Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 35
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
2.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(12): 1426-1438, 2020 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32216911

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The necessity of neurohumoral blockers in patients with heart failure who demonstrate normalized ejection fractions after cardiac resynchronization therapy remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility and safety of neurohumoral blocker withdrawal in patients with normalized ejection fractions after cardiac resynchronization therapy. METHODS: In this prospective, open-label, randomized controlled pilot trial with a 2 × 2 factorial design, subjects were randomized to withdrawal of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors and/or beta-blockers versus continuation of treatment. The primary endpoint was a recurrence of negative remodeling, defined as an increase in left ventricular end-systolic volume index of >15% at 24 months. The secondary endpoint was a composite safety endpoint of all-cause mortality, heart failure-related hospitalizations, and incidence of sustained ventricular arrhythmias at 24 months. RESULTS: Eighty subjects were consecutively enrolled and randomized among 4 groups (continuation of neurohumoral blocker therapy, n = 20; withdrawal of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors, n = 20; withdrawal of beta-blockers, n = 20; and withdrawal of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors and beta-blockers, n = 20). Of the 80 subjects, 6 (7.5%) met the primary and 4 (5%) the secondary endpoint. However, re-initiation of neurohumoral blockers occurred in 17 subjects because of hypertension or supraventricular arrhythmias. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of the primary and secondary endpoints over a follow-up period of 2 years was low in both the control group and in the groups in which neurohumoral blockers were discontinued. However, neurohumoral blocker withdrawal was hampered by cardiac comorbidities. (Systematic Withdrawal of Neurohumoral Blocker Therapy in Optimally Responding CRT Patients [STOP-CRT]; NCT02200822).

3.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 13(5): 1107-1115, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954642

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of congestion and decongestive therapy on left atrial (LA) mechanics and to determine the relationship between LA improvement after decongestive therapy and clinical outcome in immediate or chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). BACKGROUND: LA mechanics are affected by volume/pressure overload in decompensated HFrEF. METHODS: A total of 31 patients with HFrEF and immediate heart failure (age 64 ± 15 years, 74% male, left ventricular ejection fraction 20 ± 12%) underwent serial echocardiography during decongestive therapy with simultaneous hemodynamic monitoring. LA function was assessed by strain (rate) imaging. Patients were re-evaluated 6 weeks after discharge and prospectively followed up for the composite endpoint of heart failure readmission and all-cause mortality. RESULTS: LA reservoir function was markedly reduced at baseline and improved with decongestion (peak atrial longitudinal strain from 6.4 ± 2.2% to 8.8 ± 3.0% and strain rate from 0.29 ± 0.11 s-1 to 0.38 ± 0.13 s-1), independent of changes in left ventricular global longitudinal strain, LA end-diastolic volume, and mitral regurgitation severity (p < 0.001). Both measures continued to rise at 6 weeks (up to 13.4 ± 6.1% and 0.50 ± 0.19 s-1, respectively; p < 0.001). LA pump strain rate only increased 6 weeks after discharge (-0.25 ± 0.12 s-1 to -0.55 ± 0.29 s-1; p < 0.010). Changes in LA mechanics correlated with changes in wedge pressure (r = -0.61; p < 0.001). Lower peak atrial longitudinal strain values after decongestion were associated with increased risk for the composite endpoint of heart failure and mortality (p < 0.019). CONCLUSIONS: LA reservoir and booster function, while severely impaired during immediate decompensation, significantly improve during and after decongestive therapy. Poor LA reservoir function after decongestion is associated with worse outcome.

4.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 13(4): 895-906, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326478

