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1.
Clin Chem ; 65(12): 1543-1553, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) among hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients remains a challenge, especially in China. We sought to create an online calculator of serum biomarkers to detect HCC among patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). METHODS: Participants with HBV-HCC, CHB, HBV-related liver cirrhosis (HBV-LC), benign hepatic tumors, and healthy controls (HCs) were recruited at 11 Chinese hospitals. Potential serum HCC biomarkers, protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II), α-fetoprotein (AFP), lens culinaris agglutinin A-reactive fraction of AFP (AFP-L3) and α-l-fucosidase (AFU) were evaluated in the pilot cohort. The calculator was built in the training cohort via logistic regression model and validated in the validation cohort. RESULTS: In the pilot study, PIVKA-II and AFP showed better diagnostic sensitivity and specificity compared with AFP-L3 and AFU and were chosen for further study. A combination of PIVKA-II and AFP demonstrated better diagnostic accuracy in differentiating patients with HBV-HCC from patients with CHB or HBV-LC than AFP or PIVKA-II alone [area under the curve (AUC), 0.922 (95% CI, 0.908-0.935), sensitivity 88.3% and specificity 85.1% for the training cohort; 0.902 (95% CI, 0.875-0.929), 87.8%, and 81.0%, respectively, for the validation cohort]. The nomogram including AFP, PIVKA-II, age, and sex performed well in predicting HBV-HCC with good calibration and discrimination [AUC, 0.941 (95% CI, 0.929-0.952)] and was validated in the validation cohort [AUC, 0.931 (95% CI, 0.909-0.953)]. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that a web-based calculator including age, sex, AFP, and PIVKA-II accurately predicted the presence of HCC in patients with CHB. CLINICALTRIALSGOV IDENTIFIER: NCT03047603.

2.
Circulation ; 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Variations in cardiac troponin concentrations by age, sex and time between samples in patients with suspected myocardial infarction are not currently accounted for in diagnostic approaches. We aimed to combine these variables through machine learning to improve the assessment of risk for individual patients. METHODS: A machine learning algorithm (myocardial-ischemic-injury-index [MI3]) incorporating age, sex, and paired high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I concentrations, was trained on 3,013 patients and tested on 7,998 patients with suspected myocardial infarction. MI3 uses gradient boosting to compute a value (0-100) reflecting an individual's likelihood of a diagnosis of type 1 myocardial infarction and estimates the sensitivity, negative predictive value (NPV), specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) for that individual. Assessment was by calibration and area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve (AUC). Secondary analysis evaluated example MI3 thresholds from the training set that identified patients as low-risk (99% sensitivity) and high-risk (75% PPV), and performance at these thresholds was compared in the test set to the 99th percentile and European Society of Cardiology (ESC) rule-out pathways. RESULTS: Myocardial infarction occurred in 404 (13.4%) patients in the training set and 849 (10.6%) patients in the test set. MI3 was well calibrated with a very high AUC of 0.963 [0.956-0.971] in the test set and similar performance in early and late presenters. Example MI3 thresholds identifying low-risk and high-risk patients in the training set were 1.6 and 49.7 respectively. In the test set, MI3 values were <1.6 in 69.5% with a NPV of 99.7% (99.5%-99.8%) and sensitivity of 97.8% (96.7-98.7%), and were ≥49.7 in 10.6% with a PPV of 71.8% (68.9-75.0%) and specificity of 96.7% (96.3-97.1%). Using these thresholds, MI3 performed better than the ESC 0/3-hour pathway (sensitivity 82.5% [74.5-88.8%], specificity 92.2% [90.7-93.5%]) and the 99th percentile at any time-point (sensitivity 89.6% [87.4-91.6%]), specificity 89.3% [88.6-90.0%]). CONCLUSIONS: Using machine learning, MI3 provides an individualized and objective assessment of the likelihood of myocardial infarction, which can be used to identify low-risk and high-risk patients who may benefit from earlier clinical decisions. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Unique Identifier: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12616001441404. URL: https://www.anzctr.org.au.

