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1.
Cardiol Res Pract ; 2020: 6417874, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32695504

RESUMO

Background: Few studies regarding chronic kidney disease (CKD) and anemia have been conducted in patients with Chagas cardiomyopathy (CC). We evaluated the risk prediction performance of the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation and anemia in CC patients. Methods: From 2000 to 2010, a total of 232 patients were studied in a single-center retrospective study. CKD was defined as creatinine clearance <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 according to CKD-EPI equation. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin <12 g/dL (women) and <13 g/dL (men). Cox proportional hazards models were used to establish predictors for death. Results: At baseline, 98 individuals (42.2%) had criteria for CKD and 41 (17.7%) for anemia. During follow-up, 136 patients (58.6%) died. Independently, CKD and anemia were not associated with all-cause mortality. However, when they coexisted, an additional risk was attributed for these patients. Cox proportional hazard models analysis identified systolic blood pressure (hazard ratio, 0.99; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.98 to 1.00; P=0.015), implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (hazard ratio, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.27 to 0.85; P=0.012), left anterior fascicular block (hazard ratio, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.08 to 2.13; P=0.017), left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.06; P < 0.001), and serum sodium (hazard ratio, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.92 to 0.99; P=0.020) as independent predictors for death. Conclusions: CKD and anemia are not independent predictors for long-term mortality in CC patients. However, the prognosis is poorer in individuals with both comorbidities.

2.
ESC Heart Fail ; 7(5): 2331-2339, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608119

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to develop and validate a simple method for predicting long-term all-cause mortality in ambulatory patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) residing in an area where Chagas disease is endemic, which will be important not only for patients living in Latin America but also to those living in developed non-endemic countries. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 677 patients with a wide spectrum of aetiologies for left ventricular systolic dysfunction and receiving optimized evidence-based treatment for CHF were prospectively followed for approximately 11 years. We established a risk score using Cox proportional hazard regression models. After multivariable analysis, four variables were independently associated with mortality and included in the CALL Risk Score: Chagas cardiomyopathy aetiology alone [hazard ratio, 3.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.61-4.33; P < 0.001], age ≥60 years (hazard ratio, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.06-1.74; P = 0.016), left anterior fascicular block (hazard ratio, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.27-2.11; P < 0.001), and left ventricular ejection fraction <40% (hazard ratio, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.30-2.28; P < 0.001). The internal validation considered the bootstrapping, a resampling technique recommended for prediction model development. Hence, we established a scoring system attributing weights according to each risk factor: 3 points for Chagas cardiomyopathy alone, 1 point for age ≥60 years, and 2 points each for left anterior fascicular block and left ventricular ejection fraction <40%. Three risk groups were identified: low risk (score ≤2 points), intermediate risk (score of 3 to 5 points), and high risk (score ≥6 points). High-risk patients had more than two-fold increase in mortality (26.9 events/100 patient-years) compared with intermediate-risk patients (10.1 events/100 patient-years) and almost seven-fold increase compared with low-risk patients (4.3 events/100 patient-years). The CALL Risk Score data sets from the development and internal validation cohorts both displayed suitable discrimination c-index of 0.689 (95% CI, 0.688-0.690; P < 0.001) and 0.687 (95% CI, 0.686-0.688; P < 0.001), respectively, and satisfactory calibration [Greenwood-Nam-D'Agostino test (8) = 7.867; P = 0.447] and [Greenwood-Nam-D'Agostino test (8) = 10.08; P = 0.273], respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The CALL Risk Score represents a simple and validated method with a limited number of non-invasive variables that successfully predicts long-term all-cause mortality in a real-world cohort of patients with CHF. Patients with CHF stratified as high risk according to the CALL Risk Score should be monitored and aggressively managed, including those with CHF secondary to Chagas disease.

