Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 203
Filtrar
1.
Lancet ; 397(10274): 559-560, 2021 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545097
2.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33589771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most of the evidence on bariatric surgery on obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is based on observational studies and/or short-term follow-up in patients with obesity grade 3. SUBJECTS/METHODS: This randomized study compared the effects of roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or usual care (UC) on OSA severity in patients with obesity grade 1-2. Mild, moderate, and severe OSA was defined by the apnea-hypopnoea index (AHI): 5-14.9; 15-29.9, and ≥30 events/h, respectively. OSA remission was defined by converting any form of OSA into normal AHI (<5 events/h). RESULTS: After 3-year of follow-up, the body-mass index increased in the UC while decreased in the RYGB group: +1.7 (-1.9; 2.7) versus -10.6 (-12.7; -9.2) kg/m2, respectively. The AHI increased by 5 (-4.2; 12.7) in the UC group while reduced in the RYGB group to -13.2 (-22.7; -7) events/h. UC significantly increase the frequency of moderate OSA (from 15.4 to 46.2%). In contrast, RYGB had a huge impact on reaching no OSA status (from 4.2 to 70.8%) in parallel to a decrease of moderate (from 41.7 to 8.3%) and severe OSA (from 20.8 to 0%). CONCLUSIONS: RYGB is an attractive strategy for mid-term OSA remission or decrease moderate-to-severe forms of OSA in patients with obesity grade 1-2.

3.
Am. heart j ; 231: 128-136, Jan. 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1145450

RESUMO

Background The efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban in patients with bioprosthetic mitral valves and atrial fibrillation or flutter remain uncertain. Design RIVER was an academic-led, multicenter, open-label, randomized, non-inferiority trial with blinded outcome adjudication that enrolled 1005 patients from 49 sites in Brazil. Patients with a bioprosthetic mitral valve and atrial fibrillation or flutter were randomly assigned (1:1) to rivaroxaban 20 mg once daily (15 mg in those with creatinine clearance <50 mL/min) or dose-adjusted warfarin (target international normalized ratio 2.0-30.); the follow-up period was 12 months. The primary outcome was a composite of all-cause mortality, stroke, transient ischemic attack, major bleeding, valve thrombosis, systemic embolism, or hospitalization for heart failure. Secondary outcomes included individual components of the primary composite outcome, bleeding events, and venous thromboembolism. Summary RIVER represents the largest trial specifically designed to assess the efficacy and safety of a direct oral anticoagulant in patients with bioprosthetic mitral valves and atrial fibrillation or flutter. The results of this trial can inform clinical practice and international guidelines.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Rivaroxabana , Bioprótese , Valva Mitral , Anticoagulantes
4.
BMJ ; 372: n84, 2021 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33472855

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether tocilizumab improves clinical outcomes for patients with severe or critical coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19). DESIGN: Randomised, open label trial. SETTING: Nine hospitals in Brazil, 8 May to 17 July 2020. PARTICIPANTS: Adults with confirmed covid-19 who were receiving supplemental oxygen or mechanical ventilation and had abnormal levels of at least two serum biomarkers (C reactive protein, D dimer, lactate dehydrogenase, or ferritin). The data monitoring committee recommended stopping the trial early, after 129 patients had been enrolled, because of an increased number of deaths at 15 days in the tocilizumab group. INTERVENTIONS: Tocilizumab (single intravenous infusion of 8 mg/kg) plus standard care (n=65) versus standard care alone (n=64). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The primary outcome, clinical status measured at 15 days using a seven level ordinal scale, was analysed as a composite of death or mechanical ventilation because the assumption of odds proportionality was not met. RESULTS: A total of 129 patients were enrolled (mean age 57 (SD 14) years; 68% men) and all completed follow-up. All patients in the tocilizumab group and two in the standard care group received tocilizumab. 18 of 65 (28%) patients in the tocilizumab group and 13 of 64 (20%) in the standard care group were receiving mechanical ventilation or died at day 15 (odds ratio 1.54, 95% confidence interval 0.66 to 3.66; P=0.32). Death at 15 days occurred in 11 (17%) patients in the tocilizumab group compared with 2 (3%) in the standard care group (odds ratio 6.42, 95% confidence interval 1.59 to 43.2). Adverse events were reported in 29 of 67 (43%) patients who received tocilizumab and 21 of 62 (34%) who did not receive tocilizumab. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with severe or critical covid-19, tocilizumab plus standard care was not superior to standard care alone in improving clinical outcomes at 15 days, and it might increase mortality. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04403685.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , /tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , /mortalidade , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hospitalização , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Respiração Artificial , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
5.
Circulation ; 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461308

