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1.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(1): e013119, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049139

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of carvacryl acetate (CVA) and nanoencapsulated CVA (nCVA) on gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep. The CVA was nanoencapsulated with chitosan/gum arabic and the efficacy of nanoencapsulation (EE), yield, zeta potential, nanoparticle morphology and release kinetics at pH 3 and 8 were analyzed. Acute and subchronic toxicity were evaluated in rodents and reduction of egg counts in the faeces (FECRT) of sheep. The sheep were divided into four groups (n = 10): G1, 250 mg/kg CVA; G2, 250 mg/kg nCVA; G3, polymer matrix and G4: 2.5 mg/kg monepantel. EE and nCVA yield were 65% and 57%, respectively. The morphology of the nanoparticles was spherical, size (810.6±286.7 nm), zeta potential in pH 3.2 (+18.3 mV) and the 50% release of CVA at pHs 3 and 8 occurred at 200 and 10 h, respectively. nCVA showed LD50 of 2,609 mg/kg. CVA, nCVA and monepantel reduced the number of eggs per gram of faeces (epg) by 57.7%, 51.1% and 97.7%, respectively. The epg of sheep treated with CVA and nCVA did not differ from the negative control (P>0.05). Nanoencapsulation reduced the toxicity of CVA; however, nCVA and CVA presented similar results in the FECRT.

2.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(4): 644-651, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800886

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of Eucalyptus citriodora essential oil and citronellal on sheep gastrointestinal nematodes. Essential oil composition was determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The substances were evaluated in vitro using adult worm motility test (AWMT) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The acute toxicity test in mice and the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) in sheep were performed. Citronellal was confirmed as the essential oil major constituent (63.9%). According to the AWMT, 2 mg/mL of essential oil and citronellal completely inhibited Haemonchus contortus motility at 6 h post exposure. H. contortus exposed to essential oil and citronellal exhibited internal ultrastructural modifications. The lethal dose 50 values in mice were 5,000 and 2,609 mg/kg for essential oil and citronellal, respectively. E. citriodora essential oil reduced sheep epg at 14 days post treatment by 69.5% (P<0.05). No significant differences were observed in epg between the citronellal and negative control groups (P>0.05). The interaction between citronellal and other constituents in the essential oil may be relevant for its in vivo anthelmintic activity. Thus, E. citriodora essential oil and citronellal pharmacokinetic studies may help elucidate the anthelmintic activity of these compounds.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Eucalyptus/química , Hemoncose/veterinária , Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Haemonchus/isolamento & purificação , Haemonchus/ultraestrutura , Camundongos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778527

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of Eucalyptus citriodora essential oil and citronellal on sheep gastrointestinal nematodes. Essential oil composition was determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The substances were evaluated in vitro using adult worm motility test (AWMT) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The acute toxicity test in mice and the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) in sheep were performed. Citronellal was confirmed as the essential oil major constituent (63.9%). According to the AWMT, 2 mg/mL of essential oil and citronellal completely inhibited Haemonchus contortus motility at 6 h post exposure. H. contortus exposed to essential oil and citronellal exhibited internal ultrastructural modifications. The lethal dose 50 values in mice were 5,000 and 2,609 mg/kg for essential oil and citronellal, respectively. E. citriodora essential oil reduced sheep epg at 14 days post treatment by 69.5% (P<0.05). No significant differences were observed in epg between the citronellal and negative control groups (P>0.05). The interaction between citronellal and other constituents in the essential oil may be relevant for its in vivo anthelmintic activity. Thus, E. citriodora essential oil and citronellal pharmacokinetic studies may help elucidate the anthelmintic activity of these compounds.

