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2.
Glob Heart ; 16(1): 2, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33598382

RESUMO

Introduction: Alcohol consumption is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality globally. Consumption levels in Southern Latin America are among the highest in the world. Objectives: To describe consumption patterns and adherence to guidelines in the general adult population of Southern Latin America, as well as exploration of reasons for alcohol cessation and the advising role of the health worker in this decision. Methods: In 7,520 participants from the Centro de Excelencia en Salud Cardiovascular para el America del Sur (CESCAS) cohort, consumption patterns were described and the proportion excessive drinkers (i.e. >7 units/week for women and >14 for men or binge drinking: >4 (women) or >5 (men) units at a single occasion) was calculated. Former drinkers were asked if they had quit alcohol consumption on the advice of a health worker and/or because of health reasons. Furthermore, among former drinkers, multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to assess which participant characteristics were independently associated with the chance of quitting consumption on a health worker's advice. Results: Mean age was 54.8 years (SD = 10.8), 42% was male. Current drinking was reported by 44.6%, excessive drinking by 8.5% of the population. In former drinkers, 23% had quit alcohol consumption because of health reasons, half of them had additionally quit on the advice of a health worker. The majority of former drinkers however had other, unknown, reasons. When alcohol cessation was based on a health worker's advice, sex, country of residence, educational status and frequency of visiting a physician were independent predictors. Conclusion: In this Southern American population-based sample, most participants adhered to the alcohol consumption guidelines. The advising role of the health worker in quitting alcohol consumption was only modest and the motivation for the majority of former drinkers remains unknown. A more detailed assessment of actual advice rates and exploration of additional reasons for alcohol cessation might be valuable for alcohol policy making.

3.
JMIR Form Res ; 5(2): e19234, 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560230

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Virtual supermarkets offer a practical and affordable setting to test the efficacy of different pricing and nudging strategies before they are implemented in the real world. Despite the advantages of using virtual supermarkets for this purpose, conducting studies in online settings is challenging with regard to recruitment and retention of sufficient and suitable participants. OBJECTIVE: To describe cost, time, and retention with regard to participants recruited using various strategies and potential sociodemographic differences between participants recruited via different strategies. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used data from a randomized controlled trial in which 455 Dutch adults with low and high educational levels were invited to shop 5 times in a 3D virtual supermarket. Participants were recruited via social media and flyers. A log that tracked the costs of and time spent on the different recruitment strategies was kept by the study team. Outcome measures included the cost of recruitment strategies, the time investment by researchers, and recruitment and attrition rates of participants in the study. RESULTS: The median age of study completers was 31.0 (IQR 25.0) and 157 out of 346 study completers (45.4%) were highly educated. Out of the 455 included participants, 235 (51.6%) were recruited via social media campaigns, 131 (28.8%) via home-delivered flyers, 38 (8.4%) via flyers directly distributed by the study team, and 46 (10.1%) via word-of-mouth. Of all paid recruitment strategies, social media campaigns were the cheapest and least time-consuming, whereas the distribution of flyers by the study team was the most expensive and time-consuming recruitment strategy. Age, sex, overweight status, employment situation, and number of adults within the household varied by recruitment strategy. CONCLUSIONS: Using different recruitment strategies resulted in the efficient recruitment of a representative study sample and retention of participants was relatively high. While "word-of-mouth" was the most cost- and time-effective recruitment strategy, using only one type of recruitment strategy could result in a demographically skewed study population.