RESUMO

Background: In the AUGUSTUS trial, apixaban resulted in less bleeding and fewer hospitalizations than vitamin K antagonists (VKA), and aspirin caused more bleeding than placebo in patients with atrial fibrillation and acute coronary syndrome or percutaneous coronary intervention treated with a P2Y12 inhibitor. We evaluated the risk-benefit balance of antithrombotic therapy according to kidney function. Methods: In 4456 patients, the CKD-EPI formula was used to calculate baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The effect of apixaban vs. VKA and aspirin vs. placebo was assessed across kidney function categories using Cox models. The primary outcome was ISTH major or clinically relevant non-major bleeding. Secondary outcomes included death or hospitalization and ischemic events (death, stroke, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis [definite or probable], or urgent revascularization). Creatinine clearance below 30 mL/min was an exclusion criterion in the AUGUSTUS trial. Results: Overall, 30%, 52%, and 19% had an eGFR of >80, >50 to 80, and 30-50 mL/min/1.73m2, respectively. During 6-months follow-up a total of 543 primary outcomes of bleeding, 1125 death or hospitalizations, and 282 ischemic events occurred. Compared with VKA, patients assigned apixaban had lower rates for all 3 outcomes across most eGFR categories without significant interaction. The absolute risk reduction with apixaban was most pronounced in those with an eGFR of 30-50 mL/min/1.73m2 for bleeding events with rates of 13.1% vs. 21.3%; HR (95% CI) 0.59 (0.41-0.84). Patients assigned aspirin had a higher risk of bleeding in all eGFR categories with an even greater increase among those with eGFR >80 mL/min/1.73m2: 16.6% vs. 5.6%; HR 3.22 (2.19-4.74); p for interaction=0.007). The risk of death or hospitalization and ischemic events were comparable with aspirin and placebo across eGFR categories with HR ranging from 0.97 (0.76-1.23) to 1.28 (1.02-1.59) and from 0.75 (0.48-1.17) to 1.34 (0.81-2.22), respectively. Conclusions: The safety and efficacy of apixaban was consistent irrespective of kidney function, as compared with warfarin, and in accordance with the overall trial results. The risk of bleeding with aspirin was consistently higher across all kidney function categories. Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov Unique Identifier: NCT02415400.

6.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 116(1): 108-116, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In clinical practice, there is evidence of failure to prescribe evidence-based therapies for patients at high cardiovascular risk. However, in Brazil, data on 1-year outcomes of these patients remain insufficient. OBJECTIVES: To describe the use of evidence-based therapies and the occurrence of major cardiovascular outcomes and their major predictors in a 12-month follow-up of a Brazilian multicenter registry of patients at high cardiovascular risk. METHODS: This prospective observational study documented the outpatient clinical practice of managing patients over 45 years of age and of high cardiovascular risk in both primary and secondary prevention. Patients were followed-up for 1 year, and the prescription of evidence-based therapies and the occurrence of major cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, stroke, cardiac arrest, and cardiovascular death) were assessed. P-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: From July 2010 to August 2014, a total of 5076 individuals were enrolled in 48 centers, 91% of the 4975 eligible patients were followed-up in cardiology centers, and 68.6% were in secondary prevention. At 1 year, the concomitant use of antiplatelet agents, statins, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors reduced from 28.3% to 24.2% (p < 0.001). Major cardiovascular event rate was 5.46%, and the identified predictors were age, patients in secondary prevention, and diabetic nephropathy. CONCLUSIONS: In this large national registry of patients at high cardiovascular risk, risk predictors similar to those of international registries were identified, but medical prescription adherence to evidence-based therapies was inferior and significantly worsened at 1 year. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0).


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Seguimentos , Humanos , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco
8.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33319454