3.
Cardiol J ; 2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of left ventricular reverse remodeling (LVRR) on the prognosis of Chagas cardiomyopathy is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether the presence of LVRR can predict mortality in these patients. METHODS: From January 2000 to December 2010, the medical charts of 159 patients were reviewed. LVRR was defined as an increase of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and a decrease of left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVDD) by two-dimensional echocardiography. No patient underwent cardiac resynchronization therapy or required mechanical ventricular assistance. RESULTS: At baseline, median (25th-75th) LVDD was 64 mm (59-70), and median LVEF was 33.2% (26.4-40.1). LVRR was detected in 24.5% of patients in a 40-month (26-64) median follow-up. In the LVRR group, LVDD decreased from 64mm (59-68) to 60 mm (56-65; p < 0.001), and LVEF increased from 31.3% (24.1-39.0) to 42.5% (32.2-47.7; p < 0.001). However, LVRR was not associated with heart failure hospitalization, cardiogenic shock, heart transplantation, or mortality (p > 0.05 for all comparisons). The Cox proportional hazard model analysis identified only cardiogenic shock (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.41; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.51-3.85; p < 0.001) and serum sodium level (hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% CI: 0.86-0.96; p < 0.001) as independent predictors of all-cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Left ventricular reverse remodeling occurs in one quarter of patients with Chagas cardiomyopathy and have no impact on the outcome of patients with this condition.

4.
Platelets ; 31(2): 272-275, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538834

RESUMO

Human platelet antigen (HPA) polymorphisms are considered to be a risk factor for cardiac and vascular diseases, but the role of HPA in chronic Chagas disease cardiomyopathy (CCC) is not available. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the association of HPA polymorphisms, HPA-1, HPA-2, HPA-3, HPA-5 and HPA-15, in the severity of left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) in CCC patients. For this, 229 CCC patients were separated into three groups: without LVSD, mild/moderate LVSD and severe LVSD. PCR-SSP was performed for HPA genotyping and the risk was assessed using SNPStats software. HPA-1 allele and genotype frequencies were lower in mild/moderate LVSD patients compared to other groups, without statistical significance. After stratified analyzes, the HPA-3a/3b genotype frequency was lower in women with severe LVSD compared to those without LVSD (OR:0.29; 95% CI: 0.10-0.84). In conclusion, HPA-3 variant could be a protection factor for CCC in the female patients.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Plaquetas Humanas/genética , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/genética , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/patologia , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
5.
Rev. bras. educ. méd ; 44(4): e143, 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137560

RESUMO

Abstract: Introduction: Problem-based learning (PBL) is a collaborative student-centered learning method for small groups, based on the mobilization of previous knowledge and on critical reasoning for problem solving. Although it has been used predominantly in the classroom, when applied in clinical studies, PBL can increase the intrinsic motivation and long-term knowledge retention. In addition, Clinical PBL represents a more effective option to learn from practice considering the students' overload in clinical clerkships in the Unified Health System (UHS). This study aimed to assess the students' perception of a Clinical PBL model implemented in Primary Health Care (PHC) clerkships during the first four years of the Medical Course at the University of Ribeirão Preto (UNAERP) in 2017. Method: The primary outcome was assessed by the DREEM (Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure) tool, which contains 50 items distributed in five dimensions. The questionnaire was applied to 374 medical students, corresponding to 78% of the total number of medical students from the first to the fourth year. Results: For most of the evaluated items, the students' perceptions were "positive", including the dimensions "Perception of Teachers", "Perception of Academic Results" and "Perception of the General Environment". For the dimensions "Perception of Learning" and "Perception of Social Relationships" the evaluation was "more positive than negative". The DREEM total score was 124.31, corresponding to 62.15% of the maximum score, which indicates a perception that is "more positive than negative" regarding the Clinical PBL. The internal consistency given by Cronbach's alpha was 0.92. Conclusion: The use of Clinical PBL in PHC qualifies learning from practice, is well accepted by medical students and offers a useful option to the students' overload in the clinical clerkship during the first four years of the Medical School.


