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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(3): 530-541, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827496

RESUMO

Acetylation of the lysine residues in histones and other DNA-binding proteins plays a major role in regulation of eukaryotic gene expression. This process is controlled by histone acetyltransferases (HATs/KATs) found in multiprotein complexes that are recruited to chromatin by the scaffolding subunit transformation/transcription domain-associated protein (TRRAP). TRRAP is evolutionarily conserved and is among the top five genes intolerant to missense variation. Through an international collaboration, 17 distinct de novo or apparently de novo variants were identified in TRRAP in 24 individuals. A strong genotype-phenotype correlation was observed with two distinct clinical spectra. The first is a complex, multi-systemic syndrome associated with various malformations of the brain, heart, kidneys, and genitourinary system and characterized by a wide range of intellectual functioning; a number of affected individuals have intellectual disability (ID) and markedly impaired basic life functions. Individuals with this phenotype had missense variants clustering around the c.3127G>A p.(Ala1043Thr) variant identified in five individuals. The second spectrum manifested with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and/or ID and epilepsy. Facial dysmorphism was seen in both groups and included upslanted palpebral fissures, epicanthus, telecanthus, a wide nasal bridge and ridge, a broad and smooth philtrum, and a thin upper lip. RNA sequencing analysis of skin fibroblasts derived from affected individuals skin fibroblasts showed significant changes in the expression of several genes implicated in neuronal function and ion transport. Thus, we describe here the clinical spectrum associated with TRRAP pathogenic missense variants, and we suggest a genotype-phenotype correlation useful for clinical evaluation of the pathogenicity of the variants.

2.
Genet Med ; 21(9): 2025-2035, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723320

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lanosterol synthase (LSS) gene was initially described in families with extensive congenital cataracts. Recently, a study has highlighted LSS associated with hypotrichosis simplex. We expanded the phenotypic spectrum of LSS to a recessive neuroectodermal syndrome formerly named alopecia with mental retardation (APMR) syndrome. It is a rare autosomal recessive condition characterized by hypotrichosis and intellectual disability (ID) or developmental delay (DD), frequently associated with early-onset epilepsy and other dermatological features. METHODS: Through a multicenter international collaborative study, we identified LSS pathogenic variants in APMR individuals either by exome sequencing or LSS Sanger sequencing. Splicing defects were assessed by transcript analysis and minigene assay. RESULTS: We reported ten APMR individuals from six unrelated families with biallelic variants in LSS. We additionally identified one affected individual with a single rare variant in LSS and an allelic imbalance suggesting a second event. Among the identified variants, two were truncating, seven were missense, and two were splicing variants. Quantification of cholesterol and its precursors did not reveal noticeable imbalance. CONCLUSION: In the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, lanosterol synthase leads to the cyclization of (S)-2,3-oxidosqualene into lanosterol. Our data suggest LSS as a major gene causing a rare recessive neuroectodermal syndrome.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(2): 213-228, 2019 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639323

RESUMO

Primary defects in lung branching morphogenesis, resulting in neonatal lethal pulmonary hypoplasias, are incompletely understood. To elucidate the pathogenetics of human lung development, we studied a unique collection of samples obtained from deceased individuals with clinically and histopathologically diagnosed interstitial neonatal lung disorders: acinar dysplasia (n = 14), congenital alveolar dysplasia (n = 2), and other lethal lung hypoplasias (n = 10). We identified rare heterozygous copy-number variant deletions or single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) involving TBX4 (n = 8 and n = 2, respectively) or FGF10 (n = 2 and n = 2, respectively) in 16/26 (61%) individuals. In addition to TBX4, the overlapping ∼2 Mb recurrent and nonrecurrent deletions at 17q23.1q23.2 identified in seven individuals with lung hypoplasia also remove a lung-specific enhancer region. Individuals with coding variants involving either TBX4 or FGF10 also harbored at least one non-coding SNV in the predicted lung-specific enhancer region, which was absent in 13 control individuals with the overlapping deletions but without any structural lung anomalies. The occurrence of rare coding variants involving TBX4 or FGF10 with the putative hypomorphic non-coding SNVs implies a complex compound inheritance of these pulmonary hypoplasias. Moreover, they support the importance of TBX4-FGF10-FGFR2 epithelial-mesenchymal signaling in human lung organogenesis and help to explain the histopathological continuum observed in these rare lethal developmental disorders of the lung.