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the impact of right-atrial (RA) pacing on left-atrial (LA) physiology and clinical outcome. BACKGROUND: Data for the effects of RA pacing on LA synchronicity, function, and structure after cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) are scarce. METHODS: The effect of RA pacing on LA function, morphology, and synchronicity was assessed in a prospective imaging cohort of heart failure (HF) patients in sinus rhythm with a guideline-based indication for CRT. Additionally, in a retrospective outcome cohort of consecutive HF patients undergoing CRT implantation, the relationship to RA pacing was assessed using various outcome endpoints. High versus low atrial pacing burden was defined as atrial pacing above or below 50% in both cohorts. RESULTS: A total of 36 patients were included in the imaging cohort (68 ± 11 years of age). Six months after CRT, patients with high RA pacing burden showed less improvement in LA maximum and minimum volumes and total emptying fraction (p < 0.05). Peak atrial longitudinal strain and reservoir and booster strain rates but not conduit strain rate improved after CRT in patients with low RA pacing burden but worsened in patients with high RA pacing burden (p < 0.05 for all). A high RA pacing burden induced significant intra-atrial dyssynchrony (maximum opposing wall delay: 44 ± 13 ms vs. 97 ± 17 ms, respectively; p = 0.022). A total of 569 patients were included in the outcome cohort. After covariate adjustments were made, a high RA pacing burden was associated with reduced LV reverse remodeling (ß = 8.738; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.101 to 14.374; p = 0.002) and new-onset or recurrent atrial fibrillation (41% vs. 22%, respectively, at a median of 31 months [range 22 to 44 months follow-up]; p < 0.001). There were no differences in time to first HF hospitalization or all-cause mortality (p = 0.185) after covariate adjustment. However, in a recurrent event analysis, HF readmissions were more common in patients exposed to a high RA pacing burden (p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: RA pacing in CRT patients negatively influences LA morphology, function, and synchronicity, which is associated with worse clinical outcome, including diminished LV reverse remodeling, increased risk for new-onset or recurrent AF and heart failure readmission. Strategies reducing RA pacing burden may be warranted.

5.
Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med ; 21(10): 60, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506851

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Transcatheter edge-to-edge mitral valve repair (TMVr) has been increasingly used in the treatment of patients with severe symptomatic mitral regurgitation who are at high or prohibitive risk for surgical intervention. Pre-existing pulmonary hypertension is known to pertain worse prognosis for patients who are undergoing surgical intervention. The aim of this review is to discuss the current literature on the effects of pulmonary hypertension on the transcatheter edge-to-edge mitral valve repair outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Large registry data in patients undergoing TMVr for treatment of severe mitral regurgitation reveal a significant negative impact of baseline pulmonary hypertension on post-procedural outcomes. Pulmonary hypertension is associated with increased mortality and heart failure readmissions in patients undergoing TMVr using MitraClip. Further prospective studies are needed to determine whether earlier intervention will improve clinical outcomes.

6.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(19): 2465-2476, 2019 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31097168

RESUMO

Unlike secondary mitral regurgitation (MR) in the setting of left ventricular (LV) disease, the occurrence of functional MR in atrial fibrillation (AF) and/or heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) has remained largely unspoken. LV size and systolic function are typically normal, whereas isolated mitral annular dilation and inadequate leaflet adaptation are considered mechanistic culprits. Moreover, the role of left atrial and annular dynamics in provoking MR is often underappreciated. Because of this peculiar pathophysiology, atrial functional MR benefits from a different approach compared with secondary MR. Although both AF and HFpEF-two closely related disease epidemics of the 21st century-are held responsible, current guidelines do not emphasize the need to differentiate atrial functional MR from (ventricular) secondary MR. This review summarizes the prevalence and prognostic importance of atrial functional MR, providing mechanistic insights compared with those of secondary MR and suggesting potential therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Átrios do Coração/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Átrios do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/etiologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/terapia , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Volume Sistólico
7.
Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med ; 21(4): 19, 2019 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929092

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mitral annular calcification (MAC) and associated calcific mitral stenosis (MS) are frequent in the aging population, although optimal management remains debated and outcomes are poor. This article summarizes challenges in the diagnosis and therapy of calcific MS, the indications for valve intervention, procedural concerns, and emerging treatment options. RECENT FINDINGS: Surgical mitral valve replacement is the procedure of choice in symptomatic patients at acceptable surgical risk, with transcatheter mitral valve replacement (TMVR) being evaluated in clinical trials as an alternative for patients at prohibitive surgical risk. Significant challenges exist with the currently available technology and outcomes have been suboptimal. Optimizing the patient-selection process by using multimodality imaging tools has proven to be essential. MAC and calcific MS is an increasingly prevalent, challenging issue with poor outcomes. While surgical valve replacement can be performed in patients with acceptable surgical risk, TMVR can be considered for patients at higher risk. Clinical trials are underway to optimize outcomes. Dedicated device designs and techniques to minimize risk of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, paravalvular leakage, and device embolization are to be awaited.