4.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 522-527, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483036

RESUMO

The anthelmintic resistance stimulated the search for strategies for controlling gastrointestinal nematodes, including the use of free essential oils or its nanoemulsion. This study evaluated the anthelmintic efficacy of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil (CcEO) and C. citratus essential oil nanoemulsion (CcEOn). Pysicochemical analyses were performed. The in vitro effect was determined using the egg hatch test (EHT) on Haemonchus contortus and in vivo effect was evaluated in sheep infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. The animals were treated with CcEO (500 mg/kg) or CcEOn (450 mg/kg) for the fecal egg count (FEC) and the determination of worm burden. The main component of CcEO was citral. The CcEO content in the nanoemulsion was 20% (v/v), and the mean particle size was 248 nm. In EHT, CcEO and CcEOn (1.25 mg/mL) inhibited larval hatching by 98.4 and 97.1%, respectively. Three animals treated with CcEO died whereas in the group treated with CcEOn one animal died. The FEC and total worm burden of the treated groups did not differ from the negative control (p>0.05). The CcEOn showed efficacy only on H. contortus (p<0.05). In conclusion, nanoencapsulation reduced toxicity and increased efficacy on H. contortus.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Cymbopogon/química , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Masculino , Nematoides/classificação , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Ovinos
5.
Exp Parasitol ; 205: 107734, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394093

RESUMO

Parasitism by Haemonchus contortus is one of the main limiting factors in small ruminant production around the globe. Although several studies suggest the use of integrated management practices, these parasites have been controlled essentially with synthetic anthelmintic drugs. The resistance mechanism against the imidazothiazole derivative levamisole in Haemonchus contortus has not been fully described. Recently, resistance was associated with a 63bp deletion in the Hco-acr-8b gene that encodes a subunit for a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. This study aimed to standardize a real time PCR (qPCR) protocol for levamisole resistance diagnosis in H. contortus populations based on this polymorphism and use it to characterize 23 field H. contortus populations obtained from different localities of Ceará State, Northeast Brazil. In addition, two populations of H. contortus were used as a standard of susceptibility and resistance, Inbred Strain Edinburgh (ISE) and Kokstad, respectively. Larval development tests (LDT) were performed on five field isolates and both EC50 and EC95 were estimated. LDT EC95 values provided a wider interval between susceptible and resistant populations than EC50 values (EC95 = 1.96-57.93 µM; EC50 = 0.05-0.39 µM), and were found to be more appropriate for differentiating them. Real time PCR results showed resistance allele frequencies ranged from 20.9 to 76.7%. Our results suggest that levamisole resistance may be present in field populations but it is not as widespread as benzimidazole resistance. This methodology may be useful to monitor levamisole resistance in field populations of H. contortus.


Assuntos
Antinematódeos/farmacologia , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Levamisol/farmacologia , Animais , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , DNA de Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Frequência do Gene/genética , Hemoncose/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Hemoncose/veterinária , Haemonchus/genética , Haemonchus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Junção Neuromuscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Junção Neuromuscular/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Receptores Colinérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Nicotínicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Tetramizol/farmacologia
6.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(3): 522-527, July-Sept. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1042515

RESUMO

Abstract The anthelmintic resistance stimulated the search for strategies for controlling gastrointestinal nematodes, including the use of free essential oils or its nanoemulsion. This study evaluated the anthelmintic efficacy of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil (CcEO) and C. citratus essential oil nanoemulsion (CcEOn). Pysicochemical analyses were performed. The in vitro effect was determined using the egg hatch test (EHT) on Haemonchus contortus and in vivo effect was evaluated in sheep infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. The animals were treated with CcEO (500 mg/kg) or CcEOn (450 mg/kg) for the fecal egg count (FEC) and the determination of worm burden. The main component of CcEO was citral. The CcEO content in the nanoemulsion was 20% (v/v), and the mean particle size was 248 nm. In EHT, CcEO and CcEOn (1.25 mg/mL) inhibited larval hatching by 98.4 and 97.1%, respectively. Three animals treated with CcEO died whereas in the group treated with CcEOn one animal died. The FEC and total worm burden of the treated groups did not differ from the negative control (p>0.05). The CcEOn showed efficacy only on H. contortus (p<0.05). In conclusion, nanoencapsulation reduced toxicity and increased efficacy on H. contortus.