RESUMO

AIMS: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. It can lead to multiorgan failure, including respiratory and cardiovascular decompensation, and kidney injury, with significant associated morbidity and mortality, particularly in patients with underlying metabolic, cardiovascular, respiratory or kidney disease. Dapagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor, has shown significant cardio- and renoprotective benefits in patients with type 2 diabetes (with and without atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease), heart failure and chronic kidney disease, and may provide similar organ protection in high-risk patients with COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DARE-19 (NCT04350593) is an investigator-initiated, collaborative, international, multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study testing the dual hypotheses that dapagliflozin can reduce the incidence of cardiovascular, kidney and/or respiratory complications or all-cause mortality, or improve clinical recovery, in adult patients hospitalized with COVID-19 but not critically ill on admission. Eligible patients will have ≥1 cardiometabolic risk factor for COVID-19 complications. Patients will be randomized 1:1 to dapagliflozin 10 mg or placebo. Primary efficacy endpoints are time to development of new or worsened organ dysfunction during index hospitalization, or all-cause mortality, and the hierarchical composite endpoint of change in clinical status through day 30 of treatment. Safety of dapagliflozin in individuals with COVID-19 will be assessed. CONCLUSIONS: DARE-19 will evaluate whether dapagliflozin can prevent COVID-19-related complications and all-cause mortality, or improve clinical recovery, and assess the safety profile of dapagliflozin in this patient population. Currently, DARE-19 is the first large randomized controlled trial investigating use of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors in patients with COVID-19.

9.
N Engl J Med ; 383(22): 2117-2126, 2020 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effects of rivaroxaban in patients with atrial fibrillation and a bioprosthetic mitral valve remain uncertain. METHODS: In this randomized trial, we compared rivaroxaban (20 mg once daily) with dose-adjusted warfarin (target international normalized ratio, 2.0 to 3.0) in patients with atrial fibrillation and a bioprosthetic mitral valve. The primary outcome was a composite of death, major cardiovascular events (stroke, transient ischemic attack, systemic embolism, valve thrombosis, or hospitalization for heart failure), or major bleeding at 12 months. RESULTS: A total of 1005 patients were enrolled at 49 sites in Brazil. A primary-outcome event occurred at a mean of 347.5 days in the rivaroxaban group and 340.1 days in the warfarin group (difference calculated as restricted mean survival time, 7.4 days; 95% confidence interval [CI], -1.4 to 16.3; P<0.001 for noninferiority). Death from cardiovascular causes or thromboembolic events occurred in 17 patients (3.4%) in the rivaroxaban group and in 26 (5.1%) in the warfarin group (hazard ratio, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.35 to 1.20). The incidence of stroke was 0.6% in the rivaroxaban group and 2.4% in the warfarin group (hazard ratio, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.88). Major bleeding occurred in 7 patients (1.4%) in the rivaroxaban group and in 13 (2.6%) in the warfarin group (hazard ratio, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.21 to 1.35). The frequency of other serious adverse events was similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with atrial fibrillation and a bioprosthetic mitral valve, rivaroxaban was noninferior to warfarin with respect to the mean time until the primary outcome of death, major cardiovascular events, or major bleeding at 12 months. (Funded by PROADI-SUS and Bayer; RIVER ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02303795.).

10.
N. Engl. j. med ; 383(22): 1-11, Nov. 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, CONASS, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1146447

RESUMO

BACKGROUND The effects of rivaroxaban in patients with atrial fibrillation and a bioprosthetic mitral valve remain uncertain. METHODS In this randomized trial, we compared rivaroxaban (20 mg once daily) with dose adjusted warfarin (target international normalized ratio, 2.0 to 3.0) in patients with atrial fibrillation and a bioprosthetic mitral valve. The primary outcome was a composite of death, major cardiovascular events (stroke, transient ischemic attack, systemic embolism, valve thrombosis, or hospitalization for heart failure), or major bleeding at 12 months. RESULTS A total of 1005 patients were enrolled at 49 sites in Brazil. A primary-outcome event occurred at a mean of 347.5 days in the rivaroxaban group and 340.1 days in the warfarin group (difference calculated as restricted mean survival time, 7.4 days; 95% confidence interval [CI], −1.4 to 16.3; P<0.001 for noninferiority). Death from cardiovascular causes or thromboembolic events occurred in 17 patients (3.4%) in the rivaroxaban group and in 26 (5.1%) in the warfarin group (hazard ratio, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.35 to 1.20). The incidence of stroke was 0.6% in the rivaroxaban group and 2.4% in the warfarin group (hazard ratio, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.88). Major bleeding occurred in 7 patients (1.4%) in the rivaroxaban group and in 13 (2.6%) in the warfarin group (hazard ratio, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.21 to 1.35). The frequency of other serious adverse events was similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS In patients with atrial fibrillation and a bioprosthetic mitral valve, rivaroxaban was noninferior to warfarin with respect to the mean time until the primary outcome of death, major cardiovascular events, or major bleeding at 12 months.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Bioprótese , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Valva Mitral , Varfarina , Rivaroxabana , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos
11.
Rev Bras Ter Intensiva ; 32(3): 354-362, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053024