9.
Acta Cardiol ; 74(1): 74-81, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29607737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Percutaneous left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO) is an alternative to anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation patients at high bleeding risk. Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) is generally recommended in the months following the procedure to prevent thrombotic complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of DAPT after LAAO in a single-centre population of high bleeding risk patients. METHODS: All patients who received DAPT after LAAO using the Amplatzer Cardiac Plug at Jessa Hospital (Hasselt, BE) between February 2011 and October 2016 were included. Patient characteristics, procedural outcome and clinical events (bleeding, stroke and adverse events) were prospectively followed. Changes in antithrombotic and/or anticoagulant regimens were assessed. RESULTS: Thirty-nine patients (77 ± 7 years, 51% male, CHA2DS2-VASc 5(3-6), Hypertension, Abnormal Renal/Liver Function, Stroke, Bleeding History or Predisposition, Labile INR, Elderly, Drugs/Alcohol Concomitantly (HAS-BLED) 3(3-4)) were included. An initial strategy of one month DAPT (n = 2) was changed to six months DAPT (n = 37) after one thrombotic complication (device thrombosis) at 4.5 months. Post-procedural DAPT duration was 6.1 ± 3.7 months, after which aspirin monotherapy (62%), no antiplatelet/anticoagulant therapy (15%) or a tailored antithrombotic regimen was maintained. At mean follow-up of 21 ± 13 months, seven patients had died (18%), no strokes had occurred (0%) and nine bleedings of which four were major (10%). All major bleedings occurred within the first six months after the procedure during DAPT. CONCLUSION: Antithrombotic therapy after percutaneous LAAO is needed to prevent thrombotic complications, yet these impose bleeding complications in this high-risk population. Further efforts are needed to define the optimal duration of DAPT, aimed at reducing bleeding complications while maintaining a low thrombosis rate.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Apêndice Atrial/cirurgia , Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Cateterismo Cardíaco/métodos , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Sistema de Registros , Dispositivo para Oclusão Septal , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Apêndice Atrial/diagnóstico por imagem , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Quimioterapia Combinada , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging ; 11(9): e007813, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30354673

RESUMO

Background Acute and chronic effects of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) on pulmonary pressures, right ventricular function, and ventricular-vascular coupling during exercise are insufficiently understood. Yet, these factors are strongly associated with functional status and outcome. Methods and Results Heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction indicated for CRT were prospectively included to undergo exercise echocardiography simultaneously with cardiopulmonary exercise testing before (pre_CRT), 1 day after (post_CRT), and 6 months (post6_CRT) after CRT implant. Right ventricular-arterial coupling was assessed by the tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE)/systolic pulmonary artery pressure (SPAP) ratio. A total of 31 heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction (age=66±13 years) were prospectively included. CRT resulted in an immediate reduction in rest SPAP (pre_CRT=32±16 versus post_CRT=23±16 mm Hg; P=0.006) and rest effective regurgitant orifice (pre_CRT=0.32±0.1 versus post_CRT=0.18±0.2; P=0.001) without changes in exercise mitral regurgitation or exercise SPAP indexed for cardiac output. Six months after CRT, in parallel with left ventricular reverse remodeling and a reduction in exercise mitral regurgitation and exercise E/e' ratio, the exercise SPAP/cardiac output significantly improved (post_CRT=5.6±3.1 versus post6_CRT=4.3±2.9 mm Hg·L-1·min-1; P=0.039), which was also illustrated by a reduced slope of ΔSPAP/Δcardiac output (post_CRT=5.2±3.7 versus post6_CRT=2.9±2.7 mm Hg·L-1·min-1; P=0.002). CRT did not result in an acute or chronic effect on TAPSE or TAPSE/SPAP ratio at rest. However, exercise revealed the presence of right ventricular-arterial uncoupling which was not affected by an acute CRT effect ( P=0.396) but only improved by a chronic CRT effect ( P<0.001; TAPSE/SPAP ratio: pre_CRT= 0.39±0.6 mm/mm Hg; post_CRT=0.42±0.5 mm/mm Hg; post6_CRT =0.84±0.12 mm/mm Hg). Of all exercise echocardiography variables, the TAPSE/SPAP ratio demonstrated the strongest correlation with Vo2 peak ( r=0.475), VE/Vco2 ( r=-0.585), and workload ( r=0.476) during cardiopulmonary exercise testing ( P<0.05 all). Multivariate predictors affecting exercise ventricular-arterial coupling after CRT included metrics of residual exercise mitral regurgitation and systolic and diastolic left ventricular function. Conclusions Chronic CRT beneficially influences pulmonary pressures and right ventricular-arterial coupling during exercise, which strongly relates to functional status. These findings are mechanistically linked to reverse remodeling with improved interventricular dependence and reduction in exercise mitral regurgitation.