4.
Glob Heart ; 16(1): 13, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33598393

RESUMO

Background: Most risk assessment models for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) have been developed in Caucasians and Asians; little is known about their performance in other ethnic groups. Objectives: We aimed to identify existing models for the risk of prevalent or undiagnosed T2DM and externally validate them in a multi-ethnic population currently living in the Netherlands. Methods: A literature search to identify risk assessment models for prevalent or undiagnosed T2DM was performed in PubMed until December 2017. We validated these models in 4,547 Dutch, 3,035 South Asian Surinamese, 4,119 African Surinamese, 2,326 Ghanaian, 3,598 Turkish, and 3,894 Moroccan origin participants from the HELIUS (Healthy LIfe in an Urban Setting) cohort study performed in Amsterdam. Model performance was assessed in terms of discrimination (C-statistic) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow test). We identified 25 studies containing 29 models for prevalent or undiagnosed T2DM. C-statistics varied between 0.77-0.92 in Dutch, 0.66-0.83 in South Asian Surinamese, 0.70-0.82 in African Surinamese, 0.61-0.81 in Ghanaian, 0.69-0.86 in Turkish, and 0.69-0.87 in the Moroccan populations. The C-statistics were generally lower among the South Asian Surinamese, African Surinamese, and Ghanaian populations and highest among the Dutch. Calibration was poor (Hosmer-Lemeshow p < 0.05) for all models except one. Conclusions: Generally, risk models for prevalent or undiagnosed T2DM show moderate to good discriminatory ability in different ethnic populations living in the Netherlands, but poor calibration. Therefore, these models should be recalibrated before use in clinical practice and should be adapted to the situation of the population they are intended to be used in.

6.
J Diabetes Complications ; : 107810, 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33280986

RESUMO

AIMS: The American Diabetes Association, and the joint European Society of Cardiology and European Association for the Study of Diabetes guidelines recommend a resting ECG in people with type 2 diabetes with hypertension or suspected cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, knowledge on the prevalence of ECG abnormalities is incomplete. We aimed to analyse the prevalence of ECG abnormalities and their cross-sectional associations with cardiovascular risk factors in people with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We used data of the Diabetes Care System cohort obtained in 2018. ECG abnormalities were defined using the Minnesota Classification and categorised into types of abnormalities. The prevalence was calculated for the total population (n = 8068) and the subgroup of people without a history of CVD (n = 6494). Logistic regression models were used to asses cross-sectional associations. RESULTS: Approximately one-third of the total population had minor (16.0%) or major (13.1%) ECG abnormalities. Of the participants without a CVD history, approximately one-quarter had minor (14.9%) or major (9.1%) ECG abnormalities, and for those with hypertension or very high CVD risk, the prevalence was 27.5% and 39.6%, respectively. ECG abnormalities were significantly and consistently associated with established CVD risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Resting ECG abnormalities are common in all people with type 2 diabetes (29.1%), including those without a history of CVD (24.0%), and their prevalence is related to traditional cardiovascular risk factors such as older age, male sex, hypertension, lower HDL cholesterol, higher BMI, and smoking behaviour.

7.
Hypertension ; 76(6): 1971-1979, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131310

RESUMO

Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality. To identify targets for the prevention of hypertension and its associated disease burden, we used the 2-sample Mendelian randomization method to investigate the causal associations of 18 cardiovascular risk factors and lifestyle behaviors with hypertension. From European-descent genome-wide association studies, we selected genetic variants (P<5×10-8) for type 2 diabetes, fasting glucose, lipids, body mass index, smoking, alcohol and coffee consumption, physical activity, sleep duration, insomnia, and educational level. We extracted the genetic associations with hypertension from 2 European cohorts: the FinnGen Study (15 870 cases and 74 345 controls) and UK Biobank (54 358 cases and 408 652 controls). The inverse-variance weighted method was used as main analysis method. Genetically predicted triglycerides (pooled odds ratio [OR] per 1 SD, 1.17 [1.10-1.25]), body mass index (OR per 1 SD, 1.42 [1.37-1.48]), alcohol dependence (OR, 1.10 [1.06-1.13]), and insomnia (OR, 1.17 [1.13-1.20]) were associated with a higher odds of hypertension. Higher genetically predicted high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR per 1 SD, 0.88 [0.83-0.94]) and educational level (OR per 1 SD, 0.56 [0.54-0.59]) were associated with a lower odds of hypertension. Suggestive evidence was obtained for type 2 diabetes, smoking initiation and alcohol consumption with a higher hypertension odds, and longer sleep duration with a lower hypertension odds. This Mendelian randomization study identified high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, body mass index, alcohol dependence, insomnia, and educational level as causal risk factors for hypertension. This implicates that these modifiable risk factors are important targets in the prevention of hypertension.