4.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(12): 1784-1790, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30135486

RESUMO

X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia punctata (CDPX2 or Conradi-Hünermann-Happle syndrome, MIM #302960) is caused by mutations in the EBP gene. Affected female patients present with Blaschkolinear ichthyosis, coarse hair or alopecia, short stature, and normal psychomotor development. The disease is usually lethal in boys. Nevertheless, few male patients have been reported; they carry a somatic mosaicism in EBP or present with Klinefelter syndrome. Here, we report CDPX2 patients belonging to a three-generation family, carrying the splice variant c.301 + 5 G > C in intron 2 of EBP. The grandfather carries the variant as mosaic state and presents with short stature and mild ichthyosis. The mother also presents with short stature and mild ichthyosis and the female fetus with severe limb and vertebrae abnormalities and no skin lesions, with random X inactivation in both. This further characterizes the phenotypical spectrum of CDPX2, as well as intrafamilial variability, and raises the question of differential EBP mRNA splicing between the different target tissues.

5.
Blood ; 132(5): 469-483, 2018 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29891534

RESUMO

Chuvash polycythemia is an autosomal recessive form of erythrocytosis associated with a homozygous p.Arg200Trp mutation in the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene. Since this discovery, additional VHL mutations have been identified in patients with congenital erythrocytosis, in a homozygous or compound-heterozygous state. VHL is a major tumor suppressor gene, mutations in which were first described in patients presenting with VHL disease, which is characterized by the development of highly vascularized tumors. Here, we identify a new VHL cryptic exon (termed E1') deep in intron 1 that is naturally expressed in many tissues. More importantly, we identify mutations in E1' in 7 families with erythrocytosis (1 homozygous case and 6 compound-heterozygous cases with a mutation in E1' in addition to a mutation in VHL coding sequences) and in 1 large family with typical VHL disease but without any alteration in the other VHL exons. In this study, we show that the mutations induced a dysregulation of VHL splicing with excessive retention of E1' and were associated with a downregulation of VHL protein expression. In addition, we demonstrate a pathogenic role for synonymous mutations in VHL exon 2 that altered splicing through E2-skipping in 5 families with erythrocytosis or VHL disease. In all the studied cases, the mutations differentially affected splicing, correlating with phenotype severity. This study demonstrates that cryptic exon retention and exon skipping are new VHL alterations and reveals a novel complex splicing regulation of the VHL gene. These findings open new avenues for diagnosis and research regarding the VHL-related hypoxia-signaling pathway.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(5): 744-759, 2018 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29656859

RESUMO

RORα, the RAR-related orphan nuclear receptor alpha, is essential for cerebellar development. The spontaneous mutant mouse staggerer, with an ataxic gait caused by neurodegeneration of cerebellar Purkinje cells, was discovered two decades ago to result from homozygous intragenic Rora deletions. However, RORA mutations were hitherto undocumented in humans. Through a multi-centric collaboration, we identified three copy-number variant deletions (two de novo and one dominantly inherited in three generations), one de novo disrupting duplication, and nine de novo point mutations (three truncating, one canonical splice site, and five missense mutations) involving RORA in 16 individuals from 13 families with variable neurodevelopmental delay and intellectual disability (ID)-associated autistic features, cerebellar ataxia, and epilepsy. Consistent with the human and mouse data, disruption of the D. rerio ortholog, roraa, causes significant reduction in the size of the developing cerebellum. Systematic in vivo complementation studies showed that, whereas wild-type human RORA mRNA could complement the cerebellar pathology, missense variants had two distinct pathogenic mechanisms of either haploinsufficiency or a dominant toxic effect according to their localization in the ligand-binding or DNA-binding domains, respectively. This dichotomous direction of effect is likely relevant to the phenotype in humans: individuals with loss-of-function variants leading to haploinsufficiency show ID with autistic features, while individuals with de novo dominant toxic variants present with ID, ataxia, and cerebellar atrophy. Our combined genetic and functional data highlight the complex mutational landscape at the human RORA locus and suggest that dual mutational effects likely determine phenotypic outcome.

