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1.
J Chem Phys ; 150(5): 054704, 2019 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30736689

RESUMO

The assembling of metal phthalocyanines on the rippled moiré superlattice of graphene/Ir(111) intercalated with one Co layer is driven by the site-dependent polarization field induced by the incommensurate graphene-Co interface. We have performed an X-ray absorption and photoemission study to unveil the role of the metallic centers and of the organic ligands in the molecule-Co interaction process mediated by graphene. Notably, we consider different electronic molecular orbitals, i.e. phthalocyanines with Cu and Mn metallic ions. The spectroscopic response suggests almost unaltered CuPc molecular states upon adsorption, and the rippled graphene carpet decouples completely the electronic interaction between the molecules and the Co layer, while a slight hybridization is present for MnPcs. MnPc molecules, trapped in the valleys of the moiré graphene superlattice, slightly intermix, through the orbitals protruding out of the molecular plane, with the underlying Co, while the organic ligands are almost unaltered. Graphene acts as an interlayer and mediates the interaction between metal phthalocyanines and the metallic substrate, preventing a strong chemical intermixing and enabling the assembly of almost unaltered molecules, preserving their electronic/magnetic state.

2.
Nanotechnology ; 29(40): 405707, 2018 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30015624

RESUMO

Three-dimensional (3D) graphene-based architectures can combine the two-dimensional properties of graphene with the high surface-to-volume ratio required for a large variety of technological applications. We present a spectro-microscopy study of stable microporous 3D few-layer graphene structures with a very low density of defects/edges and of unsaturated bonds, as deduced by Raman and core level photoemission spectroscopy. These qualities make these interconnected graphene networks ideal candidates to accommodate lithium adatoms, with a high density of Li per unit volume and a Li uptake per C atom higher than the value observed for graphite, as confirmed by core level photoemission spectroscopy.

3.
Nano Lett ; 18(4): 2268-2273, 2018 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29558616

RESUMO

We report an advanced organic spin-interface architecture with magnetic remanence at room temperature, constituted by metal phthalocyanine molecules magnetically coupled with Co layer(s), mediated by graphene. Fe- and Cu-phthalocyanines assembled on graphene/Co have identical structural configurations, but FePc couples antiferromagnetically with Co up to room temperature, while CuPc couples ferromagnetically with weaker coupling and thermal stability, as deduced by element-selective X-ray magnetic circular dichroic signals. The robust antiferromagnetic coupling is stabilized by a superexchange interaction, driven by the out-of-plane molecular orbitals responsible of the magnetic ground state and electronically decoupled from the underlying metal via the graphene layer, as confirmed by ab initio theoretical predictions. These archetypal spin interfaces can be prototypes to demonstrate how antiferromagnetic and/or ferromagnetic coupling can be optimized by selecting the molecular orbital symmetry.

4.
Nanotechnology ; 29(2): 025603, 2018 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29160237

RESUMO

This work investigates the growth of B-C-N layers by chemical vapor deposition using methylamine borane (MeAB) as the single-source precursor. MeAB has been synthesized and characterized, paying particular attention to the analysis of its thermolysis products, which are the gaseous precursors for B-C-N growth. Samples have been grown on Cu foils and transferred onto different substrates for their morphological, structural, chemical, electronic and optical characterizations. The results of these characterizations indicate a segregation of h-BN and graphene-like (Gr) domains. However, there is an important presence of B and N interactions with C at the Gr borders, and of C interacting at the h-BN-edges, respectively, in the obtained nano-layers. In particular, there is a significant presence of C-N bonds, at Gr/h-BN borders and in the form of N doping of Gr domains. The overall B:C:N contents in the layers is close to 1:3:1.5. A careful analysis of the optical bandgap determination of the obtained B-C-N layers is presented, discussed and compared with previous seminal works with samples of similar composition.

5.
J Chem Phys ; 147(21): 214706, 2017 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29221400

RESUMO

We report on the assembly of a highly ordered array of copper tetrameric clusters, coordinated into a metal-organic network. The ordered cluster array has been achieved by the deposition of tetrahydroxyquinone molecules on the Cu(111) surface at room temperature, and subsequent thermally activated dehydrogenation with the formation of tetraoxyquinone tetra-anions with a 4 × 4 periodicity. The supramolecular organic network acts as a spacer for the highly ordered two-dimensional network of copper tetramers at the very surface.

