, through December 31, 2017. Exposures: Body mass index at ages 18 to 24, 25 to 34, 35 to 44, and 45 to 54 years. Main Outcomes and Measures: Invasive or in situ premenopausal breast cancer. Results: Among the 758 592 premenopausal women (median age, 40.6 years; interquartile range, 35.2-45.5 years) included in the analysis, inverse linear associations of BMI with breast cancer risk were found that were stronger for BMI at ages 18 to 24 years (HR per 5 kg/m2 [5.0-U] difference, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.73-0.80) than for BMI at ages 45 to 54 years (HR per 5.0-U difference, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.86-0.91). The inverse associations were observed even among nonoverweight women. There was a 4.2-fold risk gradient between the highest and lowest BMI categories (BMI≥35.0 vs <17.0) at ages 18 to 24 years (HR, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.14-0.40). Hazard ratios did not appreciably vary by attained age or between strata of other breast cancer risk factors. Associations were stronger for estrogen receptor-positive and/or progesterone receptor-positive than for hormone receptor-negative breast cancer for BMI at every age group (eg, for BMI at age 18 to 24 years: HR per 5.0-U difference for estrogen receptor-positive and progesterone receptor-positive tumors, 0.76 [95% CI, 0.70-0.81] vs hormone receptor-negative tumors, 0.85 [95% CI: 0.76-0.95]); BMI at ages 25 to 54 years was not consistently associated with triple-negative or hormone receptor-negative breast cancer overall. Conclusions and Relevance: The results of this study suggest that increased adiposity is associated with a reduced risk of premenopausal breast cancer at a greater magnitude than previously shown and across the entire distribution of BMI. The strongest associations of risk were observed for BMI in early adulthood. Understanding the biological mechanisms underlying these associations could have important preventive potential.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pré-Menopausa , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
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