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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625375

RESUMO

We describe adipose stromal/stem cells (ASCs) in the structural/functional context of the adipose tissue (AT) stem niche (adiponiche), including cell-cell interactions and the microenvironment, and emphasize findings obtained in humans and in lineage-tracing models. ASCs have distinctive markers, 'colors', and anatomical 'locations' which influence their functions. Each adiponiche component can become impaired, thereby contributing to the pathological AT alterations seen in obesity and metabolic diseases. We discuss adiposopathy with a focus on adiponiche dysfunction, and underline the mechanisms that control AT expansion and energy balance. Better understanding of adiponiche regulation and ASC features could help to identify therapeutic targets that favor weight loss and counteract weight regain, and also contribute to innovative strategies for regenerative medicine.

2.
Sleep Breath ; 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487305

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a widespread comorbidity of obesity. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been demonstrated very effective in treating patients with OSA. The aims of this study were to investigate whether or not cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) can characterize patients with OSA and to evaluate the effect of nasal CPAP therapy. METHODS: An observational study was conducted on patients with moderate to severe obesity and suspected OSA. All patients underwent cardiorespiratory sleep study, spirometry, and functional evaluation with ECG-monitored, incremental, maximal CPET. RESULTS: Of the 147 patients, 94 presented with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥ 15 events/h and were thus considered to have OSA (52 receiving nasal CPAP treatment; 42 untreated) while 53 formed a control group (AHI < 15 events/h). Patients with untreated OSA showed significantly lower oxygen uptake (VO2), heart rate, minute ventilation (VE), and end tidal carbon dioxide (PETCO2) at peak exercise compared to controls. Patients receiving nasal CPAP showed higher VE and VO2 at peak exercise compared to untreated patients. A difference in PETCO2 between the maximum value reached during test and peak exercise (ΔPETCO2 max-peak) of 1.71 mmHg was identified as a predictor of OSA. CONCLUSION: Patients with moderate to severe obesity and untreated OSA presented a distinctive CPET-pattern characterized by lower aerobic and exercise capacity, higher PETCO2 at peak exercise associated with a lower ventilatory response. Nasal CPAP treatment was shown to positively affect these cardiorespiratory adaptations during exercise. ΔPETCO2 max-peak may be used to suggest OSA in patients with obesity.

3.
Obes Facts ; 14(5): 543-549, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482305

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Overweight and obesity are associated with a more severe COronaVirus Disease 19 (COVID-19). Adipose tissue-related chronic inflammation could be a promoter for the occurrence of the cytokine storm that predicts aggravation of COVID-19. The primary aim was to investigate if this increased risk for more severe COVID-19 was associated with a higher inflammatory response. METHODS: We enrolled patients <75 years old hospitalized in a medical COVID-19 ward with SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia. Patients were classified according to BMI as normal weight, overweight, and obesity. Laboratory parameters were measured at admission and every second day during the hospital stay. RESULTS: Ninety patients (64.4% males; median age 61 years) were enrolled. Invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) was needed in 9% of the patients with normal weight, in 32.4% of the patients with overweight, and in 12.9% of the patients with obesity (p = 0.045). Maximal C-reactive protein (CRP) level during hospital stay was 92 (48-122) mg/L in patients with normal weight, 140 (82-265) mg/L in patients with overweight, and 117 (67-160) mg/L in patients with obesity (p = 0.037). Maximal ferritin values were 564 (403-1,379) µg/L in patients with a normal weight, 1,253 (754-2,532) µg/L in patients with overweight, and 828 (279-1,582) µg/L in patients with obesity (p = 0.015). CONCLUSION: Patients with overweight and obesity required more IMV and had higher peaks of CRP and ferritin than patients with normal weight during COVID-19.