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The infection caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spreads worldwide and is considered a pandemic. The most common manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 infection (coronavirus disease 2019 - COVID-19) is viral pneumonia with varying degrees of respiratory compromise and up to 40% of hospitalized patients might develop acute respiratory distress syndrome. Several clinical trials evaluated the role of corticosteroids in non-COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome with conflicting results. We designed a trial to evaluate the effectiveness of early intravenous dexamethasone administration on the number of days alive and free of mechanical ventilation within 28 days after randomization in adult patients with moderate or severe acute respiratory distress syndrome due to confirmed or probable COVID-19. METHODS: This is a pragmatic, prospective, randomized, stratified, multicenter, open-label, controlled trial including 350 patients with early-onset (less than 48 hours before randomization) moderate or severe acute respiratory distress syndrome, defined by the Berlin criteria, due to COVID-19. Eligible patients will be randomly allocated to either standard treatment plus dexamethasone (Intervention Group) or standard treatment without dexamethasone (Control Group). Patients in the intervention group will receive dexamethasone 20mg intravenous once daily for 5 days, followed by dexamethasone 10mg IV once daily for additional 5 days or until intensive care unit discharge, whichever occurs first. The primary outcome is ventilator-free days within 28 days after randomization, defined as days alive and free from invasive mechanical ventilation. Secondary outcomes are all-cause mortality rates at day 28, evaluation of the clinical status at day 15 assessed with a 6-level ordinal scale, mechanical ventilation duration from randomization to day 28, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Score evaluation at 48 hours, 72 hours and 7 days and intensive care unit -free days within 28.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , /tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Am Heart J ; 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045224

RESUMO

The efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban in patients with bioprosthetic mitral valves and atrial fibrillation or flutter remain uncertain. DESIGN: RIVER was an academic-led, multicenter, open-label, randomized, non-inferiority trial with blinded outcome adjudication that enrolled 1005 patients from 49 sites in Brazil. Patients with a bioprosthetic mitral valve and atrial fibrillation or flutter were randomly assigned (1:1) to rivaroxaban 20 mg once daily (15 mg in those with creatinine clearance <50 mL/min) or dose-adjusted warfarin (target international normalized ratio 2.0-30.); the follow-up period was 12 months. The primary outcome was a composite of all-cause mortality, stroke, transient ischemic attack, major bleeding, valve thrombosis, systemic embolism, or hospitalization for heart failure. Secondary outcomes included individual components of the primary composite outcome, bleeding events, and venous thromboembolism. SUMMARY: RIVER represents the largest trial specifically designed to assess the efficacy and safety of a direct oral anticoagulant in patients with bioprosthetic mitral valves and atrial fibrillation or flutter. The results of this trial can inform clinical practice and international guidelines.

13.
Acta Diabetol ; 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047257

RESUMO

AIMS: To compare the blood pressure (BP)-lowering efficacy of a chlorthalidone/amiloride combination pill with losartan, during initial management of JNC 7 Stage I hypertension in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: In an a priori subgroup analysis of a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, volunteers aged 30-70 years, with stage I hypertension and diabetes mellitus, were randomized to 12.5/2.5 mg of chlorthalidone/amiloride (N = 47) or 50 mg of losartan (N = 50), and followed for 18 months in 21 clinical centers. If BP remained uncontrolled after three months, study medication dose was doubled, and if uncontrolled after six months, amlodipine (5 and 10 mg) and propranolol (40 and 80 mg BID) were added as open label drugs in a progressive fashion. RESULTS: Systolic BP decreased to a greater extent in participants allocated to diuretics compared to losartan (P < 0.001). After 18 months of follow-up, systolic BP was 128.4 ± 10.3 mmHg in the diuretic group versus 133.5 ± 8.0 in the losartan group (P < 0.01). In the diuretic group, 36 out of 43 participants (83.7%) had a JNC 7 normal BP, compared to 31/47 (66%) in the losartan group (P = 0.089). Serum cholesterol was higher in the diuretic arm at the end of the trial. Other biochemical parameters and reports of adverse events did not differ by treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of hypertension based on a combination of chlorthalidone and amiloride is more effective for BP lowering compared to losartan in patients with diabetes mellitus and hypertension. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical trials registration number: NCT00971165.