6.
J Chem Phys ; 147(13): 134702, 2017 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28987123

RESUMO

Manganese-phthalocyanines form assembled chains with a variety of ordered super-structures, flat lying along the Au(110) reconstructed channels. The chains first give rise to a ×5 symmetry reconstruction, while further deposition of MnPc leads to a ×7 periodicity at the completion of the first single layer. A net polarization with the formation of an interface dipole is mainly due to the molecular π-states located on the macrocycles pyrrole rings, while the central metal ion induces a reduction in the polarization, whose amount is related to the Mn-Au interaction. The adsorption-induced interface polarization is compared to other 3d-metal phthalocyanines, to unravel the role of the central metal atom configuration in the interaction process of the d-states. The MnPc adsorption on Au(110) induces the re-hybridization of the electronic states localized on the central metal atom, promoting a charge redistribution of the molecular orbitals of the MnPc molecules. The molecule-substrate interaction is controlled by a symmetry-determined mixing between the electronic states, involving also the molecular empty orbitals with d character hybridized with the nitrogen atoms of the pyrrole ring, as deduced by photoemission and X-ray absorption spectroscopy exploiting light polarization. The symmetry-determined mixing between the electronic states of the Mn metal center and of the Au substrate induces a density of states close to the Fermi level for the ×5 phase.

7.
Nanotechnology ; 28(11): 115601, 2017 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28099157

RESUMO

Etching with atomic hydrogen, as a preparation step before the high-temperature growth process of graphene onto a thin 3C-SiC film grown on Si(111), greatly improves the structural quality of topmost graphene layers. Pit formation and island coalescence, which are typical of graphene growth by SiC graphitization, are quenched and accompanied by widening of the graphene domain sizes to hundreds of nanometers, and by a significant reduction in surface roughness down to a single substrate bilayer. The surface reconstructions expected for graphene and the underlying layer are shown with atomic resolution by scanning tunnelling microscopy. Spectroscopic features typical of graphene are measured by core-level photoemission and Raman spectroscopy.

8.
ACS Omega ; 2(7): 3691-3697, 2017 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31457683

RESUMO

Scaling graphene from a two-dimensional (2D) ideal structure to a three-dimensional (3D) millimeter-sized architecture without compromising its remarkable electrical, optical, and thermal properties is currently a great challenge to overcome the limitations of integrating single graphene flakes into 3D devices. Herewith, highly connected and continuous nanoporous graphene (NPG) samples, with electronic and vibrational properties very similar to those of suspended graphene layers, are presented. We pinpoint the hallmarks of 2D ideal graphene scaled in these 3D porous architectures by combining the state-of-the-art spectromicroscopy and imaging techniques. The connected and bicontinuous topology, without frayed borders and edges and with low density of crystalline defects, has been unveiled via helium ion, Raman, and transmission electron microscopies down to the atomic scale. Most importantly, nanoscanning photoemission unravels a 3D NPG structure with preserved 2D electronic density of states (Dirac cone like) throughout the porous sample. Furthermore, the high spatial resolution brings to light the interrelationship between the topology and the morphology in the wrinkled and highly bent regions, where distorted sp2 C bonds, associated with sp3-like hybridization state, induce small energy gaps. This highly connected graphene structure with a 3D skeleton overcomes the limitations of small-sized individual graphene sheets and opens a new route for a plethora of applications of the 2D graphene properties in 3D devices.

9.
Nanotechnology ; 27(43): 435601, 2016 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27655270

RESUMO

High-temperature (1000 °C) thermolytic decomposition of ethane 1,2-diamineborane (BH3NH2CH2CH2NH2BH3) deposited onto a Cu foil has been performed in an ultra-high-vacuum environment. A combined thermolytic, structural (x-ray diffraction), microscopic (scanning electron microscopy) and spectroscopic (Raman, x-ray photoemission spectroscopy) analysis, has identified a ternary borocarbonitride (BCN) compound as a result of the process. The obtained BCN compound is nanocrystalline, surrounded by crystallites of ammonium hydroxide borate hydrate. The ternary compound presents a 0.2:0.6:0.2 B:C:N composition in the bulk and 0.11:0.76:0.13 stoichiometry at the very surface, richer in C-C networks with respect to the bulk. Furthermore, the resulting BCN compound does not show oxidation at the surface due to the in-vacuum thermolysis of the single precursor.

10.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 6(9): 1690-5, 2015 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26263335

RESUMO

A single layer of flat-lying iron phthalocyanine (FePc) molecules assembled on graphene grown on Ir(111) preserves the magnetic moment, as deduced by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism from the Fe L2,3 edges. Furthermore, the FePc molecules in contact with the graphene buffer layer exhibit an enhancement of the magnetic anisotropy, with emergence of an in-plane easy magnetic axis, reflected by an increased orbital moment of the FePc molecules in contact with the C atoms in the graphene sheet. The origin of the increased magnetic anisotropy is discussed, considering the absence of electronic state hybridization, and the breaking of symmetry upon FePc adsorption on graphene.

11.
Materials (Basel) ; 8(9): 5974-5985, 2015 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28793545

RESUMO

Ethane 1,2-diamineborane (EDAB) is an alkyl-containing amine-borane adduct with improved hydrogen desorption properties as compared to ammonia borane. In this work, it is reported the high temperature thermolytic decomposition of EDAB. Thermolysis of EDAB has been investigated by concomitant thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis-mass spectrometry experiments. EDAB shows up to four H2 desorption events below 1000 °C. Small fractions of CH4, C2H4 and CO/CO2 are also observed at moderate-high temperatures. The solid-state thermolysis product has been characterized by means of different structural and chemical methods, such as X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy, Elemental analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The obtained results indicate the formation of a ternary borocarbonitride compound with a poorly-crystalline graphitic-like structure. By contrast, XPS measurements show that the surface is rich in carbon and nitrogen oxides, which is quite different to the bulk of the material.

12.
Nano Lett ; 14(8): 4901-6, 2014 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25026051

RESUMO

We report an advanced lithium-ion battery based on a graphene ink anode and a lithium iron phosphate cathode. By carefully balancing the cell composition and suppressing the initial irreversible capacity of the anode in the round of few cycles, we demonstrate an optimal battery performance in terms of specific capacity, that is, 165 mAhg(-1), of an estimated energy density of about 190 Wh kg(-1) and a stable operation for over 80 charge-discharge cycles. The components of the battery are low cost and potentially scalable. To the best of our knowledge, complete, graphene-based, lithium ion batteries having performances comparable with those offered by the present technology are rarely reported; hence, we believe that the results disclosed in this work may open up new opportunities for exploiting graphene in the lithium-ion battery science and development.

13.
J Chem Phys ; 140(24): 244704, 2014 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24985665

RESUMO

Iron-phthalocyanine and cobalt-phthalocyanine chains, assembled along the Au(110)-(1×2) reconstructed channels, present a strong interaction with the Au metallic states, via the central metal ion. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy from the metal-2p core-levels and valence band high-resolution ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy bring to light signatures of the interaction of the metal-phthalocyanine single-layer with gold. The charge transfer from Au to the molecule causes the emerging of a metal-2p core level component at lower binding energy with respect to that measured in the molecular thin films, while the core-levels associated to the organic macrocycle (C and N 1s) are less influenced by the adsorption, and the macrocycles stabilize the interaction, inducing a strong interface dipole. Temperature Programmed Desorption experiments and photoemission as a function of temperature allow to estimate the adsorption energy for the thin-films, mainly due to the molecule-molecule van der Waals interaction, while the FePc and CoPc single-layers remain adsorbed on the Au surface up to at least 820 K.

14.
Beilstein J Nanotechnol ; 5: 308-12, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24778953

RESUMO

Graphene grown on crystalline metal surfaces is a good candidate to act as a buffer layer between the metal and organic molecules that are deposited on top, because it offers the possibility to control the interaction between the substrate and the molecules. High-resolution angular-resolved ultraviolet photo electron spectroscopy (ARPES) is used to determine the interaction states of iron phthalocyanine molecules that are adsorbed onto graphene on Ni(111). The iron phthalocyanine deposition induces a quenching of the Ni d surface minority band and the appearance of an interface state on graphene/Ni(111). The results have been compared to the deposition of iron phthalocyanine on graphene/Ir(111), for which a higher decoupling of the organic molecule from the underlying metal is exerted by the graphene buffer layer.

15.
Beilstein J Nanotechnol ; 5: 323-8, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24778955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The thermal stability of iron oxide nanowires, which were obtained with a hard template method and are promising elements of Li-ion based batteries, has been investigated by means of thermogravimetry, infrared and photoemission spectroscopy measurements. RESULTS: The chemical state of the nanowires is typical of the Fe2O3 phase and the stoichiometry changes towards a Fe3O4 phase by annealing above 440 K. The shape and morphology of the nanowires is not modified by moderate thermal treatment, as imaged by scanning electron microscopy. CONCLUSION: This complementary spectroscopy-microscopy study allows to assess the temperature limits of these Fe2O3 nanowires during operation, malfunctioning or abuse in advanced Li-ion based batteries.