3.
Clin Chem ; 65(3): 484-489, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30626631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The universal definition of myocardial infarction (UDMI) standardizes the approach to the diagnosis and management of myocardial infarction. High-sensitivity cardiac troponin testing is recommended because these assays have improved precision at low concentrations, but concerns over specificity may have limited their implementation. METHODS: We undertook a global survey of 1902 medical centers in 23 countries evenly distributed across 5 continents to assess adoption of key recommendations from the UDMI. Respondents involved in the diagnosis and management of patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome completed a structured telephone questionnaire detailing the primary biomarker, diagnostic thresholds, and clinical pathways used to identify myocardial infarction. RESULTS: Cardiac troponin was the primary diagnostic biomarker at 96% of surveyed sites. Only 41% of centers had adopted high-sensitivity assays, with wide variation from 7% in North America to 60% in Europe. Sites using high-sensitivity troponin more frequently used serial sampling pathways (91% vs 78%) and the 99th percentile diagnostic threshold (74% vs 66%) than sites using previous-generation assays. Furthermore, high-sensitivity institutions more often used earlier serial sampling (≤3 h) and accelerated diagnostic pathways. Fewer than 1 in 5 high-sensitivity sites had adopted sex-specific thresholds (18%). CONCLUSIONS: There has been global progress toward the recommendations of the UDMI, particularly in the use of the 99th percentile diagnostic threshold and serial sampling. However, high-sensitivity assays are still used by a minority of sites, and sex-specific thresholds by even fewer. Additional efforts are required to improve risk stratification and diagnosis of patients with myocardial infarction.


Assuntos
Saúde Global/normas , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Troponina I/análise , Troponina T/análise , Bioensaio/normas , Biomarcadores/análise , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Padrões de Referência
4.
Am J Med ; 132(3): 362-366, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30503877

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the association of circulating concentrations of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTn) in the various trimesters of pregnancy in patients with and without hypertension. METHODS: This was a prospective cross-sectional study of pregnant and postnatal women aged between 18-35 years with no coexisting diseases. Serum samples were analysed for hs-TnI. RESULTS: A total of 880 women (mean age = 29.1 years [standard deviation = 5.1 years]) were recruited with 129 (14%), 207 (24%), and 416 (47%) patients in the first, second, and third trimesters, respectively. Ninety (10%) participants were recruited in the postnatal period. During pregnancy 28 (3%) patients were classified as having pregnancy-induced hypertension and 10 (1%) as preeclampsia. High-sensitivity cardiac troponin I was measurable in 546 (62%) participants with a median of 1 ng/L (range 0 to 783 ng/L). Troponin concentrations were above the 99th percentile in 19 (2%) individuals. Patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia had higher concentrations of hs-TnI (median 11 ng/L [interquartile range (IQR) 6 to 22 ng/L] vs 12ng/L [IQR 3 to 98 ng/L] vs 1 ng/L [IQR 0 to 1 ng/L]). In logistic regression modeling hs-cTnI concentration remained an independent predictor of pregnancy-induced hypertension or preeclampsia in both unadjusted and adjusted models (odds ratio 9.3 [95% confidence interval 5.8 to 16.3] and 11.5 [95% confidence interval 6.3 to 24.1], respectively, per doubling of hs-TnI concentrations). CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac troponin measured using a high-sensitivity assay is quantifiable in the majority of young pregnant women with 2% of individuals having concentration above the 99th percentile sex-specific threshold. Patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension or preeclampsia had higher cardiac troponin concentrations. Cardiac troponin was a strong independent predictor of pregnancy-induced hypertension or preeclampsia in pregnant and postnatal women.


Assuntos
Pré-Eclâmpsia/sangue , Gravidez/sangue , Transtornos Puerperais/sangue , Troponina I/sangue , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/sangue , Modelos Logísticos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Am J Cardiol ; 121(12): 1461-1466, 2018 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29628129

RESUMO

It is unknown whether the association of high-sensitivity troponin I (hs-TnI) with adverse cardiovascular outcomes varies by the presence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We examined the association of hs-TnI with adverse cardiovascular outcomes in those with and without CKD in 4,107 (mean age, 64 years; 63% men; 20% black) patients from the Emory Cardiovascular Biobank who underwent coronary angiography. CKD (n = 1,073) was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 or urine albumin/creatinine ratio >30 mg/g at baseline. Cox regression was used to compute hazard ratios (HR) for the association between hs-TnI levels (per doubling of hs-TnI: log2[hs-TnI] + 1) and death, cardiovascular death, and major adverse cardiac events (MACE), separately. Hs-TnI was a stronger predictor of death (CKD: HR 1.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15 to 1.31; no CKD: HR 1.11, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.17, p-interaction = 0.023), cardiovascular death (CKD: HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.34; no CKD: HR 1.15, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.22, p-interaction = 0.12), and MACE (CKD: HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.25; no CKD: HR 1.11, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.16, p-interaction = 0.095) in CKD compared with non-CKD. The association between hs-TnI and death in patients with CKD was stronger for patients without obstructive coronary artery disease (no obstructive coronary artery disease: HR 1.60, 95% CI 1.27 to 2.01; obstructive coronary artery disease: HR 1.19, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.27, p-interaction = 0.041). In conclusion, hs-TnI is a stronger predictor of adverse cardiovascular events in patients who have CKD than those without, even in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease. Hs-TnI may identify CKD patients who are high risk for adverse cardiovascular outcomes in whom aggressive risk factor modification strategies are warranted.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Revascularização Miocárdica/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Troponina I/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Causas de Morte , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
Cancer Lett ; 420: 236-241, 2018 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29412152