14.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876202

RESUMO

Background Patients with acute myocardial infarction may have a large infarcted area and ventricular dysfunction despite early thrombolysis and revascularization. Objective To investigate the behavior of circulating cytokines in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and their relationship with ventricular function. Methods In the BATTLE-AMI (B and T Types of Lymphocytes Evaluation in Acute Myocardial Infarction) trial, patients with STEMI were treated with a pharmacoinvasive strategy. The plasma levels of cytokines (IL-1 ß , IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-18) were tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at baseline and after 30 days. Infarcted mass and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were examined by 3-T cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. All p-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results Compared to baseline, lower levels were detected for IL-1 ß (p = 0.028) and IL-18 (p < 0.0001) 30 days after STEMI, whereas higher levels were observed for IL-4 (p = 0.001) and IL-10 (p < 0.0001) at that time point. Conversely, no changes were detected for IL-6 levels (p = 0.63). The levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and IL-6 correlated at baseline (rho = 0.45, p < 0.0001) and 30 days after STEMI (rho = 0.29, p = 0.009). At baseline, correlation between IL-6 levels and LVEF was also observed (rho = -0.50, p = 0.004). Conclusions During the first month post-MI, we observed a marked improvement in the balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, except for IL-6. These findings suggest residual inflammatory risk. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0).

15.
Lancet ; 396(10256): 959-967, 2020 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896292

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of azithromycin in the treatment of COVID-19 remain uncertain. We assessed whether adding azithromycin to standard of care, which included hydroxychloroquine, would improve clinical outcomes of patients admitted to the hospital with severe COVID-19. METHODS: We did an open-label, randomised clinical trial at 57 centres in Brazil. We enrolled patients admitted to hospital with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 and at least one additional severity criteria as follows: use of oxygen supplementation of more than 4 L/min flow; use of high-flow nasal cannula; use of non-invasive mechanical ventilation; or use of invasive mechanical ventilation. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to azithromycin (500 mg via oral, nasogastric, or intravenous administration once daily for 10 days) plus standard of care or to standard of care without macrolides. All patients received hydroxychloroquine (400 mg twice daily for 10 days) because that was part of standard of care treatment in Brazil for patients with severe COVID-19. The primary outcome, assessed by an independent adjudication committee masked to treatment allocation, was clinical status at day 15 after randomisation, assessed by a six-point ordinal scale, with levels ranging from 1 to 6 and higher scores indicating a worse condition (with odds ratio [OR] greater than 1·00 favouring the control group). The primary outcome was assessed in all patients in the intention-to-treat (ITT) population who had severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection confirmed by molecular or serological testing before randomisation (ie, modified ITT [mITT] population). Safety was assessed in all patients according to which treatment they received, regardless of original group assignment. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04321278. FINDINGS: 447 patients were enrolled from March 28 to May 19, 2020. COVID-19 was confirmed in 397 patients who constituted the mITT population, of whom 214 were assigned to the azithromycin group and 183 to the control group. In the mITT population, the primary endpoint was not significantly different between the azithromycin and control groups (OR 1·36 [95% CI 0·94-1·97], p=0·11). Rates of adverse events, including clinically relevant ventricular arrhythmias, resuscitated cardiac arrest, acute kidney failure, and corrected QT interval prolongation, were not significantly different between groups. INTERPRETATION: In patients with severe COVID-19, adding azithromycin to standard of care treatment (which included hydroxychloroquine) did not improve clinical outcomes. Our findings do not support the routine use of azithromycin in combination with hydroxychloroquine in patients with severe COVID-19. FUNDING: COALITION COVID-19 Brazil and EMS.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Azitromicina/efeitos adversos , Betacoronavirus , Brasil/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/efeitos adversos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Terapia Respiratória , Padrão de Cuidado , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Rev Bras Ter Intensiva ; 32(3): 337-347, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965395

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pro-inflammatory markers play a significant role in the disease severity of patients with COVID-19. Thus, anti-inflammatory therapies are attractive agents for potentially combating the uncontrolled inflammatory cascade in these patients. We designed a trial testing tocilizumab versus standard of care intending to improve the outcomes by inhibiting interleukin-6, an important inflammatory mediator in COVID-19. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This open-label multicentre randomized controlled trial will compare clinical outcomes of tocilizumab plus standard of care versus standard of care alone in patients with moderate to severe COVID-19. Two of the following four criteria are required for protocol enrolment: D-dimer > 1,000ng/mL; C reactive protein > 5mg/dL, ferritin > 300mg/dL, and lactate dehydrogenase > upper limit of normal. The primary objective will be to compare the clinical status on day 15, as measured by a 7-point ordinal scale applied in COVID-19 trials worldwide. The primary endpoint will be assessed by an ordinal logistic regression assuming proportional odds ratios adjusted for stratification variables (age and sex). ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The TOCIBRAS protocol was approved by local and central (national) ethical committees in Brazil following current national and international guidelines/directives. Each participating center had the study protocol approved by their institutional review boards before initiating protocol enrolment. The data derived from this trial will be published regardless of the results. If proven active, this strategy could alleviate the consequences of the inflammatory response in COVID-19 patients and improve their clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Brasil , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Interleucina-6/antagonistas & inibidores , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
17.
JAMA ; 324(13): 1330-1341, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876694