4.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363002

RESUMO

Over the last few years, the complexity and diversity of gut microbiota within and across individuals has been detailed in relation to human health. Further, understanding of the bidirectional association between gut microbiota and metabolic disorders has highlighted a complimentary, yet crucial role for microbiota in the onset and progression of obesity-related cancers. While strategies for cancer prevention and cure are known to work efficiently when supported by healthy diet and lifestyle choices and physical activity, emerging evidence suggests that the complex interplay relating microbiota both to neoplastic and metabolic diseases could aid strategies for cancer treatment and outcomes. This review will explore the experimental and clinical grounds supporting the functional role of gut microbiota in the pathophysiology and progression of cancers in relation to obesity and its metabolic correlates. Therapeutic approaches aiding microbiota restoration in connection with cancer treatments will be discussed.

5.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444930

RESUMO

Fewer studies compared the improvement of plasma lipid levels after different types of surgery, in particular compared to one-anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB). The aim of our study was to investigate how laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) and OAGB impact on weight loss and lipid profile 18 months after surgery, in patients with severe obesity. Forty-six patients treated with OAGB were matched to eighty-eight patients submitted to LSG. Weight loss after OAGB (33.2%) was more evident than after LSG (29.6%) (p = 0.024). The difference in the prevalence of dyslipidemia showed a statistically significant reduction only after OAGB (61% versus 22%, p < 0.001). After adjustment for delta body mass index (BMI), age and sex, we demonstrated a statistically significant decrease of the differences between the changes before and after (delta Δ) the two surgery procedures: Δ total cholesterol values (p < 0.001), Δ low density lipoprotein-cholesterol values (p < 0.001) and Δ triglycerides values (p = 0.007). Patients with severe obesity undergoing to OAGB presented a better improvement of lipid plasma values than LSG patients. The reduction of lipid plasma levels was independent of the significant decrease of BMI after surgery, of age and of sex.


Assuntos
Gastrectomia/métodos , Derivação Gástrica/métodos , Lipídeos/sangue , Obesidade Mórbida/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antropometria , Índice de Massa Corporal , Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Laparoscopia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Período Pós-Operatório , Resultado do Tratamento , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Perda de Peso , Adulto Jovem
6.
Obes Facts ; 14(4): 415-424, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344002

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Metabolic adaptations to maximal physical exercise in people with obesity (PwO) are scarcely described. This cross-sectional study evaluates the metabolic response to exercise via the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) in PwO and different degrees of glycemic control. METHODS: Eighty-five PwO (body mass index 46.0 [39.0-54.0] kg/m2), that is, 32 normoglycemic (Ob-N), 25 prediabetic (Ob-preDM), and 28 diabetic (Ob-T2DM) subjects and 18 healthy subjects performed an incremental, maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test. The RER was measured at rest (RERrest) and at peak exercise (RERpeak). RESULTS: RERpeak was significantly higher in healthy subjects than that in PwO. Among those, RERpeak was significantly higher in Ob-N than that in Ob-preDM and Ob-T2DM (1.20 [1.15-1.27] vs. 1.18 [1.10-1.22] p = 0.04 and vs. 1.14 [1.10-1.18] p < 0.001, respectively). Accordingly, ΔRER (RERpeak-RERrest) was lower in Ob-preDM and Ob-T2DM than that in Ob-N (0.32 [0.26-0.39] p = 0.04 and 0.29 [0.24-0.36] p < 0.001 vs. 0.38 [0.32-0.43], respectively), while no significant difference was found in ΔRER between Ob-preDM and Ob-T2DM and not even between Ob-N and healthy subjects. Moreover, ΔRER in PwO correlated with glucose area under curve (p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: PwO demonstrate restricted metabolic response during maximal exercise. Particularly, those with prediabetes already show metabolic inflexibility during exercise, similarly to those with type 2 diabetes. These findings also suggest a potential role of cardiopulmonary exercise testing in detecting early metabolic alterations in PwO.