16.
J Chem Phys ; 139(18): 184707, 2013 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24320291

RESUMO

A monolayer of bismuth deposited on the Cu(100) surface forms a highly ordered c(2×2) reconstructed phase. The low energy single particle excitations of the c(2×2) Bi/Cu(100) present Bi-induced states with a parabolic dispersion in the energy region close to the Fermi level, as observed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The electronic state dispersion, the charge density localization, and the spin-orbit coupling have been investigated combining photoemission spectroscopy and density functional theory, unraveling a two-dimensional Bi phase with charge density well localized at the interface. The Bi-induced states present a Rashba splitting, when the charge density is strongly localized in the Bi plane. Furthermore, the temperature dependence of the spectral density close to the Fermi level has been evaluated. Dispersive electronic states offer a large number of decay channels for transitions coupled to phonons and the strength of the electron-phonon coupling for the Bi/Cu(100) system is shown to be stronger than for Bi surfaces and to depend on the electronic state symmetry and localization.

17.
Langmuir ; 29(33): 10440-7, 2013 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23879612

RESUMO

The adsorption of metal-phthalocyanine (MPc) layers (M = Fe, Co, Cu) assembled on graphene/Ir(111) is studied by means of temperature-programmed X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS). The balance between interaction forces among the organometallic molecules and the underlying graphene gives rise to flat-lying molecular layers, weakly interacting with the underlying graphene. Further MPc layers pile up face-on onto the first layer, up to a few nanometers thickness, as deduced by NEXAFS. The FePc, CoPc, and CuPc multilayers present comparable desorption temperatures, compatible with molecule-molecule interactions dominated by van der Waals forces between the π-conjugated macrocycles. The MPc single layers desorb from graphene/Ir at higher temperatures. The CuPc single layer desorbs at lower temperature than the FePc and CoPc single layers, suggesting a higher adsorption energy of the FePc and CoPc single layers on graphene/Ir with respect to CuPc, with increasing molecule-substrate interaction in the order E(CuPc) < E(FePc) ~ E(CoPc).

18.
Langmuir ; 28(37): 13232-40, 2012 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22931538

RESUMO

Iron-phthalocyanine molecules deposited on the Au(110) reconstructed channels assemble into one-dimensional molecular chains, whose spatial distribution evolves into different structural phases at increasing molecular density. The plasticity of the Au channels first induces an ordered phase with a 5×5 symmetry, followed by a second long-range ordered structure composed by denser chains with a 5×7 periodicity with respect to the bare Au surface, as observed in the low-energy electron-diffraction (LEED) and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) patterns. The geometry of the FePc molecular assemblies in the Au nanorails is determined by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). For the 5×7 phases, the GIXRD analysis identifies a "4-3" rows profile along the [001] direction in the Au surface and an on-top FePc adsorption site, further confirmed by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The latter also reveals the electronic mixing of the interface states. The chain assembly is driven by the molecule-molecule interaction and the chains interact with the Au nanorails via the central metal atom, while the chain-chain distance in the different structural phases is primarily driven by the plasticity of the Au surface.

19.
J Phys Chem B ; 115(19): 6296-303, 2011 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21500793

RESUMO

The products of ligation reaction of a 24 nucleotides long PolyA RNA adsorbed on mica were observed by atomic force microscopy. The occurrence of oligonucleotides at different degrees of polymerization has been quantitatively studied before and after ligation reaction. The microscopy images at the nanoscale show that nonenzymatic ligation of pristine RNA monomers results in the formation of supramolecular aggregates, with prevalence of dimers and tetramers. Analytical conditions were defined allowing the identification, the quantitative evaluation, and their distribution after ligation reaction, also providing an estimate of the degree of hydration of the objects. Such investigation is of particular biological relevance and provides the simplest yet model system for direct investigation of RNA reactions by advanced microscopy.


Assuntos
Poli A/química , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Oligorribonucleotídeos/química , RNA/química
20.
J Chem Phys ; 132(17): 174706, 2010 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20459182

RESUMO

A single layer of bismuth deposited on the Cu(100) surface forms long range ordered structural phases at various Bi density. A highly ordered c(2 x 2) reconstruction is accomplished at 0.5 ML, further Bi deposition induces a c(9square root of 2 x square root of 2)R45 degrees structure and a subsequent p(10 x 10) phase related to the formation of regular dislocations arrays. The transition from a c(2 x 2) superstructure to the c(9square root of 2 x square root of 2)R45 degrees phase is accompanied by a sudden decrease in the work function. Photoemission measurements reveal that the Bi induced states close to the Fermi level, associated to the c(2 x 2) phase, are strongly quenched when the arrays of dislocations are formed, while at higher binding energies, they undergo an energy shift probably due to a confinement effect. The low-energy single particle excitations and the electron dispersion of the Bi induced states of the c(2 x 2) phase are compared to the electronic states deduced by theoretical band structure obtained by ab initio calculation performed within the embedding method applied to a realistic semi-infinite system.

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