Assuntos
Pressão Arterial , Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/terapia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/terapia , Artéria Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Função Ventricular Direita , Idoso , Ecocardiografia Doppler em Cores , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/métodos , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Remodelação Ventricular
11.
Biomed Res Int ; 2018: 7030718, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29516008

RESUMO

With cardiovascular disease (CVD) remaining the primary cause of death worldwide, early detection of CVDs becomes essential. The intracardiac flow is an important component of ventricular function, motion kinetics, wash-out of ventricular chambers, and ventricular energetics. Coupling between Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations and medical images can play a fundamental role in terms of patient-specific diagnostic tools. From a technical perspective, CFD simulations with moving boundaries could easily lead to negative volumes errors and the sudden failure of the simulation. The generation of high-quality 4D meshes (3D in space + time) with 1-to-1 vertex becomes essential to perform a CFD simulation with moving boundaries. In this context, we developed a semiautomatic morphing tool able to create 4D high-quality structured meshes starting from a segmented 4D dataset. To prove the versatility and efficiency, the method was tested on three different 4D datasets (Ultrasound, MRI, and CT) by evaluating the quality and accuracy of the resulting 4D meshes. Furthermore, an estimation of some physiological quantities is accomplished for the 4D CT reconstruction. Future research will aim at extending the region of interest, further automation of the meshing algorithm, and generating structured hexahedral mesh models both for the blood and myocardial volume.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Endocárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada Quadridimensional , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Endocárdio/fisiopatologia , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Simulação de Paciente , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Função Ventricular/fisiologia
12.
J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst ; 18(3): 1470320317729919, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28875746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) activation in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFREF) is detrimental through promotion of ventricular remodeling and salt and water retention. AIMS: The aims of this article are to describe RAAS activity in distinct HFREF populations and to assess its prognostic impact. METHODS: Venous blood samples were prospectively obtained in 76 healthy volunteers, 72 patients hospitalized for acute decompensated HFREF, and 78 ambulatory chronic HFREF patients without clinical signs of congestion. Sequential measurements were performed in patients with acute decompensated HFREF. RESULTS: Plasma renin activity (PRA) was significantly higher in ambulatory chronic HFREF (7.6 ng/ml/h (2.2; 18.1)) compared to patients with acute decompensated HFREF (1.5 ng/ml/h (0.8; 5.7)) or healthy volunteers (1.4 ng/ml/h (0.6; 2.3)) (all p < 0.05). PRA was significantly associated with arterial blood pressure and renin-angiotensin system blocker dose. A progressive rise in PRA (+4 ng/ml/h (0.4; 10.9); p < 0.001) was observed in acute decompensated HFREF patients after three consecutive days of decongestive treatment. Only in acute HFREF were PRA levels associated with increased cardiovascular mortality or HF readmissions ( p = 0.035). CONCLUSION: PRA is significantly elevated in ambulatory chronic HFREF patients but is not associated with worse outcome. In contrast, in acute HFREF patients, PRA is associated with cardiovascular mortality or HF readmissions.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Renina/sangue , Volume Sistólico , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
J Card Fail ; 23(8): 597-605, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28284756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) improves mortality and morbidity on top of optimal medical therapy in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). This study aimed to elucidate the association between neurohumoral blocker up-titration after CRT implantation and clinical outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Doses of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and beta-blockers were retrospectively evaluated in 650 consecutive CRT patients implanted from October 2008 to August 2015 and followed in a tertiary multidisciplinary CRT clinic. All 650 CRT patients were on a maximal tolerable dose of ACE-I/ARB and beta-blocker at the time of