8.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 45(9): 1949-1957, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33990701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Different approaches are used to classify obesity severity. Beyond classical anthropometric measurements, the Edmonton Obesity Staging System (EOSS) considers medical, physical and psychological parameters. However, this method has some limitations, principally due to the absence of an objective measure for physical impairment. The aim of our study is thus to overcome this limitation suggesting a new functional parameter obtained by cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET), i.e., cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), expressed as weight-adjusted peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak/kg). SUBJECTS/METHODS: This observational cross-sectional study conducted on a population of 843 patients affected by obesity finally enrolled 500 subjects. Every patient underwent clinical, anthropometric, biochemical assessment and CPET. First, participants have been classified according to standard EOSS in five stages. Second, patients were reclassified according to the new modified EOSS (EOSS-CRF) based on their age- and gender-appropriate VO2peak/kg percentiles as reported in the healthy normal-weight population of the FRIEND registry. RESULTS: VO2peak/kg was significantly different between standard EOSS classes 1 and 2 and classes 1 and 3 (ANCOVA p model = 0.004), whereas patients in classes 2 and 3 showed similar CRF. The EOSS-CRF classification varied in number of patients in each class compared to EOSS, particularly with a shift from class 2 to class 3. Moreover, CRF showed that physical impairment is less addressed by EOSS when compared to EOSS-CRF. CONCLUSIONS: The integration of EOSS with CRF allowed us to assign to each patient a severity index that considers not only clinical parameters, but also their functional impairment through a quantitative and prognostically important parameter (VO2peak/kg). This improvement of the staging system may also provide a better approach to identify individuals at increased risk of mortality leading to targeted therapeutic management and prognostic risk stratification for patients with obesity.

9.
Eat Weight Disord ; 2021 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811619

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is associated with the presence and severity of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD). We aimed to investigate the relationship between the severity of OSA and NAFLD and to recognize a polysomnographic parameter correlated with progression of fibrosis, determined by a non-invasive score of liver fibrosis, FIBrosis-4 index (FIB-4), in patients affected by severe obesity and OSA. METHODS: We enrolled 334 patients (Body Mass Index, BMI 44.78 ± 8.99 kg/m2), divided into classes according to severity of OSA evaluated with Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI): OSAS 0 or absent (17%), mild OSA (26%), moderate OSA (20%), severe OSAS (37%). We studied anthropometric, polysomnographic, biochemical data and FIB-4. A multiple regression model was computed to identify a polysomnographic independent predictor of FIB-4 among those parameters previously simple correlated with FIB-4. RESULTS: The severity of OSA was associated with a decrease in High-Density Lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL) and an increase in BMI, triglycerides, Homeostasis model assessment insulin-resistance index (HOMA), transaminases and FIB-4. FIB-4 correlated with sex, age, BMI, AHI, mean percentage oxyhaemoglobin (meanSaO2%), number of desaturations, platelets, transaminases, HDL, triglycerides and HOMA. The only variables independently related to FIB-4 were sex, BMI, triglycerides and meanSpO2 (r = 0.47, AdjRsqr = 0.197). CONCLUSION: MeanSpO2% represented an independent determinant for the worsening of FIB-4 in patients with severe obesity and OSA. Hence, it could hypothesize a clinical role of meanSaO2% in recognizing patients with obesity and OSA and higher risk of developing advanced fibrosis and, thus, to undergo further investigation. LEVEL III: Evidence obtained from well-designed cohort analytic studies.

11.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673465

RESUMO

An adequate protein intake prevents the loss of fat-free mass during weight loss. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (SG) jeopardizes protein intake due to post-operative dietary restriction and intolerance to protein-rich foods. The purpose of this study is to evaluate protein intake in the first three months after SG. We evaluated, 1 month and 3 months after surgery, 47 consecutive patients treated with SG. Protein intake, both from foods and from protein supplementation, was assessed through a weekly dietary record. Patients consumed 30.0 ± 10.2 g of protein/day on average from foods in the first month, with a significant increase to 34.9 ± 4.8 g of protein/day in the third month (p = 0.003). The use of protein supplementation significantly increased total protein intake to 42.3 ± 15.9 g protein/day (p < 0.001) in the first month and to 39.6 ± 14.2 g of protein/day (p = 0.002) in the third one. Compliance with supplement consumption was 63.8% in the first month and only 21.3% in the third month. In conclusion, both one and three months after SG, protein intake from foods was not sufficient. The use of modular supplements seems to have a significant impact on protein intake, but nevertheless it remains lower than recommended.


Assuntos
Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gastrectomia/métodos , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
12.
Endocrine ; 71(3): 618-625, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566311

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alström syndrome (ALMS) is a monogenic ultra-rare disorder with a prevalence of one per million inhabitants caused by pathogenic variants of ALMS1 gene. ALMS1 is located on chromosome 2p13, spans 23 exons and encodes a predicted 461.2-kDa protein of 4169 amino acids. The infantile cone-rod dystrophy with nystagmus and severe visual impairment is the earliest and most consistent clinical manifestation of ALMS. In addition, infantile transient cardiomyopathy, early childhood obesity with hyperphagia, deafness, insulin resistance (IR), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), systemic fibrosis and progressive renal or liver dysfunction are common findings. ALMS1 encodes a large ubiquitously expressed protein that is associated with the centrosome and the basal body of primary cilium. CURRENT RESEARCH: The localisation of ALMS1 to the ciliary basal body suggests its contribution to ciliogenesis and/or normal ciliary function, or centriolar stability. ALMS1 regulate glucose transport through the actin cytoskeleton, which plays an important role in insulin-stimulated GLUT4 transport. Both extreme IR and ß-cell failure are the two determinant factors responsible for the development of glucose metabolism alterations in ALMS. TREATMENT: Currently, there is no known cure for ALMS other than managing the underlying systemic diseases. When possible, individuals with ALMS and families should be referred to a centre of expertise and followed by a multidisciplinary team. Lifestyle modification, aerobic exercise and dietary induced weight loss are highly recommended as primary treatment for ALMS patients with T2DM and obesity. CONCLUSION: Managing a rare disease requires not only medical care but also a support network including patient associations.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Alstrom , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Resistência à Insulina , Síndrome de Alstrom/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular , Pré-Escolar , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/genética , Doenças Raras/genética
13.
Eur J Intern Med ; 2021 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461826

RESUMO

Weight regain following weight loss is frequent problem that people with obesity face. This weight recidivism is often attributed to the lack of compliance with appropriate food habits and exercise. On the contrary, it is known that body weight and fat mass are regulated by numerous physiological mechanisms, far beyond voluntary food intake and physical exercise. Thus, the aim of this paper is to review the main peripheral and central mechanisms involved in weight regain. Gut hormone secretion profiles impact upon predisposition to weight regain according to an individual variability, although it is recognised a usual pattern of compensatory changes: a reduction in anorectic hormones secretion and an increase in orexigenic hormone. These changes lead to both increased appetite and reward value of food leading to increased energye intake. In addition, resting energy expenditure after weight loss is lower than expected according to body composition changes. This gap between observed and predicted energy expenditure following weight loss is named metabolic adaptation, which has been suggested to explain partly weight regain. This complicated scenario, beyond patient motivation, makes weight regain a challenge in long-term management interventions in patients with obesity.

14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(21)2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33114687

RESUMO

Multiple symmetric lipomatosis (MSL) is a rare disorder characterized by overgrowing lipomatous tissue (LT) in the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). What LT is and how it expands are not completely understood; previous data suggested that it could derive from brown AT precursors. In six MSL type I patients, we compared LT morphology by histological and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis, gene expression, by qPCR, kinase activity, by Western Blot and in vitro assay to paired-control SAT using AT from patients with pheochromocytoma as a human browning reference. In the stromal vascular fraction (SVF), we quantified adipose stem cells (ASCs) by flow cytometry, the proliferation rate, white and beige adipogenic potential and clonogenicity and adipogenicity by a limiting dilution assay. LT displayed white AT morphology and expression pattern and did not show increased levels of the brown-specific marker UCP1. In LT, we evidenced AKT, CK2 and ERK1/2 hyperactivation. LT-SVF contained increased ASCs, proliferated faster, sprouted clones and differentiated into adipocytes better than the control, displaying enhanced white adipogenic potential but not increased browning compared to SAT. In conclusion, LT is a white AT depot expanding by hyperplasia through increased stemness and enhanced white adipogenesis upregulating AKT, CK2 and ERK1/2, which could represent new targets to counteract MSL.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/metabolismo , Lipomatose Simétrica Múltipla/metabolismo , Feocromocitoma/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Caseína Quinase II/genética , Caseína Quinase II/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/genética , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Lipomatose Simétrica Múltipla/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feocromocitoma/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/citologia , Células-Tronco/metabolismo
15.
Rev Endocr Metab Disord ; 21(3): 297-306, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734395

RESUMO

Bariatric surgery (BS) is today the most effective therapy for inducing long-term weight loss and for reducing comorbidity burden and mortality in patients with severe obesity. On the other hand, BS may be associated to new clinical problems, complications and side effects, in particular in the nutritional domain. Therefore, the nutritional management of the bariatric patients requires specific nutritional skills. In this paper, a brief overview of the nutritional management of the bariatric patients will be provided from pre-operative to post-operative phase. Patients with severe obesity often display micronutrient deficiencies when compared to normal weight controls. Therefore, nutritional status should be checked in every patient and correction of deficiencies attempted before surgery. At present, evidences from randomized and retrospective studies do not support the hypothesis that pre-operative weight loss could improve weight loss after BS surgery, and the insurance-mandated policy of a preoperative weight loss as a pre-requisite for admission to surgery is not supported by medical evidence. On the contrary, some studies suggest that a modest weight loss of 5-10% in the immediate preoperative period could facilitate surgery and reduce the risk of complications. Very low calories diet (VLCD) and very low calories ketogenic diets (VLCKD) are the most frequently used methods for the induction of a pre-operative weight loss today. After surgery, nutritional counselling is recommended in order to facilitate the adaptation of the eating habits to the new gastro-intestinal physiology. Nutritional deficits may arise according to the type of bariatric procedure and they should be prevented, diagnosed and eventually treated. Finally, specific nutritional problems, like dumping syndrome and reactive hypoglycaemia, can occur and should be managed largely by nutritional manipulation. In conclusion, the nutritional management of the bariatric patients requires specific nutritional skills and the intervention of experienced nutritionists and dieticians.

16.
Rev Endocr Metab Disord ; 21(4): 449, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803692

RESUMO

The original version of this article unfortunately, has the incorrect title reported in the published paper.

17.
Obes Facts ; 13(4): 430-438, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659766

RESUMO

The World Health Organization declared COVID-19, the infectious disease caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, a pandemic on March 12, 2020. COVID-19 is causing massive health problems and economic suffering around the world. The European Association for the Study of Obesity (EASO) promptly recognised the impact that the outbreak could have on people with obesity. On one side, emerging data suggest that obesity represents a risk factor for a more serious and complicated course of COVID-19 in adults. On the other side, the health emergency caused by the outbreak diverts attention from the prevention and care of non-communicable chronic diseases to communicable diseases. This might be particularly true for obesity, a chronic and relapsing disease frequently neglected and linked to significant bias and stigmatization. The Obesity Management Task Force (OMTF) of EASO contributes in this paper to highlighting the key aspects of these two sides of the coin and suggests some specific actions.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Vacinação , Carga Viral , Organização Mundial da Saúde
18.
J Nephrol ; 33(5): 901-907, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32656750

RESUMO

The clinical manifestations of diabetic nephropathy are similar in type 1 and type 2 diabetes, while the renal lesions may differ. Indeed, diabetic glomerulopathy is the predominant renal lesion in type 1 diabetes, although also tubular, interstitial and arteriolar lesions are present in the advanced stages of renal disease. In contrast, in type 2 diabetes renal lesions are heterogeneous, and a substantial number of type 2 diabetic patients with diabetic kidney disease have mild or absent glomerulopathy with tubulointerstitial and/or arteriolar abnormalities. In addition, a high prevalence of non-diabetic renal diseases, isolated or superimposed on classic diabetic nephropathy lesions have been reported in patients with type 2 diabetes, often reflecting the bias of selecting patients for unusual clinical presentations for renal biopsy. This review focuses on renal structural changes in type 2 diabetes, emphasizing the contribution of research kidney biopsy studies to the understanding of the pathogenesis of DKD and of the structural lesions responsible for the different clinical phenotypes. Also, kidney biopsies could provide relevant information in terms of renal prognosis, and help to understand the different responses to different therapies, especially SGLT2 inhibitors, thus allowing personalized medicine.

19.
Curr Obes Rep ; 9(3): 373-379, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542590

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bariatric surgery is today the most effective therapy for weight loss and reduction of comorbidity burden in patients with severe obesity. However, bariatric surgery does not benefit equally all the patients. A consistent variability in outcomes has been observed. Predicting responses to bariatric surgery could be an important tool in clinical practice, by improving patients' selection or by identifying patients in which more aggressive follow-up and post-operative intervention should be applied. Predictive factors for weight loss, weight regain, diabetes remission and recurrence are briefly reviewed in this paper. RECENT FINDINGS: Many pre-operative factors have been proposed as negative or positive predictors of body weight reduction after surgery. However, none of these factors has been consistently demonstrated to have a sufficiently strong predictive power to influence eligibility to bariatric surgery itself. Weight regain can occur after bariatric surgery and its probability seems to be more influenced by post-operative behavioral factors than by pre-operative predictors. Several effective scores have been developed to predict diabetes remission after surgery, however long-term maintenance and diabetes recurrence after surgery seem again more influenced by post-operative behaviors and weight loss maintenance. In general, more attention and active interventions to pre-operative and post-operative eating behaviors and lifestyle modifications are probably more important at the clinical level than the search of pre-operative predictors of long-term outcomes.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Tomada de Decisão Clínica/métodos , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Seleção de Pacientes , Medição de Risco/métodos , Terapia Comportamental , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Obesidade Mórbida/fisiopatologia , Obesidade Mórbida/psicologia , Período Pós-Operatório , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Período Pré-Operatório , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(9): 1600-1605, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32463545

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The clinical manifestations of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) run from asymptomatic disease to severe acute respiratory syndrome. Older age and comorbidities are associated to more severe disease. A role of obesity is suspected. METHODS: Patients hospitalized in the medical COVID-19 ward with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-related pneumonia were enrolled. The primary outcome of the study was to assess the relationship between the severity of COVID-19 and obesity classes according to BMI. RESULTS: A total of 92 patients (61.9% males; age 70.5 [13.3] years) were enrolled. Patients with overweight and obesity were younger than patients with normal weight (68.0 [12.6] and 67.0 [12.6] years vs. 76.1 [13.0] years, P < 0.01). A higher need for assisted ventilation beyond pure oxygen support (invasive mechanical ventilation or noninvasive ventilation) and a higher admission to intensive or semi-intensive care units were observed in patients with overweight and obesity (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively) even after adjusting for sex, age, and comorbidities (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively) or when patients with dementia or advanced cancer were removed from the analysis (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with overweight and obesity admitted in a medical ward for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-related pneumonia, despite their younger age, required more frequently assisted ventilation and access to intensive or semi-intensive care units than normal weight patients.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Obesidade/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Peso Corporal , COVID-19 , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Respiração Artificial , SARS-CoV-2
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