RESUMO

Importance: Effective therapies for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are needed, and clinical trial data have demonstrated that low-dose dexamethasone reduced mortality in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 who required respiratory support. Objective: To estimate the association between administration of corticosteroids compared with usual care or placebo and 28-day all-cause mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective meta-analysis that pooled data from 7 randomized clinical trials that evaluated the efficacy of corticosteroids in 1703 critically ill patients with COVID-19. The trials were conducted in 12 countries from February 26, 2020, to June 9, 2020, and the date of final follow-up was July 6, 2020. Pooled data were aggregated from the individual trials, overall, and in predefined subgroups. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool. Inconsistency among trial results was assessed using the I2 statistic. The primary analysis was an inverse variance-weighted fixed-effect meta-analysis of overall mortality, with the association between the intervention and mortality quantified using odds ratios (ORs). Random-effects meta-analyses also were conducted (with the Paule-Mandel estimate of heterogeneity and the Hartung-Knapp adjustment) and an inverse variance-weighted fixed-effect analysis using risk ratios. Exposures: Patients had been randomized to receive systemic dexamethasone, hydrocortisone, or methylprednisolone (678 patients) or to receive usual care or placebo (1025 patients). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality at 28 days after randomization. A secondary outcome was investigator-defined serious adverse events. Results: A total of 1703 patients (median age, 60 years [interquartile range, 52-68 years]; 488 [29%] women) were included in the analysis. Risk of bias was assessed as "low" for 6 of the 7 mortality results and as "some concerns" in 1 trial because of the randomization method. Five trials reported mortality at 28 days, 1 trial at 21 days, and 1 trial at 30 days. There were 222 deaths among the 678 patients randomized to corticosteroids and 425 deaths among the 1025 patients randomized to usual care or placebo (summary OR, 0.66 [95% CI, 0.53-0.82]; P < .001 based on a fixed-effect meta-analysis). There was little inconsistency between the trial results (I2 = 15.6%; P = .31 for heterogeneity) and the summary OR was 0.70 (95% CI, 0.48-1.01; P = .053) based on the random-effects meta-analysis. The fixed-effect summary OR for the association with mortality was 0.64 (95% CI, 0.50-0.82; P < .001) for dexamethasone compared with usual care or placebo (3 trials, 1282 patients, and 527 deaths), the OR was 0.69 (95% CI, 0.43-1.12; P = .13) for hydrocortisone (3 trials, 374 patients, and 94 deaths), and the OR was 0.91 (95% CI, 0.29-2.87; P = .87) for methylprednisolone (1 trial, 47 patients, and 26 deaths). Among the 6 trials that reported serious adverse events, 64 events occurred among 354 patients randomized to corticosteroids and 80 events occurred among 342 patients randomized to usual care or placebo. Conclusions and Relevance: In this prospective meta-analysis of clinical trials of critically ill patients with COVID-19, administration of systemic corticosteroids, compared with usual care or placebo, was associated with lower 28-day all-cause mortality.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Betacoronavirus , Causas de Morte , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Estado Terminal , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/uso terapêutico , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
18.
JAMA ; 324(13): 1307-1316, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876695