8.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242360, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33253307

RESUMO

AIM: Subclasses of different glycaemic disturbances could explain the variation in characteristics of individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D). We aimed to examine the association between subgroups based on their glucose curves during a five-point mixed-meal tolerance test (MMT) and metabolic traits at baseline and glycaemic deterioration in individuals with T2D. METHODS: The study included 787 individuals with newly diagnosed T2D from the Diabetes Research on Patient Stratification (IMI-DIRECT) Study. Latent class trajectory analysis (LCTA) was used to identify distinct glucose curve subgroups during a five-point MMT. Using general linear models, these subgroups were associated with metabolic traits at baseline and after 18 months of follow up, adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: At baseline, we identified three glucose curve subgroups, labelled in order of increasing glucose peak levels as subgroup 1-3. Individuals in subgroup 2 and 3 were more likely to have higher levels of HbA1c, triglycerides and BMI at baseline, compared to those in subgroup 1. At 18 months (n = 651), the beta coefficients (95% CI) for change in HbA1c (mmol/mol) increased across subgroups with 0.37 (-0.18-1.92) for subgroup 2 and 1.88 (-0.08-3.85) for subgroup 3, relative to subgroup 1. The same trend was observed for change in levels of triglycerides and fasting glucose. CONCLUSIONS: Different glycaemic profiles with different metabolic traits and different degrees of subsequent glycaemic deterioration can be identified using data from a frequently sampled mixed-meal tolerance test in individuals with T2D. Subgroups with the highest peaks had greater metabolic risk.

9.
Eur J Nutr ; 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33236180

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe the patterns of ultra-processed foods (UPFs) consumption in the Netherlands; to test if exposure to the food environment is associated with UPFs consumption; and if this association differed across educational levels and neighbourhood urbanisation. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using 2015-data of 8104 older adults from the Dutch EPIC cohort. Proportion of UPFs consumption was calculated from a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Exposure to the food environment was defined as proximity and availability of supermarkets, fast-food restaurants, full-service restaurants, convenience stores, candy stores and cafés. Consumption of UPFs was expressed as both percentage of total grams and total kilocalories. RESULTS: The study population was aged 70(± 10 SD) years and 80.5% was female. Average UPFs consumption was 17.8% of total food intake in grams and 37% of total energy intake. Those who consumed greater amounts of UPFs had a poorer overall diet quality. Adjusted linear regression models showed that closer proximity and larger availability to any type of food retailer was associated with lower UPFs consumption (both in grams and kilocalories). Somewhat stronger significant associations were found for proximity to restaurants (ß = - 1.6%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = - 2.6; - 0.6), and supermarkets (ß = - 2.2%, 95%CI = - 3.3; - 1.1); i.e., Individuals living within 500 m from the closest supermarket, as compared to 1500 m, had 2.6% less calories from UPFs. No differences were found on analyses stratified for urbanisation and education. CONCLUSIONS: Using various measures of exposure to the food environment, we found that exposure to restaurants and supermarkets was associated with somewhat lower consumption of UPFs.

10.
J Nutr ; 150(12): 3171-3179, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A low vitamin D and K status has been associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk but the evidence of their combined effect on cardiovascular health is limited. OBJECTIVES: Our study aimed to investigate the prospective association of vitamin D and K status with subclinical measures of cardiovascular health and all-cause mortality among a population of Dutch Caucasians. METHODS: We performed an observational prospective study on 601 participants of the Hoorn Study (mean ± SD age: 70 ± 6 y, 50.4% women, BMI: 27.2 ± 4.0 kg/m2), of whom 321 underwent an echocardiogram in 2000-2001 and 2007-2009. Vitamin D and K status was assessed at baseline by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and plasma desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix-gla protein (dp-ucMGP)-high concentrations indicate low vitamin K status. Vital status was assessed from baseline until 2018. We studied the association of categories of 25(OH)D (stratified by the clinical cutoff of 50 mmol/L) and dp-ucMGP (stratified by the median value of 568 pmol/L) with echocardiographic measures using linear regression and with all-cause mortality using Cox regression, adjusted for confounders. RESULTS: Compared with markers of normal vitamin D and K status, markers of low vitamin D and K status were prospectively associated with increased left ventricular mass index (5.9 g/m2.7; 95% CI: 1.8, 10.0 g/m2.7). Participants with low vitamin D and K status were also at increased risk of all-cause mortality with an HR of 1.64 (95% CI: 1.12, 2.39) compared with normal vitamin D and K status. CONCLUSIONS: A combination of low vitamin D and K status is associated with adverse cardiac remodeling and increased risk of all-cause mortality in men and women. Future studies should investigate whether vitamin D and K supplementation could help to improve cardiovascular health and to decrease CVD risk.

11.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 290, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An overview of the diagnostic performance of natriuretic peptides (NPs) for the detection of diastolic dysfunction (DD) and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), in a non-acute setting, is currently lacking. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search in PubMed and Embase.com (May 13, 2019). Studies were included when they (1) reported diagnostic performance measures, (2) are for the detection of DD or HFpEF in a non-acute setting, (3) are compared with a control group without DD or HFpEF or with patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, (4) are in a cross-sectional design. Two investigators independently assessed risk of bias of the included studies according to the QUADAS-2 checklist. Results were meta-analysed when three or more studies reported a similar diagnostic measure. RESULTS: From 11,728 titles/abstracts, we included 51 studies. The meta-analysis indicated a reasonable diagnostic performance for both NPs for the detection of DD and HFpEF based on AUC values of approximately 0.80 (0.73-0.87; I2 = 86%). For both NPs, sensitivity was lower than specificity for the detection of DD and HFpEF: approximately 65% (51-85%; I2 = 95%) versus 80% (70-90%; I2 = 97%), respectively. Both NPs have adequate ability to rule out DD: negative predictive value of approximately 85% (78-93%; I2 = 95%). The ability of both NPs to prove DD is lower: positive predictive value of approximately 60% (30-90%; I2 = 99%). CONCLUSION: The diagnostic performance of NPs for the detection of DD and HFpEF is reasonable. However, they may be used to rule out DD or HFpEF, and not for the diagnosis of DD or HFpEF.

12.
Eur J Nutr ; 2020 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068157

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Vitamin K-dependent proteins are involved in (patho)physiological calcification of the vasculature and the bones. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) is associated with increased arterial calcification and increased fractures. This study investigates the effect of 6 months vitamin K2 supplementation on systemic arterial calcification and bone mineral density (BMD) in DM2 patients with a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHODS: In this pre-specified, post hoc analysis of a double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial, patients with DM2 and CVD were randomized to a daily, oral dose of 360 µg vitamin K2 or placebo for 6 months. CT scans were made at baseline and follow-up. Arterial calcification mass was quantified in several large arterial beds and a total arterial calcification mass score was calculated. BMD was assessed in all non-fractured thoracic and lumbar vertebrae. RESULTS: 68 participants were randomized, 35 to vitamin K2 (33 completed follow-up) and 33 to placebo (27 completed follow-up). The vitamin K group had higher arterial calcification mass at baseline [median (IQR): 1694 (812-3584) vs 1182 (235-2445)] for the total arterial calcification mass). Six months vitamin K supplementation did not reduce arterial calcification progression (ß [95% CI]: - 0.02 [- 0.10; 0.06] for the total arterial calcification mass) or slow BMD decline (ß [95% CI]: - 2.06 [- 11.26; 7.30] Hounsfield units for all vertebrae) when compared to placebo. CONCLUSION: Six months vitamin K supplementation did not halt progression of arterial calcification or decline of BMD in patients with DM2 and CVD. Future clinical trials may want to pre-select patients with very low vitamin K status and longer follow-up time might be warranted. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02839044.

13.
Atherosclerosis ; 313: 35-42, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Alcohol consumption is an important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality worldwide. The highest levels of alcohol consumption are observed in Europe, where alcohol as contributing cause of coronary heart disease (CHD) is also most significant. We aimed to describe alcohol consumption patterns across European regions and adherence to the current guidelines in patients with a recent CHD event. METHODS: The ESC-EORP survey (EUROASPIRE V) has been conducted in 2016-2017 at 131 centers in 27 European countries in 7350 patients with a recent CHD. Median alcohol consumption, as well as the proportion of abstainers and excessive drinkers (i.e. >70 g/week for women and >140 for men, as recommended by the European guidelines on cardiovascular prevention), was calculated for each region. To assess adherence to guidelines, proportions of participants who were advised to reduce excessive alcohol consumption and participants who were incorrectly not advised were calculated per region. RESULTS: Mean age was 64 years (SD: 9.5), 75% were male. Abstention rates were 53% in males and 77% in females, whereas excessive drinking was reported by 9% and 5% of them, respectively. Overall, 57% of the participants were advised to reduce alcohol consumption. In the total population, 3% were incorrectly not advised, however, this percentage differed per region (range: 1%-9%). In regions where alcohol consumption was highest, participants were less often advised to reduce their consumption. CONCLUSION: In this EUROASPIRE V survey, the majority of CHD patients adhere to the current drinking guidelines, but substantial heterogeneity exists between European regions.

14.
Nutr J ; 19(1): 103, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adults with a low socioeconomic position (SEP) are more likely to engage in unhealthy diets as compared to adults with high SEP. However, individual-level educational interventions aiming to improve food choices have shown limited effectiveness in adults with low SEP. Environmental-level interventions such as nudging strategies however, may be more likely to benefit low SEP groups. We aimed to review the evidence for the effectiveness of nudges as classified according to interventions in proximal physical micro-environments typology (TIPPME) to promote healthy purchases, food choice, or affecting energy intake or content of purchases, within real-life food purchasing environments. Second, we aimed to investigate the potentially moderating role of SEP. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO until 31 January 2018. Studies were considered eligible for inclusion when they i) complied with TIPPME intervention definitions; ii) studied actual purchases, food choice, or energy intake or content of purchases, iii) and were situated in real-life food purchasing environments. Risk of bias was assessed using a quality assessment tool and evidence was synthesized using harvest plots. RESULTS: From the 9210 references identified, 75 studies were included. Studies were generally of weak to moderate quality. The most frequently studied nudges were information (56%), mixed (24%), and position nudges (13%). Harvest plots showed modest tendencies towards beneficial effects on outcomes for information and position nudges. Less evidence was available for other TIPPME nudging interventions for which the harvest plots did not show compelling patterns. Only six studies evaluated the effects of nudges across levels of SEP (e.g., educational level, food security status, job type). Although there were some indications that nudges were more effective in low SEP groups, the limited amount of evidence and different proxies of SEP used warrant caution in the interpretation of findings. CONCLUSIONS: Information and position nudges may contribute to improving population dietary behaviours. Evidence investigating the moderating role of SEP was limited, although some studies reported greater effects in low SEP subgroups. We conclude that more high-quality studies obtaining detailed data on participant's SEP are needed. REGISTRATION: This systematic review is registered in the PROSPERO database ( CRD42018086983 ).

15.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 17(1): 98, 2020 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32746928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence on what strategies - or combination of strategies - are most effective and equitable in promoting healthier diets is needed. This study examined the efficacy of nudging and pricing strategies on increasing healthy food purchases and the potential differential effect by socio-economic position (SEP) among Dutch adults in a virtual supermarket. METHODS: A randomized study design was conducted within a virtual supermarket (SN VirtuMart). Participants were exposed to five within-subject study conditions (control, nudging, pricing, price salience and price salience with nudging) and randomized to one of three between-subject study arms (a 25% price increase on unhealthy products, a 25% discount on healthy products, or a 25% price increase and discount). In total, 455 participants of low and high SEP (using either education or income as proxy) were randomized to conduct their weekly shopping in a virtual supermarket for five consecutive weeks. The primary outcome included the percentage of healthy purchases. Data were analyzed using linear mixed models. RESULTS: In total, 346 (76%) adults completed all five shops within the SN VirtuMart. Median age was 32.5, 49.2% had high education and 32.8% had high income. Out of the 12 conditions, four conditions were statistically significantly different from the control condition. Nudging and non-salient pricing strategies alone did not statistically significantly increase healthy food purchases, whereas a combination of salient price increases and discounts led to an increase in the percentage of healthy food purchases (B 4.5, 95%CI 2.6; 6.4). Combining salient pricing and nudging strategies led to increases in the percentage of healthy products in all three pricing arms, with largest effects found in the combined price increase and discount arm (B = 4.0, 95%CI = 2.0; 6.0). Effects were not modified by SEP. CONCLUSIONS: Combining health-related price increases and discounts and combining these salient pricing strategies with nudges in a supermarket setting seems to stimulate healthy food purchases for both low and high SEP populations. However, further research in real-world settings is needed. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This randomized trial ( NTR7293 ) was registered in the Dutch trial registry ( www.trialregister.nl ).


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta Saudável/economia , Preferências Alimentares , Alimentos/economia , Adulto , Comércio , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos , Classe Social , Realidade Virtual
16.
Diabetologia ; 63(11): 2452-2461, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734441

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: In this study we examined the cost-effectiveness of three different screening strategies for diabetic retinopathy: using a personalised adaptive model, annual screening (fixed intervals), and the current Dutch guideline (stratified based on previous retinopathy grade). METHODS: For each individual, optimal diabetic retinopathy screening intervals were determined, using a validated risk prediction model. Observational data (1998-2017) from the Hoorn Diabetes Care System cohort of people with type 2 diabetes were used (n = 5514). The missing values of retinopathy grades were imputed using two scenarios of slow and fast sight-threatening retinopathy (STR) progression. By comparing the model-based screening intervals to observed time to develop STR, the number of delayed STR diagnoses was determined. Costs were calculated using the healthcare perspective and the societal perspective. Finally, outcomes and costs were compared for the different screening strategies. RESULTS: For the fast STR progression scenario, personalised screening resulted in 11.6% more delayed STR diagnoses and €11.4 less costs per patient compared to annual screening from a healthcare perspective. The personalised screening model performed better in terms of timely diagnosis of STR (8.8% less delayed STR diagnosis) but it was slightly more expensive (€1.8 per patient from a healthcare perspective) than the Dutch guideline strategy. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: The personalised diabetic retinopathy screening model is more cost-effective than the Dutch guideline screening strategy. Although the personalised screening strategy was less effective, in terms of timely diagnosis of STR patients, than annual screening, the number of delayed STR diagnoses is low and the cost saving is considerable. With around one million people with type 2 diabetes in the Netherlands, implementing this personalised model could save €11.4 million per year compared with annual screening, at the cost of 658 delayed STR diagnoses with a maximum delayed time to diagnosis of 48 months.

17.
Nutr J ; 19(1): 88, 2020 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32838789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low socio-economic position is associated with consumption of lower quality diets, which may be partly explained by the cost of healthier diets. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the mediating role of dietary costs in the association between educational level and diet quality. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from Dutch older adults (N = 9399) in the EPIC-NL cohort. Participants provided information about their own and their partners' highest attained educational level (as proxy for socio-economic position). Dietary behavior was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire from which we derived two diet-quality scores, including the Dutch Healthy Diet index 2015 (DHD15-index) and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. Dietary cost estimates were based on food price data from food stores, and linked to reported consumption of food items. Multiple regression analyses and bootstrapping were used examine the mediating role of dietary cost in the association between educational level and diet quality. RESULTS: Mean age of participants was 70 (SD: 10) years and 77% were women. Dietary costs significantly mediated the association between educational level and diet quality, except for high versus middle individual educational level and the DHD15-index. Depending on the dietary and educational indicator, dietary costs explained between 2 and 7% of the association between educational level and diet quality. Furthermore, associations were found to be modified by sex and age. For the DHD15-index, mediation effects were only present in females and adults older than 65 years, and for the DASH diet mediation effects were only present in females and strongest amongst adults older than 65 years compared to adults younger than 65 years. CONCLUSION: Dietary costs seems to play a modest role in explaining educational differences in diet quality in an older Dutch population. Further research is needed to investigate which other factors may explain SEP differences in diet quality.

18.
Eur J Nutr ; 2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32808059

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the association of both plasma vitamin D and K concentrations with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and cardiovascular events in the general population. METHODS: We studied 4742 participants of the Prevention of REnal and Vascular ENd-Stage Disease (PREVEND) Study. At baseline, vitamin D and K status was determined by measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and dephosphorylated uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein (dp-ucMGP), respectively. Patients were categorized into: 25(OH)D < 50 or ≥ 50 nmol/L and dp-ucMGP < 361 or ≥ 361 pmol/L with 25(OH)D > 75 nmol/L and dp-ucMGP < 361 pmol/L as reference. Cause of death was coded according to International Classification of Diseases 9&10 codes from the 2001-2003 examination until date of death/event or censoring date (January 1st, 2017). RESULTS: Mean age was 52.6 ± 11.9 years and 2513 (53%) were female. During a median of 14.2 year follow-up, 620 participants died of which 142 were due to cardiovascular causes. Combined low vitamin D and K status was present in 970 participants (20%) and was associated with a greater risk of all-cause mortality compared to high vitamin D and high vitamin K status group (n = 1424) after adjusting for potential confounders: hazard ratio 1.46 (95% confidence intervals 1.12-1.90). We observed similar trends, albeit non-significant for cardiovascular mortality, and cardiovascular events: 1.42 (0.79-2.55), 1.28 (0.93-1.77), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Combined low vitamin D and K status are associated with increased all-cause mortality risk and possibly with cardiovascular mortality and cardiovascular events compared with adequate vitamin D and K status. Future studies should investigate the effect of combined vitamin D and K supplementation on clinical outcomes.

19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(14)2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668720

RESUMO

Extracellular matrix protein turnover may play an important role in left atrial (LA) remodelling. The aim is to investigate the associations between matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1) and LA volume index (LAVI) and if these associations are independent of TIMP-1 levels. Participants from The Hoorn Study, a population-based cohort study (n = 674), underwent echocardiography. Serum MMPs (i.e., MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9, and MMP-10) and TIMP-1 levels were measured with ELISA. Multiple linear regression analyses were used. MMP-1 levels were not associated with LAVI. Higher MMP-2 levels were associated with larger LAVI (regression coefficient per SD increase in MMP (95% CI); 0.03 (0.01; 0.05). Higher MMP-3 and MMP-9 levels were associated with smaller LAVI; -0.04 (-0.07; -0.01) and -0.04 (-0.06; -0.02) respectively. Only in women were higher MMP-10 levels associated with larger LAVI; 0.04 (0.00; 0.07, p-interaction 0.04). Additionally, only in women were higher TIMP-1 levels associated with smaller LAVI; -0.05 (-0.09; -0.01, p-interaction 0.03). The associations between MMPs and LAVI were independent of TIMP-1 levels. In conclusion, serum MMPs are associated with LAVI, independent of CVD risk factors and TIMP-1 levels. In addition, these associations differ according to sex and within MMP subgroups. This shows that the role of MMPs in LA remodelling is complex.

20.
Am Heart J ; 227: 64-73, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lifestyle factors may be important targets in the prevention of heart failure. The current knowledge on the relationship between lifestyle factors and heart failure originates mostly from observational studies. The objective of this study was to investigate causal associations of multiple lifestyle factors with heart failure risk by using Mendelian randomization. METHODS: We obtained summary statistics data for single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with the following 5 lifestyle factors at genome-wide significance in genome-wide association studies of European-descent individuals: smoking, alcohol consumption, coffee consumption, physical activity, and sleep duration. The corresponding data for heart failure were acquired from a genome-wide association study comprising 47,309 cases and 930,014 controls of European ancestry. For the primary analyses, we used the inverse-variance weighted method. RESULTS: Genetic predisposition to smoking initiation (ever smoked regularly) was robustly associated with a higher odds of heart failure (odds ratio: 1.28; 99% CI: 1.21-1.35). Genetically predicted longer sleep duration was associated with a lower odds of heart failure (odds ratio per hour/day: 0.73; 99% CI: 0.60-0.89). We found no associations of alcohol consumption, coffee consumption, and physical activity with heart failure. CONCLUSIONS: This Mendelian randomization study showed that smoking initiation increases heart failure risk, whereas longer sleep duration decreases the risk of heart failure. Sleep duration should be regarded as novel risk factor in heart failure prevention guidelines. The potential causal role of alcohol and coffee consumption and physical activity for heart failure warrants further investigation in future larger Mendelian randomization analyses.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/genética , Insuficiência Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Estilo de Vida , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
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