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to build a valid diagnostic nomogram for assessing the cancer risk of the pulmonary lesions identified by chest CT. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 691 patients with pulmonary lesions were recruited from three centers in China. The cut-off value for each tumor marker was confirmed by minimum P value method with 1000 bootstrap replications. The nomogram was based on the predictive factors identified by univariate and multivariate analysis. The predictive performance of the nomogram was measured by concordance index and calibrated with 1000 bootstrap samples to decrease the overfit bias. We also evaluated the net benefit of the nomogram via decision curve analysis. Finally, the nomogram was validated externally using a separate cohort of 305 patients enrolled from two additional institutions. RESULTS: The cut-off for CEA, SCC, CYFRA21-1, pro-GRP, and HE4 was 4.8 ng/mL, 1.66 ng/mL, 1.83 ng/mL, 56.55 pg/mL, and 63.24Lpmol/L, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression model (LRM) identified tumor size, CEA, SCC, CYFRA21-1, pro-GRP, and HE4 as independent risk factors for lung cancer. The nomogram based on LRM coefficients showed concordance index of 0.901 (95% CI: 0.842-0.960; P < 0.001) for lung cancer in the training set and 0.713 (95% CI: 0.599-0.827; P < 0.001) in the validation set. Decision curve analysis reported a net benefit of 87.6% at 80% threshold probability superior to the baseline model. CONCLUSION: Our diagnostic nomogram provides a useful tool for assessing the cancer risk of pulmonary lesions identified in CT screening test.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Nomogramas , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , China , Estudos de Coortes , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Carga Tumoral
7.
Clin Biochem ; 54: 32-36, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29448045

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) has been widely used as a biomarker for liver cancer diagnosis in Japan for decades. However, the reference intervals for serum ARCHITECT PIVKA-II have not been established in the Chinese population. Thus, this study aimed to measure serum PIVKA-II levels in healthy Chinese subjects. METHODS: This is a sub-analysis from the prospective, cross-sectional and multicenter study (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03047603). A total of 892 healthy participants (777 Han and 115 Uygur) with complete health checkup results were recruited from 7 regional centers in China. Serum PIVKA-II level was measured by ARCHITECT immunoassay. All 95% reference ranges were estimated by nonparametric method. RESULTS: The distribution of PIVKA-II values showed significant difference with ethnicity and sex, but not age. The 95% reference range of PIVKA-II was 13.62-40.38 mAU/ml in Han Chinese subjects and 15.16-53.74 mAU/ml in Uygur subjects. PIVKA-II level was significantly higher in males than in females (P < 0.001). The 95% reference range of PIVKA-II was 15.39-42.01 mAU/ml in Han males while 11.96-39.13 mAU/ml in Han females. CONCLUSIONS: The reference interval of serum PIVKA-II on the Architect platform was established in healthy Chinese adults. This will be valuable for future clinical and laboratory studies performed using the Architect analyzer. Different ethnic backgrounds and analytical methods underline the need for redefining the reference interval of analytes such as PIVKA-II, in central laboratories in different countries.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Precursores de Proteínas/sangue , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Protrombina
8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(5)2018 02 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29467150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The associations between high-sensitivity troponin I (hsTnI) levels and coronary artery disease (CAD) severity and progression remain unclear. We investigated whether there is an association between hsTnI and angiographic severity and progression of CAD and whether the predictive value of hsTnI level for incident cardiovascular outcomes is independent of CAD severity. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 3087 patients (aged 63±12 years, 64% men) undergoing cardiac catheterization without evidence of acute myocardial infarction, the severity of CAD was calculated by the number of major coronary arteries with ≥50% stenosis and the Gensini score. CAD progression was assessed in a subset of 717 patients who had undergone ≥2 coronary angiograms >3 months before enrollment. Patients were followed up for incident all-cause mortality and incident cardiovascular events. Of the total population, 11% had normal angiograms, 23% had nonobstructive CAD, 20% had 1-vessel CAD, 20% had 2-vessel CAD, and 26% had 3-vessel CAD. After adjusting for age, sex, race, body mass index, smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus history, and renal function, hsTnI levels were independently associated with the severity of CAD measured by the Gensini score (log 2 ß=0.31; 95% confidence interval, 0.18-0.44; P<0.001) and with CAD progression (log 2 ß=0.36; 95% confidence interval, 0.14-0.58; P=0.001). hsTnI level was also a significant predictor of incident death, cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, revascularization, and cardiac hospitalizations, independent of the aforementioned covariates and CAD severity. CONCLUSIONS: Higher hsTnI levels are associated with the underlying burden of coronary atherosclerosis, more rapid progression of CAD, and higher risk of all-cause mortality and incident cardiovascular events. Whether more aggressive treatment aimed at reducing hsTnI levels can modulate disease progression requires further investigation.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Estenose Coronária/sangue , Troponina I/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Causas de Morte , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose Coronária/mortalidade , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Georgia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Clin Biochem ; 52: 164-166, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29129627

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) has been widely used in clinical practice for decades. However, large-scale survey of serum reference interval for ARCHITECT AFP is still absent in Chinese population. This study aimed to measure serum AFP levels in healthy Chinese Han subjects, which is a sub-analysis of an ongoing prospective, cross-sectional, multi-center study (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03047603). METHODS: This analysis included a total of 530 participants (41.43±12.14years of age on average, 48.49% males), enrolled from 5 regional centers. Serum AFP level was measured by ARCHITECT immunoassay. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS 9.4 and R software. RESULTS: AFP distribution did not show significant correlation with age or sex. The overall median and interquartile range of AFP was 2.87 (2.09, 3.83) ng/mL. AFP level did not show a trend of increasing with age. The new reference interval was 2.0-7.07ng/mL (LOQ- 97.5th percentiles). CONCLUSIONS: The reference interval for ARCHITECT AFP is updated with the data of adequate number of healthy Han adults. This new reference interval is more practical and applicable in Chinese adults.


Assuntos
alfa-Fetoproteínas/análise , alfa-Fetoproteínas/normas , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/sangue , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , China , Estudos Transversais , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoensaio/métodos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/sangue , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Padrões de Referência , Valores de Referência , Soro , Fatores Sexuais
10.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 10(12)2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29222133

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent data suggest that circulating biomarkers may predict outcome in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). We examined the association between inflammatory, myocardial, and renal biomarkers and their role in ventricular recovery and outcome after TAVR. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 112 subjects undergoing TAVR were included in the prospective registry. Plasma levels of B-type natriuretic peptide, hs-TnI (high-sensitivity troponin I), CRP (C-reactive protein), GDF-15 (growth differentiation factor 15), GAL-3 (galectin-3), and Cys-C (cystatin-C) were assessed before TAVR and in 100 sex-matched healthy controls. Among echocardiographic parameters, we measured global longitudinal strain, indexed left ventricular mass, and indexed left atrial volume. The TAVR group included 59% male, with an average age of 84 years, and 1-year mortality of 18%. Among biomarkers, we found GDF-15 and CRP to be strongly associated with all-cause mortality (P<0.001). Inclusion of GDF-15 and CRP to the Society of Thoracic Surgeons score significantly improved C index (0.65-0.79; P<0.05) and provided a category-free net reclassification improvement of 106% at 2 years (P=0.01). Among survivors, functional recovery in global longitudinal strain (>15% improvement) and indexed left ventricular mass (>20% decrease) at 1 year occurred in 48% and 22%, respectively. On multivariate logistic regression, lower baseline GDF-15 was associated with improved global longitudinal strain at 1 year (hazard ratio=0.29; P<0.001). Furthermore, improvement in global longitudinal strain at 1 month correlated with lower overall mortality (hazard ratio=0.45; P=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Elevated GDF-15 correlates with lack of reverse remodeling and increased mortality after TAVR and improves risk prediction of mortality when added to the Society of Thoracic Surgeons score.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Fator 15 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/sangue , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/sangue , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/mortalidade , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento , Regulação para Cima , Remodelação Ventricular
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