9.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(5): 716-724, 2017 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29100085

RESUMO

DHX30 is a member of the family of DExH-box helicases, which use ATP hydrolysis to unwind RNA secondary structures. Here we identified six different de novo missense mutations in DHX30 in twelve unrelated individuals affected by global developmental delay (GDD), intellectual disability (ID), severe speech impairment and gait abnormalities. While four mutations are recurrent, two are unique with one affecting the codon of one recurrent mutation. All amino acid changes are located within highly conserved helicase motifs and were found to either impair ATPase activity or RNA recognition in different in vitro assays. Moreover, protein variants exhibit an increased propensity to trigger stress granule (SG) formation resulting in global translation inhibition. Thus, our findings highlight the prominent role of translation control in development and function of the central nervous system and also provide molecular insight into how DHX30 dysfunction might cause a neurodevelopmental disorder.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , RNA Helicases/genética , Adenosina Trifosfatases/genética , Adolescente , Aminoácidos/genética , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , RNA/genética
10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(5): 768-788, 2017 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29100089

RESUMO

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMK2) is one of the first proteins shown to be essential for normal learning and synaptic plasticity in mice, but its requirement for human brain development has not yet been established. Through a multi-center collaborative study based on a whole-exome sequencing approach, we identified 19 exceedingly rare de novo CAMK2A or CAMK2B variants in 24 unrelated individuals with intellectual disability. Variants were assessed for their effect on CAMK2 function and on neuronal migration. For both CAMK2A and CAMK2B, we identified mutations that decreased or increased CAMK2 auto-phosphorylation at Thr286/Thr287. We further found that all mutations affecting auto-phosphorylation also affected neuronal migration, highlighting the importance of tightly regulated CAMK2 auto-phosphorylation in neuronal function and neurodevelopment. Our data establish the importance of CAMK2A and CAMK2B and their auto-phosphorylation in human brain function and expand the phenotypic spectrum of the disorders caused by variants in key players of the glutamatergic signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação/genética , Animais , Encéfalo/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Ácido Glutâmico/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neurônios/patologia , Fosforilação/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética
11.
Brain ; 140(10): 2597-2609, 2017 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28969387

RESUMO

Microlissencephaly is a rare brain malformation characterized by congenital microcephaly and lissencephaly. Microlissencephaly is suspected to result from abnormalities in the proliferation or survival of neural progenitors. Despite the recent identification of six genes involved in microlissencephaly, the pathophysiological basis of this condition remains poorly understood. We performed trio-based whole exome sequencing in seven subjects from five non-consanguineous families who presented with either microcephaly or microlissencephaly. This led to the identification of compound heterozygous mutations in WDR81, a gene previously associated with cerebellar ataxia, intellectual disability and quadrupedal locomotion. Patient phenotypes ranged from severe microcephaly with extremely reduced gyration with pontocerebellar hypoplasia to moderate microcephaly with cerebellar atrophy. In patient fibroblast cells, WDR81 mutations were associated with increased mitotic index and delayed prometaphase/metaphase transition. Similarly, in vivo, we showed that knockdown of the WDR81 orthologue in Drosophila led to increased mitotic index of neural stem cells with delayed mitotic progression. In summary, we highlight the broad phenotypic spectrum of WDR81-related brain malformations, which include microcephaly with moderate to extremely reduced gyration and cerebellar anomalies. Our results suggest that WDR81 might have a role in mitosis that is conserved between Drosophila and humans.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos/citologia , Microcefalia/genética , Microcefalia/patologia , Mitose/genética , Mutação/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Pré-Escolar , Drosophila , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Feminino , Fibroblastos/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Masculino , Microcefalia/diagnóstico por imagem , Células-Tronco Neurais/patologia , Interferência de RNA/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Hum Genet ; 136(4): 377-386, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28251352

RESUMO

Impairment of ubiquitin-proteasome system activity involving ubiquitin ligase genes UBE3A, UBE3B, and HUWE1 and deubiquitinating enzyme genes USP7 and USP9X has been reported in patients with neurodevelopmental delays. To date, only a handful of single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) and copy-number variants (CNVs) involving TRIP12, encoding a member of the HECT domain E3 ubiquitin ligases family on chromosome 2q36.3 have been reported. Using chromosomal microarray analysis and whole-exome sequencing (WES), we have identified, respectively, five deletion CNVs and four inactivating SNVs (two frameshifts, one missense, and one splicing) in TRIP12. Seven of these variants were found to be de novo; parental studies could not be completed in two families. Quantitative PCR analyses of the splicing mutation showed a dramatically decreased level of TRIP12 mRNA in the proband compared to the family controls, indicating a loss-of-function mechanism. The shared clinical features include intellectual disability with or without autistic spectrum disorders, speech delay, and facial dysmorphism. Our findings demonstrate that E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIP12 plays an important role in nervous system development and function. The nine presented pathogenic variants further document that TRIP12 haploinsufficiency causes a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder. Finally, our data enable expansion of the phenotypic spectrum of ubiquitin-proteasome dependent disorders.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Facies , Haploinsuficiência , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/complicações , Masculino
15.
Am J Hum Genet ; 100(4): 676-688, 2017 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28343629

RESUMO

Ubiquitination is a posttranslational modification that regulates many cellular processes including protein degradation, intracellular trafficking, cell signaling, and protein-protein interactions. Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs), which reverse the process of ubiquitination, are important regulators of the ubiquitin system. OTUD6B encodes a member of the ovarian tumor domain (OTU)-containing subfamily of deubiquitinating enzymes. Herein, we report biallelic pathogenic variants in OTUD6B in 12 individuals from 6 independent families with an intellectual disability syndrome associated with seizures and dysmorphic features. In subjects with predicted loss-of-function alleles, additional features include global developmental delay, microcephaly, absent speech, hypotonia, growth retardation with prenatal onset, feeding difficulties, structural brain abnormalities, congenital malformations including congenital heart disease, and musculoskeletal features. Homozygous Otud6b knockout mice were subviable, smaller in size, and had congenital heart defects, consistent with the severity of loss-of-function variants in humans. Analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from an affected subject showed reduced incorporation of 19S subunits into 26S proteasomes, decreased chymotrypsin-like activity, and accumulation of ubiquitin-protein conjugates. Our findings suggest a role for OTUD6B in proteasome function, establish that defective OTUD6B function underlies a multisystemic human disorder, and provide additional evidence for the emerging relationship between the ubiquitin system and human disease.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Endopeptidases/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Linhagem , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/genética , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Convulsões/genética
16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 100(2): 352-363, 2017 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28132691

RESUMO

Degradation of proteins by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is an essential biological process in the development of eukaryotic organisms. Dysregulation of this mechanism leads to numerous human neurodegenerative or neurodevelopmental disorders. Through a multi-center collaboration, we identified six de novo genomic deletions and four de novo point mutations involving PSMD12, encoding the non-ATPase subunit PSMD12 (aka RPN5) of the 19S regulator of 26S proteasome complex, in unrelated individuals with intellectual disability, congenital malformations, ophthalmologic anomalies, feeding difficulties, deafness, and subtle dysmorphic facial features. We observed reduced PSMD12 levels and an accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins without any impairment of proteasome catalytic activity. Our PSMD12 loss-of-function zebrafish CRISPR/Cas9 model exhibited microcephaly, decreased convolution of the renal tubules, and abnormal craniofacial morphology. Our data support the biological importance of PSMD12 as a scaffolding subunit in proteasome function during development and neurogenesis in particular; they enable the definition of a neurodevelopmental disorder due to PSMD12 variants, expanding the phenotypic spectrum of UPS-dependent disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/genética , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Microcefalia/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Peixe-Zebra/genética
17.
Am J Hum Genet ; 99(3): 720-727, 2016 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27545676

RESUMO

SON is a key component of the spliceosomal complex and a critical mediator of constitutive and alternative splicing. Additionally, SON has been shown to influence cell-cycle progression, genomic integrity, and maintenance of pluripotency in stem cell populations. The clear functional relevance of SON in coordinating essential cellular processes and its presence in diverse human tissues suggests that intact SON might be crucial for normal growth and development. However, the phenotypic effects of deleterious germline variants in SON have not been clearly defined. Herein, we describe seven unrelated individuals with de novo variants in SON and propose that deleterious variants in SON are associated with a severe multisystem disorder characterized by developmental delay, persistent feeding difficulties, and congenital malformations, including brain anomalies.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Insuficiência de Crescimento/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/genética , Deleção de Sequência/genética , Adolescente , Encéfalo/anormalidades , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/química , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/química , Linhagem , Adulto Jovem
18.
Am J Hum Genet ; 98(5): 1001-1010, 2016 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27108799

RESUMO

Whole-exome sequencing of 13 individuals with developmental delay commonly accompanied by abnormal muscle tone and seizures identified de novo missense mutations enriched within a sub-region of GNB1, a gene encoding the guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit beta-1, Gß. These 13 individuals were identified among a base of 5,855 individuals recruited for various undiagnosed genetic disorders. The probability of observing 13 or more de novo mutations by chance among 5,855 individuals is very low (p = 7.1 × 10(-21)), implicating GNB1 as a genome-wide-significant disease-associated gene. The majority of these 13 mutations affect known Gß binding sites, which suggests that a likely disease mechanism is through the disruption of the protein interface required for Gα-Gßγ interaction (resulting in a constitutively active Gßγ) or through the disruption of residues relevant for interaction between Gßγ and certain downstream effectors (resulting in reduced interaction with the effectors). Strikingly, 8 of the 13 individuals recruited here for a neurodevelopmental disorder have a germline de novo GNB1 mutation that overlaps a set of five recurrent somatic tumor mutations for which recent functional studies demonstrated a gain-of-function effect due to constitutive activation of G protein downstream signaling cascades for some of the affected residues.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/etiologia , Subunidades beta da Proteína de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/etiologia , Hipotonia Muscular/etiologia , Convulsões/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Subunidades beta da Proteína de Ligação ao GTP/química , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Masculino , Hipotonia Muscular/patologia , Fenótipo , Conformação Proteica , Convulsões/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Adulto Jovem
19.
Hum Mutat ; 37(4): 354-8, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26751395

RESUMO

A rare syndromic form of intellectual disability with impaired speech was recently found associated with mutations in CHAMP1 (chromosome alignment-maintaining phosphoprotein 1), the protein product of which is directly involved in microtubule-kinetochore attachment. Through whole-exome sequencing in six unrelated nonconsanguineous families having a sporadic case of intellectual disability, we identified six novel de novo truncating mutations in CHAMP1: c.1880C>G p.(Ser627*), c.1489C>T; p.(Arg497*), c.1876_1877delAG; p.(Ser626Leufs*4), c.1043G>A; p.(Trp348*), c.1002G>A; p.(Trp334*), and c.958_959delCC; p.(Pro320*). Our clinical observations confirm the phenotypic homogeneity of the syndrome, which represents therefore a distinct clinical entity. Besides, our functional studies show that CHAMP1 protein variants are delocalized from chromatin and are unable to bind to two of its direct partners, POGZ and HP1. These data suggest a pathogenic mechanism of the CHAMP1-associated intellectual disability syndrome mediated by direct interacting partners of CHAMP1, several of which are involved in chromo/kinetochore-related disorders.


Assuntos
Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Deleção de Sequência , Alelos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exoma , Facies , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Masculino , Fenótipo , Síndrome
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