CRT implantation. However, further up-titration was successful in 45.4% for ACE-I/ARB and in 56.8% for beta-blocker after CRT-implantation. During a mean follow-up of 37 ± 22 months, a total of 139 events occurred for the combined end point of heart failure admission and all-cause mortality. Successful, versus unsuccessful, up-titration was associated with adjusted hazard ratios of 0.537 (95% confidence interval 0.316-0.913; P = .022) for ACE-I/ARB and 0.633 (0.406-0.988; P = .044) for beta-blocker on the combined end point heart failure admission and all-cause mortality. Patients in the up-titration group exhibited a similar risk for death or heart failure admission as patients treated with the maximal dose (ACE-I/ARB: P = .133; beta-blockers: P = .709). CONCLUSIONS: After CRT, a majority of patients are capable of tolerating higher dosages of neurohumoral blockers. Up-titration of neurohumoral blockers after CRT implantation is associated with improved clinical outcomes, similarly to patients treated with the guideline-recommended target dose at the time of CRT implantation.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca/métodos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurotransmissores/antagonistas & inibidores , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 30(4): 404-413, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28049599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to investigate the evolution of the transprosthetic pressure gradient and effective orifice area (EOA) during dynamic bicycle exercise in bileaflet mechanical heart valves and to explore the relationship with exercise capacity. METHODS: Patients with bileaflet aortic valve replacement (n = 23) and mitral valve replacement (MVR; n = 16) prospectively underwent symptom-limited supine bicycle exercise testing with Doppler echocardiography and respiratory gas analysis. Transprosthetic flow rate, peak and mean transprosthetic gradient, EOA, and systolic pulmonary artery pressure were assessed at different stages of exercise. RESULTS: EOA at rest, midexercise, and peak exercise was 1.66 ± 0.23, 1.56 ± 0.30, and 1.61 ± 0.28 cm2, respectively (P = .004), in aortic valve replacement patients and 1.40 ± 0.21, 1.46 ± 0.27, and 1.48 ± 0.25 cm2, respectively (P = .160), in MVR patients. During exercise, the mean transprosthetic gradient and the square of transprosthetic flow rate were strongly correlated (r = 0.65 [P < .001] and r = 0.84 [P < .001] for aortic valve replacement and MVR, respectively), conforming to fundamental hydraulic principles for fixed orifices. Indexed EOA at rest was correlated with exercise capacity in MVR patients only (Spearman ρ = 0.68, P = .004). In the latter group, systolic pulmonary artery pressures during exercise were strongly correlated with the peak transmitral gradient (ρ = 0.72, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: In bileaflet mechanical valve prostheses, there is no clinically relevant increase in EOA during dynamic exercise. Transprosthetic gradients during exercise closely adhere to the fundamental pressure-flow relationship. Indexed EOA at rest is a strong predictor of exercise capacity in MVR patients. This should be taken into account in therapeutic decision making and prosthesis selection in young and dynamic patients.


Assuntos
Valva Aórtica/patologia , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/métodos , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Valva Mitral/patologia , Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Pressão Sanguínea , Análise de Falha de Equipamento , Tolerância ao Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Desenho de Prótese
15.
Circulation ; 135(3): 297-314, 2017 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28093494

RESUMO

Secondary mitral valve regurgitation (MR) remains a challenging problem in the diagnostic workup and treatment of patients with heart failure. Although secondary MR is characteristically dynamic in nature and sensitive to changes in ventricular geometry and loading, current therapy is mainly focused on resting conditions. An exercise-induced increase in secondary MR, however, is associated with impaired exercise capacity and increased mortality. In an era where a multitude of percutaneous solutions are emerging for the treatment of patients with heart failure, it becomes important to address the dynamic component of secondary MR during exercise as well. A critical reappraisal of the underlying disease mechanisms, in particular the dynamic component during exercise, is of timely importance. This review summarizes the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the dynamic deterioration of secondary MR during exercise, its functional and prognostic impact, and the way current treatment options affect the dynamic lesion and exercise hemodynamics in general.


