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1.
Sci Immunol ; 6(57)2021 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653907

RESUMO

Pediatric COVID-19 following SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with fewer hospitalizations and often milder disease than in adults. A subset of children, however, present with Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) that can lead to vascular complications and shock, but rarely death. The immune features of MIS-C compared to pediatric COVID-19 or adult disease remain poorly understood. We analyzed peripheral blood immune responses in hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 infected pediatric patients (pediatric COVID-19) and patients with MIS-C. MIS-C patients had patterns of T cell-biased lymphopenia and T cell activation similar to severely ill adults, and all patients with MIS-C had SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific antibodies at admission. A distinct feature of MIS-C patients was robust activation of vascular patrolling CX3CR1+ CD8+ T cells that correlated with the use of vasoactive medication. Finally, whereas pediatric COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) had sustained immune activation, MIS-C patients displayed clinical improvement over time, concomitant with decreasing immune activation. Thus, non-MIS-C versus MIS-C SARS-CoV-2 associated illnesses are characterized by divergent immune signatures that are temporally distinct from one another and implicate CD8+ T cells in the clinical presentation and trajectory of MIS-C.


Assuntos
/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Envelhecimento/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Leucopenia/imunologia , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
2.
Cell ; 184(7): 1858-1864.e10, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631096

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly spread within the human population. Although SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus, most humans had been previously exposed to other antigenically distinct common seasonal human coronaviruses (hCoVs) before the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Here, we quantified levels of SARS-CoV-2-reactive antibodies and hCoV-reactive antibodies in serum samples collected from 431 humans before the COVID-19 pandemic. We then quantified pre-pandemic antibody levels in serum from a separate cohort of 251 individuals who became PCR-confirmed infected with SARS-CoV-2. Finally, we longitudinally measured hCoV and SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the serum of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Our studies indicate that most individuals possessed hCoV-reactive antibodies before the COVID-19 pandemic. We determined that ∼20% of these individuals possessed non-neutralizing antibodies that cross-reacted with SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid proteins. These antibodies were not associated with protection against SARS-CoV-2 infections or hospitalizations, but they were boosted upon SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
Alphacoronavirus/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , /imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Chlorocebus aethiops , Proteção Cruzada , Reações Cruzadas , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Células Vero
3.
Cell ; 184(3): 827-839.e14, 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545036

RESUMO

Ahmed and colleagues recently described a novel hybrid lymphocyte expressing both a B and T cell receptor, termed double expresser (DE) cells. DE cells in blood of type 1 diabetes (T1D) subjects were present at increased numbers and enriched for a public B cell clonotype. Here, we attempted to reproduce these findings. While we could identify DE cells by flow cytometry, we found no association between DE cell frequency and T1D status. We were unable to identify the reported public B cell clone, or any similar clone, in bulk B cells or sorted DE cells from T1D subjects or controls. We also did not observe increased usage of the public clone VH or DH genes in B cells or in sorted DE cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that DE cells and their alleged public clonotype are not enriched in T1D. This Matters Arising paper is in response to Ahmed et al. (2019), published in Cell. See also the response by Ahmed et al. (2021), published in this issue.

4.
Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 11(5): 1267-1289, 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Noroviruses (NoVs) are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Moreover, an asymptomatic carrier state can persist following acute infection, promoting NoV spread and evolution. Thus, defining immune correlates of NoV protection and persistence is needed to guide the development of future vaccines and limit viral spread. Whereas antibody responses following NoV infection or vaccination have been studied extensively, cellular immunity has received less attention. Data from the mouse NoV model suggest that T cells are critical for preventing persistence and achieving viral clearance, but little is known about NoV-specific T-cell immunity in humans, particularly at mucosal sites. METHODS: We screened peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 3 volunteers with an overlapping NoV peptide library. We then used HLA-peptide tetramers to track virus-specific CD8+ T cells in peripheral, lymphoid, and intestinal tissues. Tetramer+ cells were further characterized using markers for cellular trafficking, exhaustion, cytotoxicity, and proliferation. RESULTS: We defined 7 HLA-restricted immunodominant class I epitopes that were highly conserved across pandemic strains from genogroup II.4. NoV-specific CD8+ T cells with central, effector, or tissue-resident memory phenotypes were present at all sites and were especially abundant in the intestinal lamina propria. The properties and differentiation states of tetramer+ cells varied across donors and epitopes. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings are an important step toward defining the breadth, distribution, and properties of human NoV T-cell immunity. Moreover, the molecular tools we have developed can be used to evaluate future vaccines and engineer novel cellular therapeutics.

5.
Cell ; 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33306960

RESUMO

Lymphocyte migration is essential for adaptive immune surveillance. However, our current understanding of this process is rudimentary, because most human studies have been restricted to immunological analyses of blood and various tissues. To address this knowledge gap, we used an integrated approach to characterize tissue-emigrant lineages in thoracic duct lymph (TDL). The most prevalent immune cells in human and non-human primate efferent lymph were T cells. Cytolytic CD8+ T cell subsets with effector-like epigenetic and transcriptional signatures were clonotypically skewed and selectively confined to the intravascular circulation, whereas non-cytolytic CD8+ T cell subsets with stem-like epigenetic and transcriptional signatures predominated in tissues and TDL. Moreover, these anatomically distinct gene expression profiles were recapitulated within individual clonotypes, suggesting parallel differentiation programs independent of the expressed antigen receptor. Our collective dataset provides an atlas of the migratory immune system and defines the nature of tissue-emigrant CD8+ T cells that recirculate via TDL.

6.
JCI Insight ; 5(20)2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970634

RESUMO

The integration of HIV DNA into the host genome contributes to lifelong infection in most individuals. Few studies have examined integration in lymphoid tissue, where HIV predominantly persists before and after antiretroviral treatment (ART). Of particular interest is whether integration site distributions differ between infection stages with paired blood and tissue comparisons. Here, we profiled HIV integration site distributions in sorted memory, tissue-resident, and/or follicular helper CD4+ T cell subsets from paired blood and lymphoid tissue samples from acute, chronic, and ART-treated individuals. We observed minor differences in the frequency of nonintronic and nondistal intergenic sites, varying with tissue and residency phenotypes during ART. Genomic and epigenetic annotations were generally similar. Clonal expansion of cells marked by identical integration sites was detected, with increased detection in chronic and ART-treated individuals. However, overlap between or within CD4+ T cell subsets or tissue compartments was only observed in 8 unique sites of the 3540 sites studied. Together, these findings suggest that shared integration sites between blood and tissue may, depending on the tissue site, be the exception rather than the rule and indicate that additional studies are necessary to fully understand the heterogeneity of tissue-sequestered HIV reservoirs.

7.
Nat Med ; 26(9): 1339-1350, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895573

RESUMO

Therapeutic strategies are being clinically tested either to eradicate latent HIV reservoirs or to achieve virologic control in the absence of antiretroviral therapy. Attaining this goal will require a consensus on how best to measure the numbers of persistently infected cells with the potential to cause viral rebound after antiretroviral-therapy cessation in assessing the results of cure-directed strategies in vivo. Current measurements assess various aspects of the HIV provirus and its functionality and produce divergent results. Here, we provide recommendations from the BEAT-HIV Martin Delaney Collaboratory on which viral measurements should be prioritized in HIV-cure-directed clinical trials.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/virologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Latência Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Cell Rep ; 32(5): 107991, 2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755584

RESUMO

A comprehensive understanding of the phenotype of persistent HIV-infected cells, transcriptionally active and/or transcriptionally inactive, is imperative for developing a cure. The relevance of cell-surface glycosylation to HIV persistence has never been explored. We characterize the relationship between cell-surface glycomic signatures and persistent HIV transcription in vivo. We find that the cell surface of CD4+ T cells actively transcribing HIV, despite suppressive therapy, harbors high levels of fucosylated carbohydrate ligands, including the cell extravasation mediator Sialyl-LewisX (SLeX), compared with HIV-infected transcriptionally inactive cells. These high levels of SLeX are induced by HIV transcription in vitro and are maintained after therapy in vivo. Cells with high-SLeX are enriched with markers associated with HIV susceptibility, signaling pathways that drive HIV transcription, and pathways involved in leukocyte extravasation. We describe a glycomic feature of HIV-infected transcriptionally active cells that not only differentiates them from their transcriptionally inactive counterparts but also may affect their trafficking abilities.

9.
EBioMedicine ; 59: 102945, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A comprehensive understanding of host factors modulated by the antiviral cytokine interferon-α (IFNα) is imperative for harnessing its beneficial effects while avoiding its detrimental side-effects during HIV infection. Cytokines modulate host glycosylation which plays a critical role in mediating immunological functions. However, the impact of IFNα on host glycosylation has never been characterized. METHODS: We assessed the impact of pegylated IFNα2a on IgG glycome, as well as CD8+ T and NK cell-surface glycomes, of 18 HIV-infected individuals on suppressive antiretroviral therapy. We linked these glycomic signatures to changes in inflammation, CD8+ T and NK cell phenotypes, and HIV DNA. FINDINGS: We identified significant interactions that support a model in which a) IFNα increases the proportion of pro-inflammatory, bisecting GlcNAc glycans (known to enhance FcγR binding) within the IgG glycome, which in turn b) increases inflammation, which c) leads to poor CD8+ T cell phenotypes and poor IFNα-mediated reduction of HIV DNA. Examining cell-surface glycomes, IFNα increases levels of the immunosuppressive GalNAc-containing glycans (T/Tn antigens) on CD8+ T cells. This induction is associated with lower HIV-gag-specific CD8+ T cell functions. Last, IFNα increases levels of fucose on NK cells. This induction is associated with higher NK functions upon K562 stimulation. INTERPRETATION: IFNα causes host glycomic alterations that are known to modulate immunological responses. These alterations are associated with both detrimental and beneficial consequences of IFNα. Manipulating host glycomic interactions may represent a strategy for enhancing the positive effects of IFNα while avoiding its detrimental side-effects. FUNDING: NIH grants R21AI143385, U01AI110434.

10.
Sci Immunol ; 5(49)2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620560

RESUMO

CD8+ T cell exhaustion is a hallmark of many cancers and chronic infections. In mice, T cell factor 1 (TCF-1) maintains exhausted CD8+ T cell responses, whereas thymocyte selection-associated HMG box (TOX) is required for the epigenetic remodeling and survival of exhausted CD8+ T cells. However, it has remained unclear to what extent these transcription factors play analogous roles in humans. In this study, we mapped the expression of TOX and TCF-1 as a function of differentiation and specificity in the human CD8+ T cell landscape. Here, we demonstrate that circulating TOX+ CD8+ T cells exist in most humans, but that TOX is not exclusively associated with exhaustion. Effector memory CD8+ T cells generally expressed TOX, whereas naive and early-differentiated memory CD8+ T cells generally expressed TCF-1. Cytolytic gene and protein expression signatures were also defined by the expression of TOX. In the context of a relentless immune challenge, exhausted HIV-specific CD8+ T cells commonly expressed TOX, often in clusters with various activation markers and inhibitory receptors, and expressed less TCF-1. However, polyfunctional memory CD8+ T cells specific for cytomegalovirus (CMV) or Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) also expressed TOX, either with or without TCF-1. A similar phenotype was observed among HIV-specific CD8+ T cells from individuals who maintained exceptional immune control of viral replication. Collectively, these data demonstrate that TOX is expressed by most circulating effector memory CD8+ T cell subsets and not exclusively linked to exhaustion.