Resumo A resistência anti-helmíntica estimulou a busca por estratégias de controle de nematoides gastrintestinais, incluindo óleos essenciais livres ou em nanoemulsão. Este estudo avaliou a eficácia anti-helmíntica do óleo essencial de Cymbopogon citratus (OECc) e da nanoemulsão do óleo essencial de C. citratus (nOECc). Análises físico-químicas foram realizadas. O efeito in vitro foi determinado no teste de eclosão de ovos (TEO) sobre Haemonchus contortus e o efeito in vivo foi avaliado em ovinos infectados com nematoides gastrintestinais. Os animais foram tratados com OECc (500 mg/kg) ou nOECc (450 mg/kg) para determinação do número de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG) e carga parasitária. O principal constituinte do OECc foi citral. O conteúdo de OECc na nanoemulsão foi 20% e o tamanho médio de partícula foi 248 nm. No TEO, OECc e nOECc (1,25 mg/mL) inibiram 98,4 e 97,1% da eclosão larvar, respectivamente. Três animais tratados com o OECc morreram, enquanto um animal do grupo tratado com a nOECc morreu. O OPG e a carga parasitária total dos grupos tratados não diferiram do controle negativo (p>0.05). A nOECc apresentou eficácia somente sobre H. contortus (p<0.05). Como conclusão, o nanoencapsulamento reduziu a toxicidade e aumentou a eficácia sobre H. contortus.

7.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(1): 105-112, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30916256

RESUMO

The indiscriminate administration of synthetic anthelmintics such as ivermectin contributes to the selection of subpopulations capable of resisting the drugs' effects. To understand the mechanisms of ivermectin resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans, this study attempted to identify molecular targets. C. elegans lineages that were sensitive and resistant to ivermectin were used. Collected nematodes were added to an extraction buffer and macerated in liquid nitrogen for protein extraction. The extracted proteins were separated according to molecular weight by SDS-PAGE to verify their integrity. Subsequently, proteins from both lineages were separated using two-dimensional electrophoresis. The gels were analyzed and the relevant spots were excised and identified by mass spectrometry (NanoESI-Q-TOF and MASCOT®) and subsequently assessed by GO enrichment and STRING® analyses. The increased expression of proteins associated with high metabolic activity, such as ATP-2 and ENOL-1, which are responsible for ATP synthesis, was observed. Furthermore, proteins with involvement in mediating muscular function (MLC-1, ACT-1, and PDI-2), signaling (FAR-1 and FAR-2), and embryo development (VHA-2) were identified. Protein interaction analysis indicated that the majority of the identified proteins in the resistant lineages participated in the same reaction triggered by ivermectin.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Helminto/metabolismo , Ivermectina/farmacologia , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Proteínas de Helminto/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(1): 105-112, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-990812

RESUMO

Abstract The indiscriminate administration of synthetic anthelmintics such as ivermectin contributes to the selection of subpopulations capable of resisting the drugs' effects. To understand the mechanisms of ivermectin resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans, this study attempted to identify molecular targets. C. elegans lineages that were sensitive and resistant to ivermectin were used. Collected nematodes were added to an extraction buffer and macerated in liquid nitrogen for protein extraction. The extracted proteins were separated according to molecular weight by SDS-PAGE to verify their integrity. Subsequently, proteins from both lineages were separated using two-dimensional electrophoresis. The gels were analyzed and the relevant spots were excised and identified by mass spectrometry (NanoESI-Q-TOF and MASCOT®) and subsequently assessed by GO enrichment and STRING® analyses. The increased expression of proteins associated with high metabolic activity, such as ATP-2 and ENOL-1, which are responsible for ATP synthesis, was observed. Furthermore, proteins with involvement in mediating muscular function (MLC-1, ACT-1, and PDI-2), signaling (FAR-1 and FAR-2), and embryo development (VHA-2) were identified. Protein interaction analysis indicated that the majority of the identified proteins in the resistant lineages participated in the same reaction triggered by ivermectin.


Resumo A administração indiscriminada de anti-helmínticos sintéticos, como a ivermectina, contribui para a seleção de subpopulações capazes de resistir ao efeito das drogas. Para entender os mecanismos de resistência à ivermectina em Caenorhabditis elegans, este estudo visou identificar alvos moleculares. Portanto, linhagens de C. elegans sensíveis e resistentes à ivermectina foram utilizadas. Os nematóides coletados foram adicionados ao tampão de extração e macerados em nitrogênio líquido para obtenção das proteínas. As proteínas extraídas foram separadas por peso molecular em SDS-PAGE para verificar sua integridade. Posteriormente, as proteínas de ambas as linhagens foram separadas por eletroforese bidimensional. Os géis foram analisados, os spots relevantes foram excisados e identificados por espectrometria de massa (NanoESI-Q-TOF e MASCOT®), em seguida, analisados ​​em seus termos de GO e STRING®. A expressão aumentada de proteínas associadas à alta atividade metabólica, como as proteínas ATP-2 e ENOL-1, responsáveis ​​pela síntese de ATP, foi observada. Além disso, foram identificadas as proteínas responsáveis ​​pelo controle da função muscular (MLC-1, ACT-1 e PDI-2), sinalização (FAR-1 e FAR-2) e desenvolvimento embrionário (VHA-2). A análise das interações proteicas indicou que a maioria das proteínas identificadas na cepa resistente participa da mesma reação desencadeada pela ivermectina.

9.
Vet Parasitol ; 248: 90-95, 2017 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29173548

RESUMO

Parasitism by Haemonchus contortus is one of the main limiting factors in small ruminant production in tropical areas. Benzimidazoles (BZ) and macrocyclic lactones (ML) are the most used anthelmintic classes in gastrointestinal nematodes control. There is considerable scientific evidence of a possible relation between the anthelmintic resistance to BZ and ML. This study aimed to characterize the dynamics of anthelmintic resistance in an H. contortus susceptible isolate under selection pressure for BZ and ML alone or in combination and the role of isotype 1 ß-tubulin gene SNPs in these situations. A total of 12 Somali sheep were infected with 5000 third stage larvae of H. contortus Inbred-Susceptible Edinburgh (ISE) isolate. Once infection was established, animals were distributed in three groups (n=4), each treated with crescent doses of oxfendazole (OXF), ivermectin (IVM) and oxfendazole plus ivermectin (IVMOXF). An additional control group with untreated animals was maintained during the entire experiment. After each treatment, eggs were collected and real-time PCR was performed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) F167Y, F200Y and E198A, in addition to egg hatch test (EHT) for BZ and larval development test (LDT) for ivermectin resistance. All treatments led to increased resistance allelic frequencies at SNPs F200Y and F167Y (p <0.05). In vitro results showed increased phenotypic resistance against both anthelmintic classes in groups IVM and IVMOXF while group OXF only developed resistance against BZ. Finally, we provide evidence that while isotype 1 ß-tubulin gene SNPs may have some involvement with ML resistance, the presence of these ß-tubulin SNPs alone are not sufficient to develop ML resistance.


Assuntos
Antinematódeos/farmacologia , Resistência a Medicamentos , Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/efeitos dos fármacos , Seleção Genética , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética , Animais , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Hemoncose/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Hemoncose/veterinária , Haemonchus/genética , Ivermectina/farmacologia , Masculino , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
10.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 26(3): 323-330, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28977246

RESUMO

Thymol is a monoterpene and acetylation form of this compound can reduce the toxicity and enhance its biological effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of thymol and thymol acetate (TA) on egg, larva and adult Haemonchus contortus and the cuticular changes, acute toxicity in mice and the efficacy on sheep gastrointestinal nematodes. In vitro tests results were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and followed by comparison with Tukey test or Bonferroni. The efficacy of in vivo test was calculated by the BootStreet program. In the egg hatch test (EHT), thymol (0.5 mg/mL) and TA (4 mg/mL) inhibited larval hatching by 98% and 67.1%, respectively. Thymol and TA (8 mg/mL) inhibited 100% of larval development. Thymol and TA (800 µg/mL) reduced the motility of adult worms, by 100% and 83.4%, respectively. Thymol caused cuticular changes in adult worm teguments. In the acute toxicity test, the LD50 of thymol and TA were 1,350.9 mg/kg and 4,144.4 mg/kg, respectively. Thymol and TA reduced sheep egg count per gram of faeces (epg) by 59.8% and 76.2%, respectively. In in vitro tests thymol presented better anthelmintic activity than TA. However TA was less toxic and in in vivo test efficacy was similar.


Assuntos
Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Timol/toxicidade , Timol/uso terapêutico , Acetatos/farmacologia , Acetatos/uso terapêutico , Acetilação , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Ovinos , Timol/farmacologia
11.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 26(3): 323-330, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-899288

RESUMO

Abstract Thymol is a monoterpene and acetylation form of this compound can reduce the toxicity and enhance its biological effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of thymol and thymol acetate (TA) on egg, larva and adult Haemonchus contortus and the cuticular changes, acute toxicity in mice and the efficacy on sheep gastrointestinal nematodes. In vitro tests results were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and followed by comparison with Tukey test or Bonferroni. The efficacy of in vivo test was calculated by the BootStreet program. In the egg hatch test (EHT), thymol (0.5 mg/mL) and TA (4 mg/mL) inhibited larval hatching by 98% and 67.1%, respectively. Thymol and TA (8 mg/mL) inhibited 100% of larval development. Thymol and TA (800 µg/mL) reduced the motility of adult worms, by 100% and 83.4%, respectively. Thymol caused cuticular changes in adult worm teguments. In the acute toxicity test, the LD50 of thymol and TA were 1,350.9 mg/kg and 4,144.4 mg/kg, respectively. Thymol and TA reduced sheep egg count per gram of faeces (epg) by 59.8% and 76.2%, respectively. In in vitro tests thymol presented better anthelmintic activity than TA. However TA was less toxic and in in vivo test efficacy was similar.


Resumo Timol é um monoterpeno e a acetilação deste composto pode reduzir a toxicidade e potencializar os seus efeitos biológicos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do timol e acetato de timolila (AT) sobre ovos, larvas e adultos de Haemonchus contortus e suas alterações cuticulares, toxicidade aguda em camundongos e a eficácia sobre nematoides gastrintestinais de ovinos. Os resultados dos testes in vitro foram analisados por análise de variância (ANOVA) e comparados pelo testes de Tukey ou Bonferroni. A eficácia do teste de redução da contagem de ovos nas fezes (RCOF) foi calculada pelo programa BootStreet. No teste de inibição da eclosão de ovos (TEO), timol (0,5 mg/mL) e AT (4 mg/mL) inibiram a eclosão das larvas em 98% e 67,1%, respectivamente. Timol e AT (8 mg/mL) inibiram 100% do desenvolvimento larval. Timol e AT (800 μg/mL) reduziram a motilidade dos nematoides adultos, em 100% e 83,4%, respectivamente. O timol provocou alterações cuticulares nos nematoides adultos. No teste de toxicidade aguda, a DL50 do timol e AT foi de 1.350,9 mg/kg e 4.144,4 mg/kg, respectivamente. Timol e AT reduziram a contagem de ovos por gramas de fezes (OPG) dos ovinos em 59,8% e 76,2%, respectivamente. Nos testes in vitro timol apresentou atividade melhor anti-helmíntica do que AT. Entretanto, AT foi menos tóxico do que o timol e no teste in vivo apresentaram eficácia semelhante.

12.
Vet Parasitol ; 238: 17-23, 2017 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28343954

RESUMO

Phlebotomine sand flies are blood-feeding insects of marked medical and veterinary significance. Investigations on the biology of these insects hold great importance for both ecological and epidemiological purposes. The present work describes a new approach for real-time PCR (qPCR) with SYBR Green®, named WMG-qPCR, to identify phlebotomine blood meals. The novelty of the assay was to design primers based on the Whole Mitochondrial Genome (WMG) of the potential hosts (human, dog, cat, brown rat and chicken) aiming to amplify through qPCR the regions of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) which are less conserved among all species. Initially, the best method for mtDNA extraction to be applied in WMG-qPCR was determined. Afterwards, amplification specificities were accessed by cross-reaction assays with mtDNA samples from all animal species, besides phlebotomine DNA. Finally, the selected primers were also tested for their limit of DNA detection through standard curves constructed by serial dilution of blood DNA obtained for each target animal species. The WMG-qPCR was able to detect as low as 10pL of blood, equivalent to 26, 84, 130, and 320fg DNA of cat, human, dog and rat, respectively. The assay was also capable to amplify as low as 5pL of chicken blood (5pg DNA). In conclusion, WMG-qPCR seems to be a promising tool to identify phlebotomine blood meals, with high species-specificity and sensitivity. Furthermore, as no supplementary techniques are required, this new approach presents minimized costs and simplified technical-training requirements for execution.


Assuntos
Sangue , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Psychodidae/fisiologia , Animais , Corantes Fluorescentes , Humanos , Compostos Orgânicos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Especificidade da Espécie
13.
Vet Parasitol ; 220: 28-32, 2016 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26995718

RESUMO

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is caused by the protozoan Leishmania infantum. This parasite is transmitted by the bite of a female sand fly. The most important sand fly species in VL transmission is Lutzomyia longipalpis. In Fortaleza, the capital of Ceará State, Brazil, the simultaneous occurrence of Lutzomyia migonei and L. longipalpis was detected in localities where VL transmission is observed. The purpose of this study was to determine conclusively if L. migonei can be found naturally infected with L. infantum in key focus in Fortaleza. Using a CDC traps we performed phlebotomine capture during one year. External morphological features and qPCR targeting species-specific gene sequences of Lutzomyia species were used to identify the female phlebotomine sand flies. The molecular identification of the Leishmania species was performed using qPCR targeting species-specific gene sequences of L. infantum and Leishmania braziliensis. The males L. migonei abundance was higher in the rainy season. Humidity and rainfall positively correlated with males L. migonei abundance, while temperature showed a negative correlation. The correlation between the density of L. migonei female with rainfall, relative air humidity, and temperature were not statistically significant. According to the molecular data produced by qPCR amplifications, three positive sand flies were identified as L. longipalpis, and one was identified as L. migonei. The infection rate was 0.35% and 0.18%, respectively. The parasite load was 32,492±2572 L. infantum in L. migonei while the L. longipalpis had parasite loads between 2,444,964.6±116,000 and 6,287,130±124,277. Our findings confirm L. migonei as a potential vector of VL in Fortaleza at a molecular level.


Assuntos
Insetos Vetores/genética , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Leishmania infantum/fisiologia , Psychodidae/genética , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Genes de Insetos/genética , Genes de Protozoários/genética , Controle de Insetos/instrumentação , Leishmania infantum/genética , Leishmaniose Visceral/transmissão , Masculino , Dinâmica Populacional , Estações do Ano
14.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 24(3): 268-75, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26444058

RESUMO

Parasitic nematodes are of major economic importance in livestock. An alternative for the control of parasites is phytotherapy. This study evaluated the efficacy of Cymbopogon citratus decoction (CcD), C. citratus essential oil (CcEo) and citral against Haemonchus contortus using in vitro egg hatch test (EHT) and larval development test (LDT) and an in vivo test using a Meriones unguiculatus (gerbil) model. The effect of 800 mg/kg CcEo was evaluated in gerbils that had been artificially infected with 5,000 third-stage H. contortus larvae. The effective concentrations required to inhibit 50% (EC50) of egg hatching were 0.46, 0.14 and 0.13 mg/mL for CcD, CcEo and citral, respectively. The EC50 values in the LDT were 5.04, 1.92 and 1.37 mg/mL for CcD, CcEo and citral, respectively. H. contortus population in the group treated with C. citratus essential oil was reduced by 38.5% (P< 0.05) in comparison to the control group. These results suggest that it may be possible to use C. citratus essential oil to control of H. contortus parasite of small ruminant.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Cymbopogon , Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Feminino , Gerbillinae , Hemoncose/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoncose/veterinária , Masculino , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Fitoterapia
15.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 24(3): 268-275, July-Sept. 2015. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-761128

RESUMO

Parasitic nematodes are of major economic importance in livestock. An alternative for the control of parasites is phytotherapy. This study evaluated the efficacy of Cymbopogon citratus decoction (CcD), C. citratus essential oil (CcEo) and citral against Haemonchus contortus using in vitro egg hatch test (EHT) and larval development test (LDT) and an in vivo test using a Meriones unguiculatus (gerbil) model. The effect of 800 mg/kg CcEo was evaluated in gerbils that had been artificially infected with 5,000 third-stage H. contortus larvae. The effective concentrations required to inhibit 50% (EC50) of egg hatching were 0.46, 0.14 and 0.13 mg/mL for CcD, CcEo and citral, respectively. The EC50 values in the LDT were 5.04, 1.92 and 1.37 mg/mL for CcD, CcEo and citral, respectively. H. contortus population in the group treated with C. citratus essential oil was reduced by 38.5% (P< 0.05) in comparison to the control group. These results suggest that it may be possible to use C. citratusessential oil to control of H. contortus parasite of small ruminant.


O parasitismo por nematoides tem grande importância econômica no rebanho. Uma alternativa para o controle de parasitas é a fitoterapia. Este estudo avaliou a eficácia do decocto de Cymbopogon citratus (DCc), do óleo essencial de C. citratus (OECc) e do citral contra Haemonchus contortus utilizando o teste in vitro de eclosão dos ovos (TEO) e o teste de desenvolvimento larval (TDL) e um teste in vivo com modelo Meriones unguiculatus (gerbil). O efeito de 800 mg/kg de OECc foi avaliado em gerbils infectados artificialmente com 5000 larvas de terceira fase de H. contortus. As concentrações efetivas necessárias para inibir 50% (CE50) da eclosão dos ovos foram 0,46; 0,14 e 0,13 mg/mL para DCc, OECc e citral, respectivamente. Os valores da CE50 no TDL foram de 5,04; 1,92 e 1,37 mg/mL para DCc, OECc e citral, respectivamente. No grupo tratado com óleo de C. citratus a população H. contortus foi reduzida em 38,5% (P < 0,05) em comparação com o grupo controle. Estes resultados sugerem que pode ser possível a utilização de óleo essencial de C. citratus para controle de H. contortus, parasita de pequenos ruminantes.

16.
Vet Parasitol ; 212(3-4): 444-7, 2015 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26233731

RESUMO

Strategies for controlling gastrointestinal nematodes have been developed based on the use of numerous alternative methods, including the use of phytotherapy. New formulations of essential oils with anthelmintic activity have been proposed as a means to optimize their biological effects. Thus, the objective of this study was to formulate a nanoemulsion to optimize the nematicide effect of Eucalyptus staigeriana essential oil (EsEO). Initially, physico-chemical analyses were performed to verify the stability of the E. staigeriana nanoemulsion (EsNano). In vitro tests were conducted to evaluate the ovicidal and larvicidal activities of both EsNano and EsEO against Haemonchus contortus, and toxicology tests were then performed on rodents. The EsEO content in the nanoemulsion was 36.4% (v/v), and the mean particle size was 274.3 nm. EsNano and EsEO inhibited larval hatching by 99% and 96.3% at 1 and 2mg/ml concentrations, respectively, and inhibited larval development by 96.3% and 97.3% at 8 mg/ml concentrations. The acute toxicity test revealed that the EsNano and EsEO doses required to kill 50% of the mice (LD50) were 1,603.9 and 3,495.9 mg/ml, respectively. EsNano did not alter the hematological parameters in the rats after treatment.


Assuntos
Eucalyptus/química , Hemoncose/tratamento farmacológico , Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Formas de Dosagem , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Óleos Voláteis , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
17.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 22(21): 6250-5, 2014 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25281268

RESUMO

In Northeastern Brazil visceral leishmaniasis is endemic with lethal cases among humans and dogs. Treatment is toxic and 5-10% of humans die despite treatment. The aim of this work was to survey natural active compounds to find new molecules with high activity and low toxicity against Leishmania infantum chagasi. The compounds thymol and eugenol were chosen to be starting compounds to synthesize acetyl and benzoyl derivatives and to test their antileishmanial activity in vitro and in vivo against L. i. chagasi. A screening assay using luciferase-expressing promastigotes was used to measure the growth inhibition of promastigotes, and an ELISA in situ was performed to evaluate the growth inhibition of amastigote. For the in vivo assay, thymol and eugenol derivatives were given IP to BALB/c mice at 100mg/kg/day for 30 days. The thymol derivatives demonstrated the greater activity than the eugenol derivatives, and benzoyl-thymol was the best inhibitor (8.67 ± 0.28 µg/mL). All compounds demonstrated similar activity against amastigotes, and acetyl-thymol was more active than thymol and the positive control drug amphotericin B. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated the presence of Leishmania amastigote only in the spleen but not the liver of mice treated with acetyl-thymol. Thus, these synthesized derivatives demonstrated anti-leishmanial activity both in vitro and in vivo. These may constitute useful compounds to generate new agents for treatment of leishmaniasis.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/química , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Eugenol/análogos & derivados , Eugenol/uso terapêutico , Leishmania infantum/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmaniose Visceral/tratamento farmacológico , Timol/análogos & derivados , Timol/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Eugenol/farmacologia , Humanos , Macrófagos/parasitologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Timol/farmacologia
18.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 23(3): 320-7, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25271451