RESUMO

Importance: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with substantial mortality and use of health care resources. Dexamethasone use might attenuate lung injury in these patients. Objective: To determine whether intravenous dexamethasone increases the number of ventilator-free days among patients with COVID-19-associated ARDS. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter, randomized, open-label, clinical trial conducted in 41 intensive care units (ICUs) in Brazil. Patients with COVID-19 and moderate to severe ARDS, according to the Berlin definition, were enrolled from April 17 to June 23, 2020. Final follow-up was completed on July 21, 2020. The trial was stopped early following publication of a related study before reaching the planned sample size of 350 patients. Interventions: Twenty mg of dexamethasone intravenously daily for 5 days, 10 mg of dexamethasone daily for 5 days or until ICU discharge, plus standard care (n =151) or standard care alone (n = 148). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was ventilator-free days during the first 28 days, defined as being alive and free from mechanical ventilation. Secondary outcomes were all-cause mortality at 28 days, clinical status of patients at day 15 using a 6-point ordinal scale (ranging from 1, not hospitalized to 6, death), ICU-free days during the first 28 days, mechanical ventilation duration at 28 days, and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores (range, 0-24, with higher scores indicating greater organ dysfunction) at 48 hours, 72 hours, and 7 days. Results: A total of 299 patients (mean [SD] age, 61 [14] years; 37% women) were enrolled and all completed follow-up. Patients randomized to the dexamethasone group had a mean 6.6 ventilator-free days (95% CI, 5.0-8.2) during the first 28 days vs 4.0 ventilator-free days (95% CI, 2.9-5.4) in the standard care group (difference, 2.26; 95% CI, 0.2-4.38; P = .04). At 7 days, patients in the dexamethasone group had a mean SOFA score of 6.1 (95% CI, 5.5-6.7) vs 7.5 (95% CI, 6.9-8.1) in the standard care group (difference, -1.16; 95% CI, -1.94 to -0.38; P = .004). There was no significant difference in the prespecified secondary outcomes of all-cause mortality at 28 days, ICU-free days during the first 28 days, mechanical ventilation duration at 28 days, or the 6-point ordinal scale at 15 days. Thirty-three patients (21.9%) in the dexamethasone group vs 43 (29.1%) in the standard care group experienced secondary infections, 47 (31.1%) vs 42 (28.3%) needed insulin for glucose control, and 5 (3.3%) vs 9 (6.1%) experienced other serious adverse events. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with COVID-19 and moderate or severe ARDS, use of intravenous dexamethasone plus standard care compared with standard care alone resulted in a statistically significant increase in the number of ventilator-free days (days alive and free of mechanical ventilation) over 28 days. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04327401.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , /tratamento farmacológico , Administração Intravenosa , Idoso , Anti-Inflamatórios/efeitos adversos , Betacoronavirus , Brasil , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Término Precoce de Ensaios Clínicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , /etiologia
19.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 32(3): 354-362, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138502

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivo: A infecção causada pelo coronavírus da síndrome respiratória aguda grave 2 (SARS-CoV-2) disseminou-se por todo o mundo e foi categorizada como pandemia. As manifestações mais comuns da infecção pelo SARS-CoV-2 (doença pelo coronavírus 2019 - COVID-19) se referem a uma pneumonia viral com graus variáveis de comprometimento respiratório e até 40% dos pacientes hospitalizados, que podem desenvolver uma síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo. Diferentes ensaios clínicos avaliaram o papel dos corticosteroides na síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo não relacionada com COVID-19, obtendo resultados conflitantes. Delineamos o presente estudo para avaliar a eficácia da administração endovenosa precoce de dexametasona no número de dias vivo e sem ventilação mecânica nos 28 dias após a randomização, em pacientes adultos com quadro moderado ou grave de síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo causada por COVID-19 provável ou confirmada. Métodos: Este é um ensaio pragmático, prospectivo, randomizado, estratificado, multicêntrico, aberto e controlado que incluirá 350 pacientes com quadro inicial (menos de 48 horas antes da randomização) de síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo moderada ou grave, definida segundo os critérios de Berlim, causada por COVID-19. Os pacientes elegíveis serão alocados de forma aleatória para tratamento padrão mais dexametasona (Grupo Intervenção) ou tratamento padrão sem dexametasona (Grupo Controle). Os pacientes no Grupo Intervenção receberão dexametasona 20mg por via endovenosa uma vez ao dia, por 5 dias, e, a seguir, dexametasona por via endovenosa 10mg ao dia por mais 5 dias, ou até receber alta da unidade de terapia intensiva, o que ocorrer antes. O desfecho primário será o número de dias livres de ventilação mecânica nos 28 dias após a randomização, definido como o número de dias vivo e livres de ventilação mecânica invasiva. Os desfechos secundários serão a taxa de mortalidade por todas as causas no dia 28, a condição clínica no dia 15 avaliada com utilização de uma escala ordinal de seis níveis, a duração da ventilação mecânica desde a randomização até o dia 28, a avaliação com o Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Score após 48 horas, 72 horas e 7 dias, e o número de dias fora da unidade de terapia intensiva nos 28 dias após a randomização.