11.
Sci Immunol ; 5(49)2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669287

RESUMO

Although critical illness has been associated with SARS-CoV-2-induced hyperinflammation, the immune correlates of severe COVID-19 remain unclear. Here, we comprehensively analyzed peripheral blood immune perturbations in 42 SARS-CoV-2 infected and recovered individuals. We identified extensive induction and activation of multiple immune lineages, including T cell activation, oligoclonal plasmablast expansion, and Fc and trafficking receptor modulation on innate lymphocytes and granulocytes, that distinguished severe COVID-19 cases from healthy donors or SARS-CoV-2-recovered or moderate severity patients. We found the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio to be a prognostic biomarker of disease severity and organ failure. Our findings demonstrate broad innate and adaptive leukocyte perturbations that distinguish dysregulated host responses in severe SARS-CoV-2 infection and warrant therapeutic investigation.


Assuntos
Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Idoso , Seleção Clonal Mediada por Antígeno/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Memória Imunológica/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/patologia
12.
Science ; 369(6508)2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669297

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently a global pandemic, but human immune responses to the virus remain poorly understood. We used high-dimensional cytometry to analyze 125 COVID-19 patients and compare them with recovered and healthy individuals. Integrated analysis of ~200 immune and ~50 clinical features revealed activation of T cell and B cell subsets in a proportion of patients. A subgroup of patients had T cell activation characteristic of acute viral infection and plasmablast responses reaching >30% of circulating B cells. However, another subgroup had lymphocyte activation comparable with that in uninfected individuals. Stable versus dynamic immunological signatures were identified and linked to trajectories of disease severity change. Our analyses identified three immunotypes associated with poor clinical trajectories versus improving health. These immunotypes may have implications for the design of therapeutics and vaccines for COVID-19.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Citocinas/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Memória Imunológica , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Plasmócitos/imunologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Virol ; 94(19)2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669339

RESUMO

Brain injury occurs within days in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and some recovery may occur within weeks. Inflammation and oxidative stress associate with such injury, but what drives recovery is unknown. Chronic HIV infection associates with reduced brain frontal cortex expression of the antioxidant/anti-inflammatory enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and increased neuroinflammation in individuals with cognitive impairment. We hypothesized that acute regional brain injury and recovery associate with differences in regional brain HO-1 expression. Using SIV-infected rhesus macaques, we analyzed multiple brain regions through acute and chronic infection (90 days postinfection [dpi]) and quantified viral (SIV gag RNA), synaptic (PSD-95; synaptophysin), axonal (neurofilament/neurofilament light chain [NFL]), inflammatory, and antioxidant (enzymes, including heme oxygenase isoforms [HO-1, HO-2]) markers. PSD-95 was reduced in the brainstem, basal ganglia, neocortex, and cerebellum within 13 dpi, indicating acute synaptic injury throughout the brain. All areas except the brainstem recovered. Unchanged NFL was consistent with no acute axonal injury. SIV RNA expression was highest in the brainstem throughout infection, and it associated with neuroinflammation. Surprisingly, during the synaptic injury and recovery phases, HO-2, and not HO-1, progressively decreased in the brainstem. Thus, acute SIV synaptic injury occurs throughout the brain, with spontaneous recovery in regions other than the brainstem. Within the brainstem, the high SIV load and inflammation, along with reduction of HO-2, may impair recovery. In other brain regions, stable HO-2 expression, with or without increasing HO-1, may promote recovery. Our data support roles for heme oxygenase isoforms in modulating recovery from synaptic injury in SIV infection and suggest their therapeutic targeting for promoting neuronal recovery.IMPORTANCE Brain injury induced by acute simian (or human) immunodeficiency virus infection may persist or spontaneously resolve in different brain regions. Identifying the host factor(s) that promotes spontaneous recovery from such injury may reveal targets for therapeutic drug strategies for promoting recovery from acute neuronal injury. The gradual recovery from such injury observed in many, but not all, brain regions in the rhesus macaque model is consistent with the possible existence of a therapeutic window of opportunity for intervening to promote recovery, even in those regions not showing spontaneous recovery. In persons living with human immunodeficiency virus infection, such neuroprotective treatments could ultimately be considered as adjuncts to the initiation of antiretroviral drug therapy.

14.
bioRxiv ; 2020 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511371

RESUMO

COVID-19 has become a global pandemic. Immune dysregulation has been implicated, but immune responses remain poorly understood. We analyzed 71 COVID-19 patients compared to recovered and healthy subjects using high dimensional cytometry. Integrated analysis of ~200 immune and >30 clinical features revealed activation of T cell and B cell subsets, but only in some patients. A subgroup of patients had T cell activation characteristic of acute viral infection and plasmablast responses could reach >30% of circulating B cells. However, another subgroup had lymphocyte activation comparable to uninfected subjects. Stable versus dynamic immunological signatures were identified and linked to trajectories of disease severity change. These analyses identified three "immunotypes" associated with poor clinical trajectories versus improving health. These immunotypes may have implications for therapeutics and vaccines.

15.
bioRxiv ; 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511394

RESUMO

Although critical illness has been associated with SARS-CoV-2-induced hyperinflammation, the immune correlates of severe COVID-19 remain unclear. Here, we comprehensively analyzed peripheral blood immune perturbations in 42 SARS-CoV-2 infected and recovered individuals. We identified broad changes in neutrophils, NK cells, and monocytes during severe COVID-19, suggesting excessive mobilization of innate lineages. We found marked activation within T and B cells, highly oligoclonal B cell populations, profound plasmablast expansion, and SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies in many, but not all, severe COVID-19 cases. Despite this heterogeneity, we found selective clustering of severe COVID-19 cases through unbiased analysis of the aggregated immunological phenotypes. Our findings demonstrate broad immune perturbations spanning both innate and adaptive leukocytes that distinguish dysregulated host responses in severe SARS-CoV-2 infection and warrant therapeutic investigation. One Sentence Summary: Broad immune perturbations in severe COVID-19.

16.
medRxiv ; 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511554

RESUMO

COVID-19, the disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, can progress to multi-organ failure characterized by respiratory insufficiency, arrhythmias, thromboembolic complications and shock. The mortality of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 is unacceptably high and new strategies are urgently needed to rapidly identify and treat patients at risk for organ failure. Clinical epidemiologic studies demonstrate that vulnerability to organ failure is greatest after viral clearance from the upper airway, which suggests that dysregulation of the host immune response is a critical mediator of clinical deterioration and death. Autopsy and pre-clinical evidence implicate aberrant complement activation in endothelial injury and organ failure. A potential therapeutic strategy warranting investigation is to inhibit complement, with case reports of successful treatment of COVID-19 with inhibitors of complement. However, this approach requires careful balance between the host protective and potential injurious effects of complement activation, and biomarkers to identify the optimal timing and candidates for therapy are lacking. Here we report the presence of complement activation products on circulating erythrocytes from hospitalized COVID-19 patients using flow cytometry. These findings suggest that novel erythrocyte-based diagnostics provide a method to identify patients with dysregulated complement activation.

17.
Mol Immunol ; 124: 42-50, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526556

RESUMO

CD8+ T cells are crucial for immunity against viral infections, including HIV. Several characteristics of CD8+ T cells, such as polyfunctionality and cytotoxicity, have been correlated with effective control of HIV. However, most of these correlates have been established in the peripheral blood. Meanwhile, HIV primarily replicates in lymphoid tissues. Therefore, it is unclear which aspects of CD8+ T cell biology are shared and which are different between blood and lymphoid tissues in the context of HIV infection. In this review, we will recapitulate the latest advancements of our knowledge on lymphoid tissue CD8+ T cells during HIV infection and discuss the insights these advancements might provide for the development of a HIV cure.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Tecido Linfoide/imunologia , Humanos
18.
Immunity ; 52(5): 842-855.e6, 2020 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353250

RESUMO

B cell subsets expressing the transcription factor T-bet are associated with humoral immune responses and autoimmunity. Here, we examined the anatomic distribution, clonal relationships, and functional properties of T-bet+ and T-bet- memory B cells (MBCs) in the context of the influenza-specific immune response. In mice, both T-bet- and T-bet+ hemagglutinin (HA)-specific B cells arose in germinal centers, acquired memory B cell markers, and persisted indefinitely. Lineage tracing and IgH repertoire analyses revealed minimal interconversion between T-bet- and T-bet+ MBCs, and parabionts showed differential tissue residency and recirculation properties. T-bet+ MBCs could be subdivided into recirculating T-betlo MBCs and spleen-resident T-bethi MBCs. Human MBCs displayed similar features. Conditional gene deletion studies revealed that T-bet expression in B cells was required for nearly all HA stalk-specific IgG2c antibodies and for durable neutralizing titers to influenza. Thus, T-bet expression distinguishes MBC subsets that have profoundly different homing, residency, and functional properties, and mediate distinct aspects of humoral immune memory.


Assuntos
Especificidade de Anticorpos/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Memória Imunológica/imunologia , Especificidade de Órgãos/imunologia , Proteínas com Domínio T/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Centro Germinativo/citologia , Centro Germinativo/imunologia , Centro Germinativo/metabolismo , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A/fisiologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Camundongos , Proteínas com Domínio T/genética , Proteínas com Domínio T/metabolismo
19.
JCI Insight ; 5(9)2020 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376796

RESUMO

The TAFRO clinical subtype of idiopathic multicentric Castleman disease (iMCD-TAFRO) is a rare hematologic illness involving episodic disease flares of thrombocytopenia, anasarca, fever, reticulin myelofibrosis, renal dysfunction, and organomegaly (TAFRO) and progressive multiple organ dysfunction. We previously showed that the mTOR signaling pathway is elevated in lymph nodes of iMCD-TAFRO patients and that an mTOR inhibitor is effective in a small cohort of patients. However, the upstream mechanisms, cell types, and mediators involved in disease pathogenesis remain unknown. Here, we developed a targeted approach to identify candidate cellular drivers and mechanisms in iMCD-TAFRO through cellular and transcriptomic studies. Using paired iMCD-TAFRO PBMC samples collected during flare and remission, we identified T cell activation and alterations in NK cell and monocyte subset frequencies during iMCD-TAFRO flare. These changes were associated with increased Type I IFN (IFN-I) response gene signatures across CD8+ T cells, NK cells, and monocytes. Finally, we found that IFN-ß stimulation of monocytes and T cells from iMCD-TAFRO patient remission samples induced increased mTOR activation compared with healthy donors, and this was abrogated with either mTORC1 or JAK1/2 inhibition. The data presented here support a potentially novel role for IFN-I signaling as a driver of increased mTOR signaling in iMCD-TAFRO.

20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1909, 2020 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312993

RESUMO

Peptide exchange technologies are essential for the generation of pMHC-multimer libraries used to probe diverse, polyclonal TCR repertoires in various settings. Here, using the molecular chaperone TAPBPR, we develop a robust method for the capture of stable, empty MHC-I molecules comprising murine H2 and human HLA alleles, which can be readily tetramerized and loaded with peptides of choice in a high-throughput manner. Alternatively, catalytic amounts of TAPBPR can be used to exchange placeholder peptides with high affinity peptides of interest. Using the same system, we describe high throughput assays to validate binding of multiple candidate peptides on empty MHC-I/TAPBPR complexes. Combined with tetramer-barcoding via a multi-modal cellular indexing technology, ECCITE-seq, our approach allows a combined analysis of TCR repertoires and other T cell transcription profiles together with their cognate antigen specificities in a single experiment. The new approach allows TCR/pMHC interactions to be interrogated easily at large scale.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/química , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/química , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/química , Chaperonas Moleculares/química , Peptídeos/química , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Alelos , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Biblioteca Gênica , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Imunoquímica , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Linfócitos T
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