Resumo: Introdução: A aprendizagem baseada em problemas (do inglês problem-based learning - PBL) é um método de aprendizagem colaborativa para pequenos grupos, centrado no estudante, fundamentado na mobilização de conhecimentos prévios e no raciocínio crítico para a solução de problemas. Embora tenha sido utilizado predominantemente em sala de aula, quando aplicado em estágios clínicos, o PBL pode aumentar a motivação intrínseca e a retenção de conhecimento em longo prazo pelos estudantes. Além disso, o PBL clínico pode representar uma opção mais efetiva de aprendizado a partir da prática ante a sobrecarga de alunos nos estágios clínicos no Sistema Único de Saúde. Este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a percepção dos estudantes sobre um modelo de PBL clínico implementado em estágios de atenção primária à saúde (APS) no pré-internato do curso de Medicina da Universidade de Ribeirão Preto (Unaerp) em 2017. Método: O desfecho primário foi avaliado por meio do instrumento Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure (DREEM), que contém 50 itens distribuídos em cinco dimensões. O questionário foi aplicado a 374 alunos de Medicina que correspondem a 78% do total de estudantes do pré-internato. Resultados: Para a maioria dos itens avaliados, a percepção dos foi "positiva", incluindo as dimensões "percepção dos professores", "percepção dos resultados acadêmicos" e "percepção do ambiente geral". Para as dimensões "percepção da aprendizagem" e "percepção das relações sociais", a avaliação foi "mais positiva do que negativa". O escore total das respostas foi de 124,31, correspondendo a 62,15% do escore máximo, o que indica uma percepção "mais positiva do que negativa" sobre a atividade. A consistência interna dada pelo alfa de Cronbach foi de 0,92. Conclusão: O uso do PBL clínico em APS qualifica o aprendizado a partir da prática, é bem-aceito pelos estudantes de Medicina e oferece uma opção viável à sobrecarga de alunos em estágios clínicos do pré-internato.

6.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 43(4): 451-457, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460778

RESUMO

Over the years, much criticism against animal use for physiology teaching has been made. Hence, replacement by suitable alternatives has increased in several pedagogical approaches. This study examined students' perceptions of animal versus virtual (video/computer) laboratory classes in physiological sciences associated with the effectiveness of the problem-based learning (PBL) hybrid curriculum. Three cohorts of medical students from the University of Ribeirão Preto, who participated in animal or virtual physiology classes or both, were asked to fill out a 5-point Likert questionnaire about knowledge acquisition/motivation, importance to PBL learning goals, skills acquired, need for animal use, academic formation, learning impairment, and alternative methods. We also assessed their grades in the final exam. A total of 350 students were included, in which 108 participated only in virtual classes, 120 only in practical animal laboratory classes, and 122 in both approaches. The majority agreed that the two methods improved their knowledge acquisition/motivation and helped to reinforce tutorial goals and to acquire skills. However, the cohort who experienced both approaches favored animal laboratory. Students believe animal use is needed and did not impair their learning. Conversely, their opinion about academic formation without animal laboratory classes was divided, as was whether this approach inspired them to seek alternative methods. Despite the different perceptions, there was no difference among the groups' final grades (7.3 ± 1 vs. 7.2 ± 1 vs. 7.2 ± 2 for virtual or practical animal laboratory classes or both, respectively). Therefore, virtual activities are not as effective as animal use in the opinions of the students, but they are successful strategies in physiology learning that can be used in practical classes in a hybrid PBL curriculum.


Assuntos
Currículo , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Modelos Animais , Fisiologia/educação , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção , Ratos , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 13(8): 759-763, 2019 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069262

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Dengue virus infection (DENV) is an arboviral disease that affects millions of people in many countries throughout the world every year. The disease is caused by the bite of a mosquito (Aedes aegypti and / or Aedes albopictus). The symptoms/signs observed in this arboviral disease are unspecific, and the blood count usually shows leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. Although ECG changes may be observed in DENV, little is known about parameters of ventricular repolarization in patients with this condition. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to evaluate the QTc and QT interval dispersion to detect ventricular repolarization changes in patients with DENV. METHODOLOGY: Ninety-three consecutive patients seen during DENV epidemics in a small town with non-complicated DENV were included; 93 normal individuals served as controls. Clinical data, blood count and the 12-lead ECG were obtained from each individual. RESULTS: The QTc duration was higher in patients with DENV in comparison to controls. Furthermore, 5% of DENV patients had abnormal lengthening of the QTc interval. No difference regarding QT interval dispersion was observed between DENV patients and controls. No DENV patient had increased lengthening of the QT interval dispersion. CONCLUSIONS: Myocardial repolarization changes do occur in patients with DENV. Having into account the potential impact of these changes on patients' outcome, and because 12-lead ECG is not routinely recommended in the setting of DENV in our country, we recommend that a 12-lead ECG be taken from each patient with this condition during DENV epidemics.