Assuntos
Teste de Esforço/métodos , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Masculino
16.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 18(7): 787-794, 2017 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27378769

RESUMO

Aims: To use cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging with quantitative T2 mapping as surrogate for myocardial water content in patients with advanced decompensated heart failure (ADHF), compare these values with T2-values observed in chronic heart failure, and evaluate the change with decongestive therapy. Methods and Results: Volumetric CMR measurements and quantitative T2 mapping were performed in 18 consecutive ADHF patients with clinical signs of volume overload. Eleven patients with stable heart failure were used as controls. Vasodilator therapy and diuretics were administered to achieve a pulmonary arterial wedge pressure (PAWP) of <18 mmHg and central venous pressure (CVP) of <12 mmHg, after which CMR was repeated. ADHF patients (62 ± 12 years; 89% male; left ventricular ejection fraction 23 ± 8%) presented with low cardiac index (2.08 ± 0.59 L/min/m2), high PAWP (25 ± 7 mmHg), and high CVP (14 ± 5 mmHg). After decongestion, the patients had a significant increase in cardiac index (+0.41 ± 0.53 L/min/m2; P = 0.005) and decreases in both PAWP (-9 ± 6 mmHg; P < 0.001) and CVP (-6 ± 5 mmHg; P < 0.001). At baseline, global left ventricular T2-values were higher in ADHF patients compared with controls (59.5 ± 4.6 vs. 54.7 ± 2.2 ms, respectively; P = 0.001). After decongestion, T2-values fell significantly to 55.9 ± 5.1 ms (P = 0.001), comparable with controls (P = 0.580). In contrast, psoas muscle T2-values were similar at baseline (38.6 ± 4.4 ms) vs. after decongestion (37.8 ± 4.8 ms; P = 0.397). Each 1 ms decrease in global left ventricular T2-value during decongestion was associated with a 1.14 ± 0.40 mmHg decrease in PAWP (P = 0.013), after correction for age and gender. Conclusion: Patients presenting with ADHF and volume overload have increased global left ventricular-but not psoas muscle-T2-values, which decrease with successful decongestion. Relief of myocardial oedema correlates with haemodynamic unloading.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Cardíaco/métodos , Edema Cardíaco/diagnóstico por imagem , Edema Cardíaco/epidemiologia , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença Crônica , Edema Cardíaco/tratamento farmacológico , Edema Cardíaco/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Contração Miocárdica/fisiologia , Seleção de Pacientes , Prognóstico , Valores de Referência , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Vasodilatadores/uso terapêutico
17.
J Card Fail ; 23(2): 138-144, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27561853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intravascular volume overload and depletion as well as anemia are associated with increased hospital admissions and mortality in patients with heart failure. This study aimed to accurately measure plasma volume and red cell mass (RCM) in stable patients with chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and gain more insight into plasma volume regulation and anemia in stable conditions of HFrEF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasma volume and RCM measurement based on 99Tc-labeled red blood cells, venous blood sample,s and clinical parameters were obtained in 24 stable HFrEF patients under optimal medical therapy. Measured plasma volume values were compared with predicted values based on body surface area. Plasma volume was on average normal (99.98% of predicted) but heterogeneously distributed (variations of 81%-133%). Neurohumoral activation and medication use were not associated with plasma volume status. Furthermore, anemia based on actual measurement of RCM was present in up to 75% of subjects, but rarely hemodilutional. CONCLUSIONS: In stable chronic HFrEF patients under optimal medical therapy, plasma volume is overall normal but heterogeneously distributed. Anticipated factors such as neurohumoral activation and heart failure medication were not associated with plasma volume. Furthermore, anemia is more common than as assessed by hemoglobin.


Assuntos
Anemia/sangue , Anemia/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Volume Plasmático/fisiologia , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Idoso , Anemia/fisiopatologia , Doença Crônica , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Volume de Eritrócitos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Valores de Referência , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Análise de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA