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1.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567556

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We sought to refine the clinical picture of primary adrenal lymphoma (PAL), a rare lymphoid malignancy with predominant adrenal manifestation and risk of adrenal insufficiency. METHODS: 97 patients from 14 centers in Europe, Canada and the United States were included in this retrospective analysis between 1994 and 2017. RESULTS: Of 81 patients with imaging data, 19 (23%) had isolated adrenal involvement (iPAL), while 62 (77%) had additional extra-adrenal involvement (PAL+). Among patients who had both CT and PET scans, 18FDG-PET revealed extra-adrenal involvement not detected by CT scan in 9/18 cases (50%). The most common clinical manifestations were B symptoms (55%), fatigue (45%), and abdominal pain (35%). Endocrinological assessment was often inadequate. With a median follow-up of 41.6 months, 3-year progression-free (PFS) and overall (OS) survival rates in the entire cohort were 35.5% and 39.4%, respectively. The hazard ratios of iPAL for PFS and OS were 40.1 (95% CI: 2.63-613.7, p=0.008) and 2.69 (95% CI: 0.61-11.89, p=0.191), respectively. PFS was much shorter in iPAL versus PAL+ (median 4 months vs. not reached, p=0.006), and OS also appeared to be shorter (median 16 months vs. not reached), but the difference did not reach statistical significance (p=0.16). Isolated PAL was more frequent in females (OR=3.81; P=0.01) and less frequently associated with B symptoms (OR= 0.159; p=0.004). CONCLUSION: We found unexpected heterogeneity in the clinical spectrum of PAL. Further studies are needed to clarify whether clinical distinction between iPAL and PAL+ is corroborated by differences in molecular biology.

2.
Metabolism ; : 154297, 2020 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pheochromocytomas (PCCs) and paragangliomas (PGLs) are neuroendocrine tumors that are mostly benign. Metastatic disease does occur in about 10% of cases, and for these patients no effective therapies are available. Patients with mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB) gene tend to have metastatic disease. We hypothesized that a down-regulation in the active succinate dehydrogenase B subunit should result in notable changes in cellular metabolic profile and could present a vulnerability point for successful pharmacological targeting. METHODS: Metabolomic analysis was performed on human hPheo1 cells and shRNA SDHB knockdown hPheo1 (hPheo1 SDHB KD) cells. Additional analysis of 115 human fresh frozen samples was conducted. In vitro studies using N1,N11-diethylnorspermine (DENSPM) and N1,N12- diethylspermine (DESPM) treatments were carried out. DENSPM efficacy was assessed in human cell line derived mouse xenografts. RESULTS: Components of the polyamine pathway were elevated in hPheo1 SDHB KD cells compared to wild-type cells. A similar observation was noted in SDHx PCC/PGLs tissues compared to their non-mutated counterparts. Specifically, spermidine, and spermine were significantly elevated in SDHx-mutated PCC/PGLs, with a similar trend in hPheo1 SDHB KD cells. Polyamine pathway inhibitors DENSPM and DESPM effectively inhibited growth of hPheo1 cells in vitro as well in mouse xenografts. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates overactive polyamine pathway in PCC/PGL with SDHB mutations. Treatment with polyamine pathway inhibitors significantly inhibited hPheo1 cell growth and led to growth suppression in xenograft mice treated with DENSPM. These studies strongly implicate the polyamine pathway in PCC/PGL pathophysiology and provide new foundation for exploring the role for polyamine analogue inhibitors in treating metastatic PCC/PGL. Précis. Cell line metabolomics on hPheo1 cells and PCC/PGL tumor tissue indicate that the polyamine pathway is activated. Polyamine inhibitors in vitro and in vivo demonstrate that polyamine inhibitors are promising for PCC/PGL treatment.

3.
Horm Metab Res ; 52(6): 345-346, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544975

RESUMO

Primary aldosteronism (PA) is characterized by hypertension caused by inappropriately high adrenal aldosterone secretion, consecutively low plasma renin, and an elevated aldosterone to renin ratio. It is nowadays the universally accepted main cause of endocrine hypertension. According to the most recent epidemiological data, PA is present in 5.8% of unselected hypertensives in primary care, 6-12% of hypertensives treated in hypertension centers, and up to 30% in subjects with resistant hypertension 1. Despite this high prevalence, a recent survey demonstrated that screening for PA is not universally followed. Renin and aldosterone measurements, the basis for PA screening, are currently performed by only 7% of general practitioners in Italy and 8% in Germany 2. Accordingly, the prevalence of PA was low with 1% among hypertensives in Italy and 2% in Germany. In a retrospective cohort study of 4660 patients with resistant hypertension in California the screening rate for PA was 2.1% 3. Based on these data, it is clear that we still miss the majority of PA cases, despite advances in diagnosis and therapy.

4.
J Pathol ; 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32462735

RESUMO

Phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGL) are rare neuroendocrine tumours with a hereditary background in over one third of patients. Mutations in succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) genes increase the risk for PPGLs and several other tumours. Mutations in subunit B (SDHB) in particular are a risk factor for metastatic disease, further highlighting the importance of identifying SDH mutations for patient management. Genetic variants of unknown significance, where implications for the patient and family members are unclear, are a problem for interpretation. For such cases, reliable methods for evaluating protein functionality are required. Immunohistochemistry for SDHB (SDHB-IHC) is the method of choice but does not assess functionality at the enzymatic level. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry-based measurements of metabolite precursors and products of enzymatic reactions provides an alternative method. Here, we compare SDHB-IHC with metabolite profiling in 189 tumours from 187 PPGL patients. Besides evaluating succinate:fumarate ratios (SFR), machine learning algorithms were developed to establish predictive models for interpreting metabolite data. Metabolite profiling showed higher diagnostic specificity compared to SDHB-IHC (99.2% versus 92.5%, p = 0.021), whereas sensitivity was comparable. Application of machine learning algorithms to metabolite profiles improved predictive ability over that of the SFR, in particular for hard-to-interpret cases of head and neck paragangliomas (AUC 0.9821 versus 0.9613, p = 0.044). Importantly, the combination of metabolite profiling with SDHB-IHC has complementary utility, as SDHB-IHC correctly classified all but one of the false-negatives from metabolite profiling strategies while metabolite profiling correctly classified all but one of the false-negatives/positives from SDHB-IHC. From 186 tumours with confirmed status of SDHx variant pathogenicity, the combination of the two methods resulted in 185 correct predictions, highlighting the benefits of both strategies for patient management. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

5.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(8)2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424397

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Appropriate management of adrenal insufficiency (AI) in pregnancy can be challenging due to the rarity of the disease and lack of evidence-based recommendations to guide glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid dosage adjustment. OBJECTIVE: Multicenter survey on current clinical approaches in managing AI during pregnancy. DESIGN: Retrospective anonymized data collection from 19 international centers from 2013 to 2019. SETTING AND PATIENTS: 128 pregnancies in 113 women with different causes of AI: Addison disease (44%), secondary AI (25%), congenital adrenal hyperplasia (25%), and acquired AI due to bilateral adrenalectomy (6%). RESULTS: Hydrocortisone (HC) was the most commonly used glucocorticoid in 83% (97/117) of pregnancies. Glucocorticoid dosage was increased at any time during pregnancy in 73/128 (57%) of cases. In these cases, the difference in the daily dose of HC equivalent between baseline and the third trimester was 8.6 ± 5.4 (range 1-30) mg. Fludrocortisone dosage was increased in fewer cases (7/54 during the first trimester, 9/64 during the second trimester, and 9/62 cases during the third trimester). Overall, an adrenal crisis was reported in 9/128 (7%) pregnancies. Cesarean section was the most frequent mode of delivery at 58% (69/118). Fetal complications were reported in 3/120 (3%) and minor maternal complications in 15/120 (13%) pregnancies without fatal outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: This survey confirms good maternal and fetal outcome in women with AI managed in specialized endocrine centers. An emphasis on careful endocrine follow-up and repeated patient education is likely to have reduced the risk of adrenal crisis and resulted in positive outcomes.

6.
J Bone Miner Res ; 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315096

RESUMO

Endogenous Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a rare cause of secondary osteoporosis. The long-term consequences for bone metabolism after successful surgical treatment remain largely unknown. We assessed bone mineral density and fracture rates in 89 patients with confirmed Cushing's syndrome at the time of diagnosis and 2 years after successful tumor resection. We determined five bone turnover markers at the time of diagnosis, 1 and 2 years postoperatively. The bone turnover markers osteocalcin, intact procollagen-IN-propeptide (PINP), alkaline bone phosphatase, CTX-I, and TrAcP 5b were measured in plasma or serum by chemiluminescent immunoassays. For comparison, 71 sex-, age-, and body mass index (BMI)-matched patients in whom Cushing's syndrome had been excluded were studied. None of the patients received specific osteoanabolic treatment. At time of diagnosis, 69% of the patients had low bone mass (mean T-score = -1.4 ± 1.1). Two years after successful surgery, the T-score had improved in 78% of patients (mean T-score 2 years postoperatively -1.0 ± 0.9). The bone formation markers osteocalcin and intact PINP were significantly decreased at time of diagnosis (p ≤ 0.001 and p = 0.03, respectively), and the bone resorption marker CTX-I and TrAcP 5b increased. Postoperatively, the bone formation markers showed a three- to fourfold increase 1 year postoperatively, with a moderate decline thereafter. The bone resorption markers showed a similar but less pronounced course. This study shows that the phase immediately after surgical remission from endogenous CS is characterized by a high rate of bone turnover resulting in a striking net increase in bone mineral density in the majority of patients. © 2020 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1680, 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245949

RESUMO

Rosettes are widely used in epithelial morphogenesis during embryonic development and organogenesis. However, their role in postnatal development and adult tissue maintenance remains largely unknown. Here, we show zona glomerulosa cells in the adult adrenal cortex organize into rosettes through adherens junction-mediated constriction, and that rosette formation underlies the maturation of adrenal glomerular structure postnatally. Using genetic mouse models, we show loss of ß-catenin results in disrupted adherens junctions, reduced rosette number, and dysmorphic glomeruli, whereas ß-catenin stabilization leads to increased adherens junction abundance, more rosettes, and glomerular expansion. Furthermore, we uncover numerous known regulators of epithelial morphogenesis enriched in ß-catenin-stabilized adrenals. Among these genes, we show Fgfr2 is required for adrenal rosette formation by regulating adherens junction abundance and aggregation. Together, our data provide an example of rosette-mediated postnatal tissue morphogenesis and a framework for studying the role of rosettes in adult zona glomerulosa tissue maintenance and function.

8.
Horm Metab Res ; 52(6): 347-356, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252108

RESUMO

Hypokalemia is closely linked with the pathophysiology of primary aldosteronism (PA). Although hypokalemic PA is less common than the normokalemic course of the disease, hypokalemia is of particular importance for the manifestation and development of comorbidities. Specifically, a growing body of evidence demonstrates that hypokalemia in PA patients is associated with a more severe disease course regarding cardiovascular and metabolic morbidity and mortality. It is also well appreciated that low potassium levels per se can promote or exacerbate hypertension. The spectrum of hypokalemia-related symptoms ranges from asymptomatic courses to life-threatening conditions. Hypokalemia is found in 9-37% of all cases of PA with a predominance in patients with aldosterone producing adenoma. Conversely, hypokalemia resolves in almost 100% of cases after both, specific medical or surgical treatment of the disease. However, to date, high-level evidence about the prevalence of primary aldosteronism in a hypokalemic population is missing. Epidemiological data are expected from the recently launched IPAHK+study ("Incidence of Primary Aldosteronism in Patients with Hypokalemia").

9.
Horm Metab Res ; 52(5): 257-263, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32340044

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a rapidly spreading outbreak globally. Emerging evidence demonstrates that older individuals and people with underlying metabolic conditions of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia are at higher risk of morbidity and mortality. The SARS-CoV-2 infects humans through the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE-2) receptor. The ACE-2 receptor is a part of the dual system renin-angiotensin-system (RAS) consisting of ACE-Ang-II-AT1R axis and ACE-2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas axis. In metabolic disorders and with increased age, it is known that there is an upregulation of ACE-Ang-II-AT1R axis with a downregulation of ACE-2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas axis. The activated ACE-Ang-II-AT1R axis leads to pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic effects in respiratory system, vascular dysfunction, myocardial fibrosis, nephropathy, and insulin secretory defects with increased insulin resistance. On the other hand, the ACE-2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas axis has anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects on the respiratory system and anti-inflammatory, antioxidative stress, and protective effects on vascular function, protects against myocardial fibrosis, nephropathy, pancreatitis, and insulin resistance. In effect, the balance between these two axes may determine the prognosis. The already strained ACE-2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas in metabolic disorders is further stressed due to the use of the ACE-2 by the virus for entry, which affects the prognosis in terms of respiratory compromise. Further evidence needs to be gathered on whether modulation of the renin angiotensin system would be advantageous due to upregulation of Mas activation or harmful due to the concomitant ACE-2 receptor upregulation in the acute management of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/fisiologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Doenças Metabólicas/fisiopatologia , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prognóstico , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/genética
10.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 43(2): 326-333, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449323

RESUMO

Fabry disease (FD) is a rare X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by α-galactosidase A (α-Gal A) deficiency. The progressive accumulation of globotriaosylceramide results in life-threatening complications, including renal, cardiac, and cerebrovascular diseases. The pharmacological chaperone migalastat was recently approved as an alternative to enzyme replacement therapy in patients with amenable mutations. In this article, we investigate the proportion of amenable mutations, related to phenotype, in a population of adult patients with FD in Switzerland. This study included 170 adult patients (n = 64 males) from 46 independent pedigrees with 39 different identified mutations over the last 59 years. Overall, 68% had the classic phenotype and 48% fulfilled the current amenability criteria. Migalastat was stopped in 2/11 (18%) patients: the only male classic patient, because of lack of efficacy based on lyso-Gb3 levels, and one patient with a benign variant. In males, the achieved enzyme activities in peripheral leucocytes under migalastat treatment differed from the activities in HEK-cells after incubation with migalastat (eg, 33% in PL vs 41% HEK-cells for p.F113L; 43% in leucocytes vs 36% in HEK-cells for p.N215S, 24-30% in leucocytes vs 96% in HEK-cells for S238N). In this national cohort, we found a relatively high proportion of patients with amenable GLA mutations, which, however, had heterogeneous extent of amenability: the higher the residual α-Gal A activity, the higher the chaperone effect. Further studies are required to investigate the long-term benefits of migalastat therapy depending on the achieved enzyme activities in different amenable mutations.

11.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(3)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665382

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Signs and symptoms of Cushing's syndrome (CS) overlap with common diseases, such as the metabolic syndrome, obesity, osteoporosis, and depression. Therefore, it can take years to finally diagnose CS, although early diagnosis is important for prevention of complications. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the time span between first symptoms and diagnosis of CS in different populations to identify factors associated with an early diagnosis. DATA SOURCES: A systematic literature search via PubMed was performed to identify studies reporting on time to diagnosis in CS. In addition, unpublished data from patients of our tertiary care center and 4 other centers were included. STUDY SELECTION: Clinical studies reporting on the time to diagnosis of CS were eligible. Corresponding authors were contacted to obtain additional information relevant to the research question. DATA EXTRACTION: Data were extracted from the text of the retrieved articles and from additional information provided by authors contacted successfully. From initially 3326 screened studies 44 were included. DATA SYNTHESIS: Mean time to diagnosis for patients with CS was 34 months (ectopic CS: 14 months; adrenal CS: 30 months; and pituitary CS: 38 months; P < .001). No difference was found for gender, age (<18 and ≥18 years), and year of diagnosis (before and after 2000). Patients with pituitary CS had a longer time to diagnosis in Germany than elsewhere. CONCLUSIONS: Time to diagnosis differs for subtypes of CS but not for gender and age. Time to diagnosis remains to be long and requires to be improved.

12.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(3)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665449

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Urine steroid metabolomics, combining mass spectrometry-based steroid profiling and machine learning, has been described as a novel diagnostic tool for detection of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). OBJECTIVE, DESIGN, SETTING: This proof-of-concept study evaluated the performance of urine steroid metabolomics as a tool for postoperative recurrence detection after microscopically complete (R0) resection of ACC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 135 patients from 14 clinical centers provided postoperative urine samples, which were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We assessed the utility of these urine steroid profiles in detecting ACC recurrence, either when interpreted by expert clinicians or when analyzed by random forest, a machine learning-based classifier. Radiological recurrence detection served as the reference standard. RESULTS: Imaging detected recurrent disease in 42 of 135 patients; 32 had provided pre- and post-recurrence urine samples. 39 patients remained disease-free for ≥3 years. The urine "steroid fingerprint" at recurrence resembled that observed before R0 resection in the majority of cases. Review of longitudinally collected urine steroid profiles by 3 blinded experts detected recurrence by the time of radiological diagnosis in 50% to 72% of cases, improving to 69% to 92%, if a preoperative urine steroid result was available. Recurrence detection by steroid profiling preceded detection by imaging by more than 2 months in 22% to 39% of patients. Specificities varied considerably, ranging from 61% to 97%. The computational classifier detected ACC recurrence with superior accuracy (sensitivity = specificity = 81%). CONCLUSION: Urine steroid metabolomics is a promising tool for postoperative recurrence detection in ACC; availability of a preoperative urine considerably improves the ability to detect ACC recurrence.

13.
Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; 128(4): 246-254, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698477

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Recent studies support a bidirectional interaction between aldosterone and parathyroid hormone (PTH), possibly increasing the individual cardiovascular risk. Primary aldosteronism (PA) and primary hyperparathyroidism can occur simultaneously. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of hyperparathyroidism in PA. PATIENTS: We performed a case finding of primary hyperparathyroidism in a retrospective series of 503 patients with PA (cohort 1). We analysed primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism in 141 prospective PA patients who underwent PTH, serum calcium and phosphate measurements at time of diagnosis of PA (cohort 2). RESULTS: The prevalence for primary hyperparathyroidism was 1.2% in cohort 1, and 2.1% in cohort 2. Secondary hyperparathyroidism was found in 54.6% of the patients. Patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism had significantly higher aldosterone and lower potassium levels and took more antihypertensive medications compared to those with normal PTH levels. In multivariate analysis, aldosterone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were significantly correlated with serum PTH levels. There was a nonsignificant trend to a higher cardiovascular morbidity in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Patients with aldosterone producing adenoma had significantly higher PTH levels compared to patients with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia. After treatment, there was a significant decrease of PTH levels in both groups. CONCLUSION: Patients with PA frequently have primary or secondary hyperparathyroidism, which is alleviated by correction of PA by surgical or medical means. Patients affected by secondary hyperparathyroidism seem to have a more severe phenotype of PA and have a trend towards more cardiovascular co-morbidities.

14.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(3)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702016

RESUMO

CONTEXT: High dietary salt intake is known to aggravate arterial hypertension. This effect could be of particular relevance in the setting of primary aldosteronism (PA), which is associated with cardiovascular damage independent of blood pressure levels. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of therapy on salt intake in PA patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 148 consecutive PA patients (66 with unilateral and 82 with bilateral PA) from the database of the German Conn's Registry were included. Salt intake was quantified by 24-hour urinary sodium excretion before and after initiation of PA treatment. STUDY DESIGN: Observational longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: Tertiary care hospital. RESULTS: At baseline, unilateral PA patients had a significantly higher urinary sodium excretion than patients with bilateral disease (205 vs 178 mmol/d, P = 0.047). Higher urinary sodium excretion correlated with an increased cardiovascular risk profile including proteinuria, impaired lipid, and glucose metabolism and was associated with higher daily doses of antihypertensive drugs to achieve blood pressure control. In unilateral disease, urinary sodium excretion dropped spontaneously to 176 mmol/d (P = 0.012) 1 year after unilateral adrenalectomy and remained low at 3 years of follow-up (174 mmol/d). In contrast, treatment with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRA) in bilateral PA patients was not associated with a significant change in urinary sodium excretion at follow-up (179 mmol/d vs 183 mmol/d). CONCLUSION: PA patients consuming a high-salt diet, estimated based on urinary sodium excretion, respond to adrenalectomy with a significant reduction of salt intake, in contrast to MRA treatment.

15.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(3)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789380

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Aldosterone-producing adrenocortical adenomas (APAs) are mainly composed of clear (lipid rich) and compact (eosinophilic) tumor cells. The detailed association between these histological features and somatic mutations (KCNJ5, ATP1A1, ATP2B3, and CACNA1D) in APAs is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between histological features and individual genotypes in APAs. METHODS: Examination of 39 APAs subjected to targeted next-generation sequencing (11 KCNJ5, 10 ATP1A1, 10 ATP2B3, and 8 CACNA1D) and quantitative morphological and immunohistochemical (CYP11B2 and CYP17A1) analyses using digital imaging software. RESULTS: KCNJ5- and ATP2B3-mutated APAs had clear cell dominant features (KCNJ5: clear 59.8% [54.4-64.6%] vs compact 40.2% (35.4-45.6%), P = .0022; ATP2B3: clear 54.3% [48.2-62.4 %] vs compact 45.7% (37.6-51.8 %), P = .0696). ATP1A1- and CACNA1D-mutated APAs presented with marked intratumoral heterogeneity. A significantly positive correlation of immunoreactivity was detected between CYP11B2 and CYP17A1 in tumor cells of KCNJ5-mutated APAs (P = .0112; ρ = 0.7237), in contrast, significantly inverse correlation was detected in ATP1A1-mutated APAs (P = .0025; ρ = -0.8667). CONCLUSION: KCNJ5-mutated APAs, coexpressing CYP11B2 and CYP17A1, were more deviated in terms of zonation-specific differentiation of adrenocortical cells than ATP1A1- and ATP2B3-mutated APAs.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787931

RESUMO

Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a classical rare disease: it is often suspected in patients who do not have the disease; at the same time, it takes a mean of 3 years to diagnose CS in affected individuals. The main reason is the extreme rarity (1-3/million/year) in combination with the lack of a single lead symptom. CS has to be suspected when a combination of signs and symptoms is present, which together make up the characteristic phenotype of cortisol excess. Unusual fat distribution affecting the face, neck, and trunk; skin changes including plethora, acne, hirsutism, livid striae, and easy bruising; and signs of protein catabolism such as thinned and vulnerable skin, osteoporotic fractures, and proximal myopathy indicate the need for biochemical screening for CS. In contrast, common symptoms like hypertension, weight gain, or diabetes also occur quite frequently in the general population and per se do not justify biochemical testing. First-line screening tests include urinary free cortisol excretion, dexamethasone suppression testing, and late-night salivary cortisol measurements. All three tests have overall reasonable sensitivity and specificity, and first-line testing should be selected on the basis of the physiologic conditions of the patient, drug intake, and available laboratory quality control measures. Two normal test results usually exclude the presence of CS. Other tests and laboratory parameters like the high-dose dexamethasone suppression test, plasma ACTH, the CRH test, and the bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling are not part of the initial biochemical screening. As a general rule, biochemical screening should only be performed if the pre-test probability for CS is reasonably high. This article provides an overview about the current standard in the diagnosis of CS starting with clinical scores and screenings, the clinical signs, relevant differential diagnoses, the first-line biochemical screening, and ending with a few exceptional cases.

17.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 19(1): 105, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical care of patients with cyclic Cushing's syndrome (CS) is challenging. Classical pitfalls include incorrect subtyping, unnecessary surgical procedures and delayed definite treatment. CASE PRESENTATION: A 43-year-old female suffered from a rapidly cycling ectopic CS. She experienced six cycles of severe hypercortisolism within a 2 year period (maximum plasma cortisol 5316 nmol/L, normal range 124.2-662.4 nmol/L; maximum urinary free cortisol 79,469 nmol/24 h, normal range < 414 nmol/24 h) lasting 2-9 weeks. The episodes were associated with pronounced hypokalemia (lowest K+ value recorded 2.4 mmol/l) and progressive signs and symptoms of CS. A bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling (BIPSS) performed during a trough phase was false positive for pituitary ACTH overproduction resulting in unnecessary transsphenoidal surgery while a second BIPSS performed during an active phase was indicative for ectopic CS. The 18F-DOPA PET/CT showed a pancreatic lesion, which was subsequently partially removed. Surprisingly, the histopathology was conclusive for ACTH-positive lymph node metastasis located in the retro-duodenal tissue of an occult neuroendocrine tumor WHO grade II. The primary tumor has not been identified so far and, because of the persistent hypercortisolism, the patient underwent bilateral adrenalectomy. Two years later, ACTH levels started to increase progressively. Percutaneous biopsy of a newly identified suspected lesion in the fifth thoracic vertebra revealed a metastasis with positive staining for ACTH, synaptophysin and chromogranin A. Therapy with carboplatin and etoposide was started and, since then, the patient underwent 12 cycles of chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: We report the challenging case of a rapidly cycling CS secondary to ACTH-secreting neuroendocrine intestinal tumor of unknown primary. We highlight the importance of performing diagnostic tests only during the phases of active cortisol secretion and as soon as first symptoms appear to avoid pitfalls.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/diagnóstico , Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/metabolismo , Síndrome de Cushing/diagnóstico , Erros de Diagnóstico/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Intestinais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Primárias Desconhecidas/diagnóstico , Amostragem do Seio Petroso/métodos , Adulto , Biomarcadores/análise , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/metabolismo , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/cirurgia , Síndrome de Cushing/metabolismo , Síndrome de Cushing/cirurgia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Intestinais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Intestinais/cirurgia , Neoplasias Primárias Desconhecidas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Primárias Desconhecidas/cirurgia , Prognóstico
18.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 181(6): 647-657, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614337

RESUMO

Objective: Excess catecholamine release by pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGL) leads to characteristic clinical features and increased morbidity and mortality. The influence of PPGLs on metabolism is ill described but may impact diagnosis and management. The objective of this study was to systematically and quantitatively study PPGL-induced metabolic changes at a systems level. Design: Targeted metabolomics by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry of plasma specimens in a clinically well-characterized prospective cohort study. Methods: Analyses of metabolic profiles of plasma specimens from 56 prospectively enrolled and clinically well-characterized patients (23 males, 33 females) with catecholamine-producing PPGL before and after surgery, as well as measurement of 24-h urinary catecholamine using LC-MS/MS. Results: From 127 analyzed metabolites, 15 were identified with significant changes before and after surgery: five amino acids/biogenic amines (creatinine, histidine, ornithine, sarcosine, tyrosine) and one glycerophospholipid (PCaeC34:2) with increased concentrations and six glycerophospholipids (PCaaC38:1, PCaaC42:0, PCaeC40:2, PCaeC42:5, PCaeC44:5, PCaeC44:6), two sphingomyelins (SMC24:1, SMC26:1) and hexose with decreased levels after surgery. Patients with a noradrenergic tumor phenotype had more pronounced alterations compared to those with an adrenergic tumor phenotype. Weak, but significant correlations for 8 of these 15 metabolites with total urine catecholamine levels were identified. Conclusions: This first large prospective metabolomics analysis of PPGL patients demonstrates broad metabolic consequences of catecholamine excess. Robust impact on lipid and amino acid metabolism may contribute to increased morbidity of PPGL patients.


Assuntos
Metabolômica/métodos , Paraganglioma/metabolismo , Paraganglioma/cirurgia , Feocromocitoma/metabolismo , Feocromocitoma/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Catecolaminas/urina , Cromatografia Líquida , Creatinina/urina , Feminino , Histidina/urina , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ornitina/urina , Paraganglioma/urina , Feocromocitoma/urina , Estudos Prospectivos , Sarcosina/urina , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Tirosina/urina , Adulto Jovem
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31662271

RESUMO

Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGL) are rare neuroendocrine tumors, a large proportion of which secrete catecholamines. PPGL are associated with a high cardiovascular morbidity and come with a risk of malignancy. The therapy of choice is surgical resection. Nevertheless, PPGL are associated with a lifelong risk of tumor persistence or recurrence. Currently, there are no clinical, biochemical, histopathological or imaging characteristics, which can predict or exclude malignant behavior or tumor recurrence. Therefore, long-term follow-up is recommended even after apparent complete surgical removal. Early detection of recurrence is essential to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality due to catecholamine secretion, to prevent morbidity by mass effects of paraganglioma (PGL) or by metastatic spread of disease. Due to the rarity of these tumors, no prospective data on long-term surveillance exist. In fact, current recommendations are based on retrospective analyses, expert opinions and case studies. The aim of this review is to provide an overview on the current state of knowledge with regard to known factors that increase the risk of recurrence and might impact disease monitoring as well as the available possibilities for biochemical and imaging follow-up. Based on this overview, we aim to propose a practical approach for a patient-oriented follow-up after surgical removal of a PPGL.

20.
Hypertension ; 74(4): 784-792, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476909

RESUMO

Primary aldosteronism is a common form of endocrine hypertension mainly caused by a unilateral aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) or bilateral adrenal hyperplasia (BAH). AT1R-Abs (autoantibodies to the angiotensin II type 1 receptor) have been reported in patients with disorders associated with hypertension. Our objective was to assess AT1R-Ab levels in patients with primary aldosteronism (APA, n=40 and BAH, n=40) relative to patients with primary hypertension (n=40), preeclampsia (n=23), and normotensive individuals (n=25). AT1R-Abs in whole sera were measured using 2 different ELISAs which gave contrasting results. A functional cell-based assay was used to quantify activation of the AT1R (angiotensin II type 1 receptor) using whole sera or affinity-purified antibodies in the absence or presence of losartan (a specific AT1R antagonist). Serum samples from all groups displayed different levels of AT1R activation with different responses to losartan. Patients with BAH displayed higher losartan-independent affinity-isolated agonistic AT1R-Ab levels compared with patients with APA (P<0.01) and with normotensive individuals (P<0.0001). In patients with APA, BAH, and primary hypertension combined, higher aldosterone-to-renin ratios and lower plasma renin concentrations were associated with higher compared with lower agonistic AT1R-Ab levels. In patients with primary aldosteronism, higher AT1R-Ab activity was associated with an increased likelihood of a diagnosis of BAH compared with APA and with the presence of adrenal hyperplasia detected by computed tomography. Taken together, these data suggest that agonistic AT1R-Abs may have a functional role in a subgroup of patients with primary aldosteronism.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Hiperaldosteronismo/imunologia , Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina/imunologia , Glândulas Suprarrenais/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperaldosteronismo/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertensão/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pré-Eclâmpsia/imunologia , Gravidez , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
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