Assuntos
Dengue/patologia , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/fisiopatologia , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
9.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 111(3): 436-539, 2018 09.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30379264
10.
Molecules ; 23(2)2018 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29385675

RESUMO

Gastric cancer is one of the most frequent malignant tumors in the world. The majority of patients are diagnosed with metastatic gastric cancer, which has a low survival rate. These data reinforce the importance of studying the anticancer activity of new molecules with the potential to suppress gastric cancer metastasis. Curcumin is a well-studied compound that has demonstrated anti-metastatic effects. Here we investigated if CH-5, a curcumin derivative compound, has anti-metastatic properties in the human gastric cancer cell line HGC-27. Firstly, we found that CH-5 decreased viability and induced apoptosis in HGC-27 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, CH-5 suppressed the migration and invasion of HGC-27 cells by downregulating the expression and collagenase activity of matrix metalloproteinase 2 in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, CH-5 showed anticancer activities, including the induction of apoptosis, and the suppression of migration and invasion in HGC-27 cells, suggesting that CH-5 can be a lead molecule for the development of anti-metastatic drugs for gastric cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Curcumina , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Curcumina/análogos & derivados , Curcumina/química , Curcumina/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Invasividade Neoplásica , Neoplasias Gástricas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia
12.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 70(12): 1510-1524, 2017 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28911515

RESUMO

Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) infection is endemic in Latin America and is becoming a worldwide health burden. It may lead to heterogeneous phenotypes. Early diagnosis of T. cruzi infection is crucial. Several biomarkers have been reported in Chagas heart disease (ChHD), but most are nonspecific for T. cruzi infection. Prognosis of ChHD patients is worse compared with other etiologies, with sudden cardiac death as an important mode of death. Most ChHD patients display diffuse myocarditis with fibrosis and hypertrophy. The remodeling process seems to be associated with etiopathogenic mechanisms and neurohormonal activation. Pharmacological treatment and antiarrhythmic therapy for ChHD is mostly based on results for other etiologies. Heart transplantation is an established, valuable therapeutic option in refractory ChHD. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators are indicated for prevention of secondary sudden cardiac death. Specific etiological treatments should be revisited and reserved for select patients. Understanding and management of ChHD need improvement, including development of randomized trials.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/etiologia , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/terapia , Arritmias Cardíacas/etiologia , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/complicações , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/diagnóstico , Doença Crônica , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Humanos , Prognóstico
13.
J Immunol Res ; 2017: 1017621, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28470012

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate possible associations between genetic polymorphisms of IL17A G197A (rs2275913) and IL17F T7488C (rs763780) with Chagas Disease (CD) and/or the severity of left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) in patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC). The study with 260 patients and 150 controls was conducted in the South and Southeast regions of Brazil. The genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP. The A allele and A/A genotype of IL17A were significantly increased in patients and their subgroups (patients with CCC; patients with CCC and LVSD; and patients with CCC and severe LVSD) when compared to the control group. The analysis according to the gender showed that the A/A genotype of IL17A was more frequent in female with LVSD and mild to moderate LVSD and also in male patients with LVSD. The frequency of IL17F T/C genotype was higher in male patients with CCC and severe LVSD and in female with mild to moderate LVSD. The results suggest the possible involvement of the polymorphisms of IL17A and IL17F in the susceptibility to chronic Chagas disease and in development and progression of cardiomyopathy.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Interleucina-17/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/complicações , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/parasitologia , Doença de Chagas/complicações , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Caracteres Sexuais , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/parasitologia
14.
Cytokine ; 91: 51-56, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28002786

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the plasma levels of the CCL3 and CCL4 chemokines in patients with the cardiac and digestive clinical forms of chronic Chagas disease and in cardiac patients with and without left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD). Plasma samples from 75 patients were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to confirm infection by T. cruzi. Plasma levels of the CCL3 and CCL4 chemokines were measured using Milliplex® MAP assay (Millipore). There were no significant differences in the levels of CCL3 and CCL4 between patients with the digestive and cardiac clinical forms of Chagas disease. Moreover, no significant differences were found between patients without LVSD and those with LVSD. Higher CCL3 and CCL4 plasma levels were found in patients with LVSD compared to those with the digestive form of the disease. The CCL3 and CCL4 chemokines might not be involved in differential susceptibility to the digestive and cardiac clinical forms of chronic Chagas disease, and it seems they do not influence the development of LVSD.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/sangue , Quimiocina CCL3/sangue , Quimiocina CCL4/sangue , Gastroenteropatias/sangue , Trypanosoma cruzi , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Infect Genet Evol ; 45: 170-175, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27566333

RESUMO

Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, can affect the heart, esophagus and colon. The reasons that some patients develop different clinical forms or remain asymptomatic are unclear. It is believed that tissue immunogenetic markers influence the tropism of T. cruzi for different organs. ABO, Secretor and Lewis histo-blood group systems express a variety of tissue carbohydrate antigens that influence the susceptibility or resistance to diseases. This study aimed to examine the association of ABO, secretor and Lewis histo-blood systems with the clinical forms of Chagas disease. We enrolled 339 consecutive adult patients with chronic Chagas disease regardless of gender (cardiomyopathy: n=154; megaesophagus: n=119; megacolon: n=66). The control group was composed by 488 healthy blood donors. IgG anti-T. cruzi antibodies were detected by ELISA. ABO and Lewis phenotypes were defined by standard hemagglutination tests. Secretor (FUT2) and Lewis (FUT3) genotypes, determined by Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), were used to infer the correct histo-blood group antigens expressed in the gastrointestinal tract. The proportions between groups were compared using the χ2 test with Yates correction and Fisher's exact test and the Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) were calculated. An alpha error of 5% was considered significant with p-values <0.05 being corrected for multiple comparisons (pc). No statistically significant differences were found for the ABO (X2: 2.635; p-value=0.451), Secretor (X2: 0.056; p-value=0.812) or Lewis (X2: 2.092; p-value=0.351) histo-blood group phenotypes between patients and controls. However, B plus AB Secretor phenotypes were prevalent in pooled data from megaesophagus and megacolon patients (OR: 5.381; 95% CI: 1.230-23.529; p-value=0.011; pc=0.022) in comparison to A plus O Secretor phenotypes. The tissue antigen variability resulting from the combined action of ABO and Secretor histo-blood systems is associated with the digestive forms of Chagas disease.


Assuntos
Sistema ABO de Grupos Sanguíneos , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Fucosiltransferases/genética , Antígenos do Grupo Sanguíneo de Lewis , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença de Chagas/genética , Doença de Chagas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 10(11): e0141847, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26599761

RESUMO

The clinical manifestations of chronic Chagas disease include the cardiac form of the disease and the digestive form. Not all the factors that act in the variable clinical course of this disease are known. This study investigated whether the CCR5Δ32 (rs333) and CCR5 59029 A/G (promoter region--rs1799987) polymorphisms of the CCR5 gene are associated with different clinical forms of chronic Chagas disease and with the severity of left ventricular systolic dysfunction in patients with chronic Chagas heart disease (CCHD). The antibodies anti-T. cruzi were identified by ELISA. PCR and PCR-RFLP were used to identify the CCR5Δ32 and CCR5 59029 A/G polymorphisms. The chi-square test was used to compare variables between groups. There was a higher frequency of the AA genotype in patients with CCHD compared with patients with the digestive form of the disease and the control group. The results also showed a high frequency of the AG genotype in patients with the digestive form of the disease compared to the other groups. The results of this study show that the CCR5Δ32 polymorphism does not seem to influence the different clinical manifestations of Chagas disease but there is involvement of the CCR5 59029 A/G polymorphism in susceptibility to the different forms of chronic Chagas disease. Besides, these polymorphisms do not influence left ventricular systolic dysfunction in patients with CCHD.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/genética , Doença de Chagas/genética , Doenças do Sistema Digestório/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Receptores CCR5/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/fisiopatologia , Doença de Chagas/fisiopatologia , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Genes Dominantes , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Padrões de Herança/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Genéticos , Sístole
19.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 103(6): 538-545, 12/2014. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-732167

RESUMO

Our knowledge regarding the anatomophysiology of the cardiovascular system (CVS) has progressed since the fourth millennium BC. In Egypt (3500 BC), it was believed that a set of channels are interconnected to the heart, transporting air, urine, air, blood, and the soul. One thousand years later, the heart was established as the center of the CVS by the Hippocratic Corpus in the medical school of Kos, and some of the CVS anatomical characteristics were defined. The CVS was known to transport blood via the right ventricle through veins and the pneuma via the left ventricle through arteries. Two hundred years later, in Alexandria, following the development of human anatomical dissection, Herophilus discovered that arteries were 6 times thicker than veins, and Erasistratus described the semilunar valves, emphasizing that arteries were filled with blood when ventricles were empty. Further, 200 years later, Galen demonstrated that arteries contained blood and not air. With the decline of the Roman Empire, Greco-Roman medical knowledge about the CVS was preserved in Persia, and later in Islam where, Ibn Nafis inaccurately described pulmonary circulation. The resurgence of dissection of the human body in Europe in the 14th century was associated with the revival of the knowledge pertaining to the CVS. The main findings were the description of pulmonary circulation by Servetus, the anatomical discoveries of Vesalius, the demonstration of pulmonary circulation by Colombo, and the discovery of valves in veins by Fabricius. Following these developments, Harvey described blood circulation.


O conhecimento da anatomofisiologia do Sistema Cardiovascular (SCV) progride desde o quarto milênio AC. No Egito (3500 AC), acreditava-se que um conjunto de canais conectava-se ao coração, transportando ar, urina, ar, sangue e a alma. Mil anos após, o Corpo Hipocrático, na escola médica de Kós, estabeleceu o coração como o centro do SCV, definindo algumas características deste órgão. O SCV transportava sangue via ventrículo direito pelas veias, e o pneuma via ventrículo esquerdo pelas artérias. Duzentos anos depois, em Alexandria, com o aparecimento da dissecção anatômica do corpo humano, Herophilus descobriu que as artérias eram seis vezes mais espessas que as veias, enquanto que Erasistratus descreveu as válvulas semilunares, enfatizando que as artérias eram preenchidas por sangue quando o ventrículo esquerdo se esvaziava. Duzentos anos depois, Galeno demonstrou que as artérias continham sangue, não ar. Com o declínio do Império Romano, todo o conhecimento médico Greco-romano do SCV foi preservado na Pérsia, e posteriormente no Islã, onde Ibn-Nafis descreveu incompletamente a circulação pulmonar. Aqui, deve-se enfatizar a incompleta descrição da circulação pulmonar por Ibn-Nafis. A ressurgência da dissecção do corpo humano na Europa no século XIV é associada ao renascimento do conhecimento do SCV. Os principais marcos foram a descrição da circulação pulmonar por Servetus, as descobertas anatômicas de Vesalius, a demonstração da circulação pulmonar por Colombo, e a descoberta das válvulas das veias por Fabricius. Tal contexto abriu o caminho para Harvey descobrir a circulação do sangue.


Assuntos
História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Anatomia/história , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Sistema Cardiovascular/anatomia & histologia , Fisiologia/história , Cardiologia/história , Egito , Grécia , Ilustração Médica , Mundo Romano
20.
Med Educ Online ; 19: 24366, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24931596

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite being a well-established pedagogical approach in medical education, the implementation of problem-based learning (PBL) approaches hinges not only on educational aspects of the medical curriculum but also on the characteristics and necessities of the health system and the medical labor market within which it is situated. AIM: To report our experiences implementing a PBL-based approach in a region of Brazil where: 1) all pre-university education and the vast majority of medical courses are based on traditional, lecture-based instructions; and 2) students' career interests in primary care, arguably the prototypical PBL trainee, are heavily disfavored because of economics. RESULTS: Brazilian guidelines require that clinical training take place during the last 2 years of the medical program and include intensive, supervised, inpatient and outpatient rotations in pediatrics, family medicine, obstetrics and gynecology, internal medicine, and surgery. Throughout the pre-clinical curriculum, then, students learn to deal with progressively more difficult and complex cases--typically through the use of PBL tutors in a primary care context. However, because of curricular time constraints in the clerkships, and students' general preoccupation with specialty practice, the continuation of PBL-based approaches in the pre-clinical years--and the expansion of PBL into the clerkships--has become exceedingly difficult. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Our experience illustrates the importance of context (both cultural and structural) in implementing certain pedagogies within one Brazilian training program. We plan to address these barriers by: 1) integrating units, whenever possible, within a spiral curriculum; 2) introducing real patients earlier in students' pre-clinical coursework (primarily in a primary care setting); and 3) using subject experts as PBL tutors to better motivate students.


Assuntos
Educação Médica/organização & administração , Médicos de Atenção Primária/educação , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/organização & administração , Brasil , Competência Clínica , Cultura , Currículo , Humanos , Integração de Sistemas , Universidades
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