Abstract Objective: The infection caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spreads worldwide and is considered a pandemic. The most common manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 infection (coronavirus disease 2019 - COVID-19) is viral pneumonia with varying degrees of respiratory compromise and up to 40% of hospitalized patients might develop acute respiratory distress syndrome. Several clinical trials evaluated the role of corticosteroids in non-COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome with conflicting results. We designed a trial to evaluate the effectiveness of early intravenous dexamethasone administration on the number of days alive and free of mechanical ventilation within 28 days after randomization in adult patients with moderate or severe acute respiratory distress syndrome due to confirmed or probable COVID-19. Methods: This is a pragmatic, prospective, randomized, stratified, multicenter, open-label, controlled trial including 350 patients with early-onset (less than 48 hours before randomization) moderate or severe acute respiratory distress syndrome, defined by the Berlin criteria, due to COVID-19. Eligible patients will be randomly allocated to either standard treatment plus dexamethasone (Intervention Group) or standard treatment without dexamethasone (Control Group). Patients in the intervention group will receive dexamethasone 20mg intravenous once daily for 5 days, followed by dexamethasone 10mg IV once daily for additional 5 days or until intensive care unit discharge, whichever occurs first. The primary outcome is ventilator-free days within 28 days after randomization, defined as days alive and free from invasive mechanical ventilation. Secondary outcomes are all-cause mortality rates at day 28, evaluation of the clinical status at day 15 assessed with a 6-level ordinal scale, mechanical ventilation duration from randomization to day 28, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Score evaluation at 48 hours, 72 hours and 7 days and intensive care unit -free days within 28.

20.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 32(3): 337-347, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138506

RESUMO

RESUMO Introdução: Os marcadores pró-inflamatórios desempenham papel importante na severidade de pacientes com COVID-19. Assim, terapêuticas anti-inflamatórias são agentes interessantes para potencialmente combater a cascata inflamatória descontrolada em tais pacientes. Delineamos um ensaio para testar tocilizumabe em comparação com o tratamento padrão, tendo como objetivo melhorar os desfechos por meio da inibição da interleucina 6, um importante mediador inflamatório na COVID-19. Métodos e análises: Este será um estudo aberto multicêntrico, randomizado e controlado, que comparará os desfechos de pacientes tratados com tocilizumabe mais tratamento padrão com o tratamento padrão isoladamente em pacientes com COVID-19 moderada a grave. Como critérios de inclusão, serão exigidos dois dos quatro critérios a seguir: dosagens de dímero D acima de 1.000ng/mL, proteína C-reativa acima de 5mg/dL, ferritina acima de 300mg/dL e desidrogenase lática acima do limite superior do normal. O objetivo primário será comparar a condição clínica no dia 15, conforme avaliação por meio de escala ordinal de 7 pontos aplicada nos estudos de COVID-19 em todo o mundo. O desfecho primário será avaliado por regressão logística ordinal assumindo razões de propensão proporcionais ajustadas pelas variáveis de estratificação (idade e sexo). Ética e disseminação: O TOCIBRAS foi aprovado pelos comitês de ética locais e central (nacional) do Brasil em conformidade com as atuais diretrizes e orientações nacionais e internacionais. Cada centro participante obteve aprovação do estudo por parte de seu comitê de ética em pesquisa, antes de iniciar as inscrições no protocolo. Os dados derivados deste ensaio serão publicados independentemente de seus resultados. Se tiver sua efetividade comprovada, esta estratégia terapêutica poderá aliviar as consequências da resposta inflamatória na COVID-19 e melhorar os resultados clínicos.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Pro-inflammatory markers play a significant role in the disease severity of patients with COVID-19. Thus, anti-inflammatory therapies are attractive agents for potentially combating the uncontrolled inflammatory cascade in these patients. We designed a trial testing tocilizumab versus standard of care intending to improve the outcomes by inhibiting interleukin-6, an important inflammatory mediator in COVID-19. Methods and analysis: This open-label multicentre randomized controlled trial will compare clinical outcomes of tocilizumab plus standard of care versus standard of care alone in patients with moderate to severe COVID-19. Two of the following four criteria are required for protocol enrolment: D-dimer > 1,000ng/mL; C reactive protein > 5mg/dL, ferritin > 300mg/dL, and lactate dehydrogenase > upper limit of normal. The primary objective will be to compare the clinical status on day 15, as measured by a 7-point ordinal scale applied in COVID-19 trials worldwide. The primary endpoint will be assessed by an ordinal logistic regression assuming proportional odds ratios adjusted for stratification variables (age and sex). Ethics and dissemination: The TOCIBRAS protocol was approved by local and central (national) ethical committees in Brazil following current national and international guidelines/directives. Each participating center had the study protocol approved by their institutional review boards before initiating protocol enrolment. The data derived from this trial will be published regardless of the results. If proven active, this strategy could alleviate the consequences of the inflammatory response in COVID-19 patients and improve their clinical outcomes.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA