Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 59
Filtrar
1.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 36, 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although transitional care interventions can improve health among patients hospitalized with acute conditions, few interventions use patient quality of life (QOL) as the primary outcome. Existing interventions use a variety of intervention components, are not effective for patients of all races and ethnicities, do not address age-related patient needs, and do not incorporate the needs of families. The purpose of this study was to systematically review characteristics of transitional care intervention studies that aimed to improve QOL for younger adult patients of all race and ethnicities who were hospitalized with acute conditions. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted of empirical literature available in PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO by November 19, 2019 to identify studies of hospital to home care transitions with QOL as the primary outcome. Data extraction on study design and intervention components was limited to studies of patients aged 18-64. RESULTS: Nineteen articles comprising 17 studies met inclusion criteria. There were a total of 3,122 patients across all studies (range: 28-536). Populations of focus included cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, stroke, breast cancer, and kidney disease. Seven QOL instruments were identified. All interventions were multi-component with a total of 31 different strategies used. Most interventions were facilitated by a registered nurse. Seven studies discussed intervention facilitator training and eight discussed intervention materials utilized. No studies specified cultural tailoring of interventions or analyzed findings by racial/ethnic subgroup. CONCLUSIONS: Future research is needed to determine which intervention components, either in isolation or in combination, are effective in improving QOL. Future studies should also elaborate on the background and training of intervention facilitators and on materials utilized and may also consider incorporating differences in culture, race and ethnicity into all phases of the research process in an effort to address and reduce any health disparities.

2.
Clin Rehabil ; : 269215520988679, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33472414

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify areas to improve the transition from acute hospital care to home for patients with traumatic brain injury and their families. DESIGN: Qualitative, descriptive. SETTING: Level I trauma centered located in the Southeastern United States. SUBJECTS: A total of 36 participants (12 patients with traumatic brain injury, 8 family caregivers, 16 providers). MAIN MEASURES: We conducted 55 semi-structured interviews with participants and used conventional content analysis to analyze the data. RESULTS: Findings showed patients, families, and providers recommend three areas for improvement in the transition home from acute hospital care, described in three themes. Theme 1 was "improving patient and family education," with the following sub-themes: (a) TBI-related information and (b) discharge preparation. Theme 2 was "additional provider guidance," with the following sub-themes: (a) communication about patient's recovery timeline and (b) recovery roadmap development. Theme 3 was "increasing systems-level support," with the following sub-themes: (a) scheduling follow-up appointments, (b) using a patient navigator, (c) creating a provider follow-up structure, (d) linking pre-discharge care with post-discharge resources, and (e) addressing social issues. CONCLUSIONS: These findings delineate multiple areas where patients and families need additional support and education during the transition from acute hospital care to home in ways that are currently not being addressed. Findings may be used to improve education and support from providers and health systems given to patients with traumatic brain injury and families and to inform development and testing of transitional care interventions from acute hospital care to home.

3.
J Surg Educ ; 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454284

RESUMO

Diversifying clinical residencies, particularly in fields that are historically dominated by majority male (M/M) cohorts, is critical to improve both the training experiences of residents and the overall physician workforce. Orthopedic surgery in particular has low numbers of females and under-represented minorities (F/URM) at all levels of training and practice. Despite efforts to increase its diversity, this field has become more homogeneous in recent years. To highlight potential barriers and disparate training environments that may contribute to this dynamic, we present 25 years' worth of institutional data on standardized exam performance throughout residency. We report that despite starting residency with standardized exam scores that were comparable to their M/M peers, F/URM orthopedic surgery residents performed progressively worse on Orthopaedic In-service Training Exams throughout residency and had lower first pass rates on the American Board of Orthopedic Surgery Part 1. Given these findings, we propose that disparate performance on standardized test scores throughout residency could identify trainees that may have different experiences that negatively impact their exam performance. Shedding light on these underlying disparities provides opportunities to find meaningful and sustained ways to develop a culture of diversity and inclusion. It may also allow for other programs to identify similar patterns within their training programs. Overall, we propose monitoring test performance on standardized exams throughout orthopedic surgery residency to identify potential disparities in training experience; further, we acknowledge that interventions to mitigate these disparities require a broad, systems wide approach and a firm institutional commitment to reducing bias and working toward sustainable change.

4.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(3): 105551, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348248

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The efficacy of thrombolytic therapy with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is highly time dependent. Although clinical guidelines do not recommend written informed consent as it may cause treatment delays, local policy can supersede and require it. From 2014 to 2017, three out of five public hospitals in Singapore changed from written to verbal consent at different time points. We aimed to examine the association of hospital policy changes regarding informed consent on door-to-needle (DTN) times. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using data from the Singapore Stroke Registry and surveys of local practice, we analyzed data of 915 acute ischemic stroke patients treated with tPA within 3 hours in all public hospitals between July 2014 to Dec 2017. Patient-level DTN times before and after policy changes were examined while adjusting for clinical characteristics, within-hospital clustering, and trends over time. RESULTS: Patient characteristics and stroke severity were similar before and after the policy changes. Overall, the median DTN times decreased from 68 to 53 minutes after the policy changes. After risk adjustment, changing from written to verbal informed consent was associated with a 5.6 minutes reduction (95% CI 1.1-10.0) in DTN times. After the policy changed, the percentage of patients with DTN ≤60 minutes and ≤45 minutes increased from 35.6% to 66.1% (adjusted OR 1.75; 95% CI 1.12-2.74) and 9.3% to 36.0% (adjusted OR 2.42; 95% CI 1.37-4.25), respectively. CONCLUSION: Changing from written to verbal consent is associated with significant improvement in the timeliness of tPA administration in acute ischemic stroke.

5.
Fam Community Health ; 44(2): 78-80, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351516

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of social determinants of health in affecting health outcomes. Populations with high social risk are disproportionately impacted by the virus and its economic consequences. Primary care practices have a unique opportunity to implement interventions to mitigate their patients' unmet social needs, such as food and income insecurity. In this commentary, we outline key considerations for clinics implementing programs that identify and address patients' social needs in a way that promotes equity, quality, and sustainability. We provide examples from our own experience at a federally qualified health center.


Assuntos
Equidade em Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Encaminhamento e Consulta/organização & administração , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Seguridade Social , Humanos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias , Pobreza , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
6.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(12): 105399, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited real-world data are available on outcomes following non-cardioembolic minor ischemic stroke (IS) or high-risk transient ischemic attack (TIA), particularly in the United States (US). We examined outcomes and Medicare payments following any severity IS or TIA as well as the subgroup with minor IS or high-risk TIA. METHODS: Medicare beneficiaries >65 years were identified using US nationwide Get with the Guidelines (GWTG)-Stroke Registry linked to Medicare claims data. The cohort consisted of patients enrolled in Medicare fee-for-service plan, hospitalized with non-cardioembolic IS or TIA between 2011 and 2014, segmenting a subgroup with minor IS (National Institute of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS] ≤5) or high-risk TIA (ABCD2-score ≥6) compatible with the THALES clinical trial population. Outcomes included functional status at discharge, clinical outcomes (all-cause mortality, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke, individually and as a composite), hospitalizations, and population average inpatient Medicare payments following non-cardioembolic IS or TIA. RESULTS: The THALES-compatible cohort included 62,518 patients from 1471 hospitals. At discharge, 37.0% were unable to ambulate without assistance, and 96.2% were prescribed antiplatelet therapy. Cumulative incidences at 30 days, 90 days, and 1 year for the composite outcome were 3.7%, 7.6%, and 17.2% and 2.4%, 4.0%, and 7.3% for subsequent stroke. The mean Medicare payment for the index hospitalization was $7951. The cumulative all-cause inpatient Medicare spending per patient (with or without any subsequent admission) at 30 days and 1 year from discharge was $1451 and $8105, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The burden of illness for minor IS/high-risk TIA patients indicates an important unmet need. Improved therapeutic options may offer a significant impact on both patient outcomes and Medicare spending.

7.
Stroke Vasc Neurol ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term outcomes for Medicare beneficiaries hospitalised with transient ischaemic attack (TIA) and role of ABCD2 score in identifying high-risk individuals are not studied. METHODS: We identified 40 825 Medicare beneficiaries hospitalised from 2011 to 2014 for a TIA to a Get With The Guidelines (GWTG)-Stroke hospital and classified them using ABCD2 score. Proportional hazards models were used to assess 1-year event rates of mortality and rehospitalisation (all-cause, ischaemic stroke, haemorrhagic stroke, myocardial infarction, and gastrointestinal and intracranial haemorrhage) for high-risk versus low-risk groups adjusted for patient and hospital characteristics. RESULTS: Of the 40 825 patients, 35 118 (86%) were high risk (ABCD2 ≥4) and 5707 (14%) were low risk (ABCD2=0-3). Overall rate of mortality during 1-year follow-up after hospital discharge for the index TIA was 11.7%, 44.3% were rehospitalised for any reason and 3.6% were readmitted due to stroke. Patients with ABCD2 score ≥4 had higher mortality at 1 year than not (adjusted HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.30). Adjusted risks for ischaemic stroke, all-cause readmission and mortality/all-cause readmission at 1 year were also significantly higher for patients with ABCD2 score ≥4 vs 0-3. In contrast, haemorrhagic stroke, myocardial infarction, gastrointestinal bleeding and intracranial haemorrhage risk were not significantly different by ABCD2 score. CONCLUSIONS: This study validates the use of ABCD2 score for long-term risk assessment after TIA in patients aged 65 years and older. Attentive efforts for community-based follow-up care after TIA are needed for ongoing prevention in Medicare beneficiaries who were hospitalised for TIA.

8.
Curr Med Res Opin ; 36(12): 1999-2007, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095678

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to establish the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) for the Fugl-Meyer Motor Scale (FMMS) and the Disability Rating Scale (DRS) to evaluate interventions in patients with motor deficits in the chronic phase after traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: MCIDs were established with a structured expert consultation process, the RAND/UCLA modified Delphi method. This process consisted of a literature review and input from a 10-person, multidisciplinary expert panel. The experts were asked to rate meaningfulness of improvements in hypothetical patients and numeric changes via two rounds of ratings and an in-person meeting. RESULTS: The estimated MCIDs were six and five points on the FMMS Upper and Lower Extremity Scale, respectively, and one point on the DRS. The experts argued against establishing an MCID for the combined FMMS because the same change was more likely to be meaningful if concentrated in one extremity and because a meaningful improvement in one extremity implies meaningfulness irrespective of the changes in the other. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to establish MCIDs for the FMMS and the DRS in the chronic phase after TBI. The results may be helpful for the design and interpretation of clinical trials of interventions.

9.
Gerontol Geriatr Med ; 6: 2333721420956751, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32995368

RESUMO

Exercise is touted as the ideal prescription to treat and prevent many chronic diseases. We examined changes in utilization and cost of medication classes commonly prescribed in the management of chronic conditions following participation in 12-months of supervised exercise within the Veterans Affairs Gerofit program. Gerofit enrolled 480 veterans between 1999 and 2017 with 12-months participation, with 453 having one or more active prescriptions on enrollment. Active prescriptions overall and for five classes of medications were examined. Changes from enrollment to 12 months were calculated, and cost associated with prescriptions filled were used to estimate net cost changes. Active prescriptions were reduced for opioids (77 of 164, 47%), mental health (93 of 221, 42%), cardiac (175 of 391, 45%), diabetes (41 of 166, 25%), and lipid lowering (56 of 253, 22%) agents. Cost estimates resulted in a net savings of $38,400. These findings support the role of supervised exercise as a favorable therapeutic intervention that has impact across chronic conditions.

10.
Stroke Vasc Neurol ; 5(2): 121-127, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606084

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emergency medical services (EMS) is a critical link in the chain of stroke survival. We aimed to assess EMS use for stroke in Singapore, identify characteristics associated with EMS use and the association of EMS use with stroke evaluation and treatment. METHODS: The Singapore Stroke Registry combines nationwide EMS and public hospital data for stroke cases in Singapore. Multivariate regressions with the generalised estimating equations were performed to examine the association between EMS use and timely stroke evaluation and treatment. RESULTS: Of 3555 acute ischaemic patients with symptom onset within 24 hours admitted to all five public hospitals between 2015 and 2016, 68% arrived via EMS. Patients who used EMS were older, were less likely to be female, had higher stroke severity by National Institute of Health Stroke Scale and had a higher prevalence of atrial fibrillation or peripheral arterial disease. Patients transported by EMS were more likely to receive rapid evaluation (door-to-imaging time ≤25 min 34.3% vs 11.1%, OR=2.74 (95% CI 1.40 to 5.38)) and were more likely to receive intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA, 22.8% vs 4.6%, OR=4.61 (95% CI 3.52 to 6.03)). Among patients treated with tPA, patients who arrived via EMS were more likely to receive timely treatment than self-transported patients (door-to-needle time ≤60 min 52.6% vs 29.4%, OR=2.58 (95% CI 1.35 to 4.92)). CONCLUSIONS: EMS use is associated with timely stroke evaluation and treatment in Singapore. Seamless EMS-Hospital stroke pathways and targeted public campaigns to advocate for appropriate EMS use have the potential to improve acute stroke care.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Terapia Trombolítica , Tempo para o Tratamento , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ambulâncias , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Singapura , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Phys Ther ; 100(8): 1278-1288, 2020 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32372072

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe the process and cost of delivering a physical therapist-guided synchronous telehealth exercise program appropriate for older adults with functional limitations. Such programs may help alleviate some of the detrimental impacts of social distancing and quarantine on older adults at-risk of decline. METHODS: Data were derived from the feasibility arm of a parent study, which piloted the telehealth program for 36 sessions with 1 participant. The steps involved in each phase (ie, development, delivery) were documented, along with participant and program provider considerations for each step. Time-driven activity-based costing was used to track all costs over the course of the study. Costs were categorized as program development or delivery and estimated per session and per participant. RESULTS: A list of the steps and the participant and provider considerations involved in developing and delivering a synchronous telehealth exercise program for older adults with functional impairments was developed. Resources used, fixed and variable costs, per-session cost estimates, and total cost per person were reported. Two potential measures of the "value proposition" of this type of intervention were also reported. Per-session cost of $158 appeared to be a feasible business case, especially if the physical therapist to trained assistant personnel mix could be improved. CONCLUSIONS: The findings provide insight into the process and costs of developing and delivering telehealth exercise programs for older adults with functional impairments. The information presented may provide a "blue print" for developing and implementing new telehealth programs or for transitioning in-person services to telehealth delivery during periods of social distancing and quarantine. IMPACT: As movement experts, physical therapists are uniquely positioned to play an important role in the current COVID-19 pandemic and to help individuals who are at risk of functional decline during periods of social distancing and quarantine. Lessons learned from this study's experience can provide guidance on the process and cost of developing and delivering a telehealth exercise program for older adults with functional impairments. The findings also can inform new telehealth programs, as well as assist in transitioning in-person care to a telehealth format in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Pessoas com Deficiência/reabilitação , Terapia por Exercício/economia , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar/economia , Pandemias , Modalidades de Fisioterapia/economia , Pneumonia Viral , Telemedicina/economia , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Dor Crônica/terapia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Telemedicina/métodos
12.
BMC Geriatr ; 20(1): 170, 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The burden of hearing loss among older adults could be mitigated with appropriate care. This study compares implementation of three hearing screening strategies in primary care, and examines the reliability and validity of patient self-assessment, primary care providers (PCP) and diagnostic audiologists in the identification of 'red flag' conditions (those conditions that may require medical consultation and/or intervention). METHODS: Six primary care practices will implement one of three screening strategies (2 practices per strategy) with 660 patients (220 per strategy) ages 65-75 years with no history of hearing aid use or diagnosis of hearing loss. Strategies differ on the location and use of PCP encouragement to complete a telephone-based hearing screen (tele-HS). Group 1: instructions for tele-HS to complete at home and educational materials on warning signs and consequences of hearing loss. Group 2: PCP counseling/encouragement on importance of hearing screening, instructions to take the tele-HS from home, educational materials. Group 3: PCP counseling/encouragement, in-office tele-HS, and educational materials. Patients from all groups who fail the tele-HS will be referred for diagnostic audiological testing and medical evaluation, and complete a self-assessment of red flag conditions at this follow-up appointment. Due to the expected low incidence of ear disease in the PCP cohort, we will enroll a complementary population of patients (N = 500) from selected otolaryngology head and neck surgery clinics in a national practice-based research network to increase the likelihood of occurrence of medical conditions that might contraindicate hearing aid fitting. The primary outcome is the proportion of patients who complete the tele-HS within 2 months of the PCP appointment comparing Group 3 (PCP encouragement, in-office tele-HS, education) versus Groups 2 and 1 (education and tele-HS at home, with and without PCP encouragement, respectively). The several secondary outcomes include direct and indirect costs, patient, family and provider attitudes of hearing healthcare, and accuracy of red flag condition evaluations compared with expert medical assessment by an otolaryngology provider. DISCUSSION: Determining the relative effectiveness of three different strategies for hearing screening in primary care and the assessment accuracy of red flag conditions can each lead to practice and policy changes that will reduce individual, family and societal burden from hearing loss among older adults. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02928107; 10/10/2016 protocol version 1.

13.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 32(11): 2399-2410, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32430887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although there is growing utilisation of intermediate care to improve the health and well-being of older adults with complex care needs, there is no international agreement on how it is defined, limiting comparability between studies and reducing the ability to scale effective interventions. AIM: To identify and define the characteristics of intermediate care models. METHODS: A scoping review, a modified two-round electronic Delphi study involving 27 multi-professional experts from 13 countries, and a virtual consensus meeting were conducted. RESULTS: Sixty-six records were included in the scoping review, which identified four main themes: transitions, components, benefits and interchangeability. These formed the basis of the first round of the Delphi survey. After Round 2, 16 statements were agreed, refined and collapsed further. Consensus was established for 10 statements addressing the definitions, purpose, target populations, approach to care and organisation of intermediate care models. DISCUSSION: There was agreement that intermediate care represents time-limited services which ensure continuity and quality of care, promote recovery, restore independence and confidence at the interface between home and acute services, with transitional care representing a subset of intermediate care. Models are best delivered by an interdisciplinary team within an integrated health and social care system where a single contact point optimises service access, communication and coordination. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified key defining features of intermediate care to improve understanding and to support comparisons between models and studies evaluating them. More research is required to develop operational definitions for use in different healthcare systems.

14.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil ; 101(7): 1190-1198, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272107

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the processes and barriers involved in providing postdischarge stroke care. DESIGN: Prospective study of discharge planners' (DP) and physical therapists' (PT) interpretation of factors contributing to patients' discharge destination. SETTING: Twenty-three hospitals in the northeastern United States. PARTICIPANTS: After exclusions, data on patients (N=427) hospitalized with a primary diagnosis of stroke between May 2015 and November 2016 were examined. Of the patients, 45% were women, and the median age was 71 years. DPs and PTs caring for these patients were queried regarding the selection of discharge destination. INTERVENTIONS: None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Comparison of actual discharge destination for stroke patients with the destinations recommended by their DPs and PTs. RESULTS: In total, 184 patients (43.1%) were discharged home, 146 (34.2%) to an inpatient rehabilitation facility, 94 (22.0%) to a skilled nursing facility, and 3 (0.7%) to a long-term acute care hospital. DPs and PTs agreed on the recommended discharge destination in 355 (83.1%) cases. The actual discharge destination matched the DP and PT recommended discharge destination in 92.5% of these cases. In 23 cases (6.5%), the patient was discharged to a less intensive setting than recommended by both respondents. In 4 cases (1.1%), the patient was discharged to a more intensive level of care. In 2 cases (0.6%), the patient was discharged to a long-term acute care hospital rather than an inpatient rehabilitation facility as recommended. Patient or family preference was cited by at least 1 respondent for the discrepancy in discharge destination for 13 patients (3.1%); insurance barriers were cited for 9 patients (2.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Most stroke survivors in the northeast United States are discharged to the recommended postacute care destination based on the consensus of DP and PT opinions. Further research is needed to guide postacute care service selection.


Assuntos
Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições de Cuidados Especializados de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Cuidados Semi-Intensivos/organização & administração , Sobreviventes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New England , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Estudos Prospectivos , Centros de Reabilitação/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 32(12): 2595-2601, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Administrative data sets lack functional measures. AIM: We examined whether trajectories of cost can be used as a marker of functional recovery after hospitalization. METHODS: Secondary analysis of the National Health and Aging Trends Study merged with Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services data. Community-dwelling participants with a first hospitalization occurring after any annual survey were included (N = 937). Monthly total cost trajectories were constructed for the 3 months before and 3 months following hospitalization. Growth mixture models identified groups of patients with similar trajectories. The association of cost classes with five functional outcomes was examined using multivariate models, controlling for pre-hospitalization function and lead time. RESULTS: Four cost trajectory classes describing common recovery patterns were identified-persistently high, persistently moderate, low-spike-recover, and low variable. Cost class membership was significantly associated with change in Activities of Daily Living (ADL), instrumental ADL, Short Physical Performance Battery, and grip strength (p < 0.005), but not gait speed (p = 0.08). The proportion of patients who maintained or improved SPPB score was 46.8% in the persistently high, 49.2% in the persistently moderate, 52.7% in the low-spike-recover, and 57.2% in the low-variable groups. In models adjusted for known predictors of functional outcome, the magnitude and direction of association was maintained but significance was lost, indicating that cost trajectories' mirror is mediated by predictors of recovery not available in administrative data. CONCLUSION: Cost trajectories and total costs are associated with functional recovery following hospitalization in older adults. Cost may be useful as a measure of recovery in administrative data.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Hospitalização , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente , Masculino , Medicare , Estados Unidos , Velocidade de Caminhada
16.
Int J Stroke ; 15(2): 226-230, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462178

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The system-integrated technology-enabled model of care (SINEMA) trial aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a community-based multi-component intervention for secondary prevention of stroke in rural China. OBJECTIVE: To present the detailed statistical analysis plan for the trial prior to database locking and data analysis. METHODS: The detailed analysis plan outlines primary and secondary outcome measures, describes the over-arching data analysis principles to be adopted as well as more detailed descriptions of specific analytical approaches for effectiveness analyses, as well strategies to handle missing outcome data. DISCUSSION: Publication of the statistical analysis plan increases the transparency of the data analysis procedure and reduces potential bias in trial reporting. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT03185858).

17.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 978, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COMprehensive Post-Acute Stroke Services (COMPASS) pragmatic trial compared the effectiveness of comprehensive transitional care (COMPASS-TC) versus usual care among stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) patients discharged home from North Carolina hospitals. We evaluated implementation of COMPASS-TC in 20 hospitals randomized to the intervention using the RE-AIM framework. METHODS: We evaluated hospital-level Adoption of COMPASS-TC; patient Reach (meeting transitional care management requirements of timely telephone and face-to-face follow-up); Implementation using hospital quality measures (concurrent enrollment, two-day telephone follow-up, 14-day clinic visit scheduling); and hospital-level sustainability (Maintenance). Effectiveness compared 90-day physical function (Stroke Impact Scale-16), between patients receiving COMPASS-TC versus not. Associations between hospital and patient characteristics with Implementation and Reach measures were estimated with mixed logistic regression models. RESULTS: Adoption: Of 95 eligible hospitals, 41 (43%) participated in the trial. Of the 20 hospitals randomized to the intervention, 19 (95%) initiated COMPASS-TC. Reach: A total of 24% (656/2751) of patients enrolled received a billable TC intervention, ranging from 6 to 66% across hospitals. IMPLEMENTATION: Of eligible patients enrolled, 75.9% received two-day calls (or two attempts) and 77.5% were scheduled/offered clinic visits. Most completed visits (78% of 975) occurred within 14 days. Effectiveness: Physical function was better among patients who attended a 14-day visit versus those who did not (adjusted mean difference: 3.84, 95% CI 1.42-6.27, p = 0.002). Maintenance: Of the 19 adopting hospitals, 14 (74%) sustained COMPASS-TC. CONCLUSIONS: COMPASS-TC implementation varied widely. The greatest challenge was reaching patients because of system difficulties maintaining consistent delivery of follow-up visits and patient preferences to pursue alternate post-acute care. Receiving COMPASS-TC was associated with better functional status. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT02588664. Registered 28 October 2015.


Assuntos
Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/terapia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Cuidado Transicional/economia , Feminino , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Ciência da Implementação , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/economia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , North Carolina , Alta do Paciente/economia , Serviços Postais/economia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/economia , Cuidados Semi-Intensivos/economia , Telefone/economia
18.
Disabil Rehabil ; : 1-12, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841047

RESUMO

Background: Access to pediatric surgical intervention in low-income countries is expanding, but investments in post-surgical care have received less attention. This study explored the barriers and supports for school-aged children to access post-surgical, community-based follow-up care in Uganda as perceived by community stakeholders.Materials and methods: This qualitative exploratory case study used in-depth, semi-structured interviews and in-country site visits among Ugandan organizations providing follow-up care to school-aged children in Uganda after surgery. Data from eight interviews and eight site visits were coded, analyzed, and cross-tabulated with a modified grounded theory approach.Results: Four key barriers to community-based follow-up care were identified: discrimination, financial barriers, geographical barriers (including transportation), and caregiver limitations to support recovery. Three key supports to successful access to and participation in community-based post-surgical recovery were identified: disability awareness, the provision of sustained follow-up care, and caregiver supports for reintegration.Conclusions: Increasing awareness of disability across local Ugandan communities, educating caregivers with accessible and culturally aware approaches, and funding sustainable follow-up care programming provide promising avenues for pediatric post-surgical recovery and community reintegration in contemporary Uganda.Implications for rehabilitationMultiple, intersecting factors prevent or promote access to post-surgical community-based services among school-aged children in Uganda.The most prominent barriers to pediatric community reintegration in Uganda include discrimination, lack of financial resources, geographical factors, and caregiver limitations.Community and interprofessional alliances must address disability awareness and sources of stigma in local contexts to promote optimal recovery and reintegration after surgery.Collaborative efforts are needed to develop sustainable funding for community-based care programs that specifically support pediatric post-surgical recovery and reintegration.Efforts to provide appropriate and empowering caregiver education are critical, particularly in geographical regions where ongoing access to rehabilitation professionals is minimal.

19.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 67(12): 2519-2527, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469411

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Defining common patterns of recovery after an acute health stressor (resiliency groups) has both clinical and research implications. We sought to identify groups of patients with similar recovery patterns across 10 outcomes following hip fracture (stressor) and to determine the most important predictors of resiliency group membership. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of three prospective cohort studies. SETTING: Participants were recruited from various hospitals in the Baltimore Hip Studies network and followed for up to 1 year in their residence (home or facility). PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling adults aged 65 years or older with recent surgical repair of a hip fracture (n = 541). MEASUREMENTS: Self-reported physical function and activity measures using validated scales were collected at baseline (within 15-22 d of fracture), 2, 6, and 12 months. Physical performance tests were administered at all follow-up visits. Stressor characteristics, comorbidities, and psychosocial and environmental factors were collected at baseline via participant report and chart abstraction. Latent class profile analysis was used to identify resiliency groups based on recovery trajectories across 10 outcome measures and logistic regression models to identify factors associated with those groups. RESULTS: Latent profile analysis identified three resiliency groups that had similar patterns across the 10 outcome measures and were defined as "high resilience" (n = 163 [30.1%]), "medium resilience" (n = 242 [44.7%]), and "low resilience" (n = 136 [25.2%]). Recovery trajectories for the outcome measures are presented for each resiliency group. Comparing highest with the medium- and low-resilience groups, self-reported pre-fracture function was by far the strongest predictor of high-resilience group membership with area under the curve (AUC) of .84. Demographic factors, comorbidities, stressor characteristics, environmental factors, and psychosocial characteristics were less predictive, but several factors remained significant in a multivariable model (AUC = .88). CONCLUSION: These three resiliency groups following hip fracture may be useful for understanding mediators of physical resilience. They may provide a more detailed description of recovery patterns in multiple outcomes for use in clinical decision making. J Am Geriatr Soc 67:2519-2527, 2019.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Exercício Físico , Fraturas do Quadril/reabilitação , Resiliência Psicológica , Idoso , Baltimore , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
J Aging Phys Act ; 27(4): 848-854, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170861

RESUMO

Veterans represent a unique population of older adults as they are more likely to self-report disability and be overweight or obese compared to the general population. We sought to compare changes in mobility function across the obesity spectrum in older Veterans participating in six-months of Gerofit, a clinical exercise program. 270 Veterans completed baseline, three, and six-month functional assessment and were divided post-hoc into groups: normal weight, overweight, and obese. Physical function assessment included: ten-meter walk time, six-minute walk distance, 30-second chair stands, and eight-foot up-and-go time. No significant weight x time interactions were found for any measure. However, significant (P<0.02) improvements were found for all mobility measures from baseline to three-months and maintained at six-months. Six-months of participation in Gerofit, if enacted nationwide, appears to be one way to improve mobility and function in older Veterans at high risk for disability regardless of weight status.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...