RESUMO

The main vector for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is Lutzomyia longipalpis. However, the absence of L. longipalpis in a region of autochthonous VL demonstrates the participation of other species in the transmission of the parasite. Studies conducted in La Banda, Argentina, and São Vicente Férrer, Pernambuco State, Brazil, have correlated the absence of L. longipalpis and the presence of L. migonei with autochthonous cases of VL. In São Vicente Férrer, Pernambuco, there was evidence for the natural infection of L. migonei with Leishmania infantum chagasi. Thus, the objective of this work was to assess the ecology of the sand flies L. longipalpis and L. migonei in Fortaleza, an endemic area for VL. Insect capture was conducted at 22 sampling points distributed across four regions of Fortaleza. In total, 32,403 sand flies were captured; of these, 18,166 (56%) were identified as L. longipalpis and 14,237 (44%) as L. migonei. There were significant density differences found between the vectors at each sampling site (indoors and outdoors) (p <0.0001). These findings confirm that L. migonei and L. longipalpis are distributed throughout Fortaleza, where they have adapted to an indoor environment, and suggest that L. migonei may share the role as a vector with L. longipalpis in the transmission of VL in Fortaleza.


Assuntos
Insetos Vetores , Leishmaniose Visceral , Psychodidae , Animais , Brasil , Demografia , Doenças Endêmicas , Feminino , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Masculino , Saúde da População Urbana
19.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 23(3): 320-327, Jul-Sep/2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-722721

RESUMO

The main vector for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is Lutzomyia longipalpis. However, the absence of L. longipalpis in a region of autochthonous VL demonstrates the participation of other species in the transmission of the parasite. Studies conducted in La Banda, Argentina, and São Vicente Férrer, Pernambuco State, Brazil, have correlated the absence of L. longipalpis and the presence of L. migonei with autochthonous cases of VL. In São Vicente Férrer, Pernambuco, there was evidence for the natural infection of L. migonei with Leishmania infantum chagasi. Thus, the objective of this work was to assess the ecology of the sand flies L. longipalpis and L. migonei in Fortaleza, an endemic area for VL. Insect capture was conducted at 22 sampling points distributed across four regions of Fortaleza. In total, 32,403 sand flies were captured; of these, 18,166 (56%) were identified as L. longipalpis and 14,237 (44%) as L. migonei. There were significant density differences found between the vectors at each sampling site (indoors and outdoors) (p <0.0001). These findings confirm that L. migonei and L. longipalpis are distributed throughout Fortaleza, where they have adapted to an indoor environment, and suggest that L. migonei may share the role as a vector with L. longipalpis in the transmission of VL in Fortaleza.


O principal vetor de leishmaniose visceral (LV) no Brasil é Lutzomyia longipalpis. Entretanto, a ausência de L. longipalpis em área com casos autóctones de LV demonstra a existência de outras espécies na transmissão dessa doença. Estudo realizado na cidade de La Banda, Argentina, e São Vicente Férrer, Brasil, correlacionou a ausência de L. longipalpis e a presença de Lutzomyia migonei com casos autóctones de LV. Em São Vicente Férrer, foi comprovada a infecção natural de L. migonei por Leishmania infantum chagasi. Dessa forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a ecologia dos flebotomíneos L. longipalpis e L. migonei no município de Fortaleza, área endêmica para LV. A captura de flebotomíneos foi realizada em 22 pontos de coleta distribuídos nas quatro regiões do município de Fortaleza. No total, foram capturados 32.403 flebotomíneos. Destes, 18.166 (56%) eram da espécie L. longipalpis e 14.237 (44%) eram L. migonei. Houve diferença significativa de densidade entre os vetores em cada local de captura (intra e peri) (p<0,0001). Esses achados confirmam que, na cidade de Fortaleza, L. migonei e L. longipalpis estão bem distribuídos, bem como adaptados ao ambiente intradomiciliar e que L. migonei, possivelmente, compartilhe com L. longipalpis o papel de vetor da LV em Fortaleza.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Insetos Vetores , Leishmaniose Visceral , Psychodidae , Brasil , Demografia , Doenças Endêmicas , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Saúde da População Urbana
20.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 23(1): 55-62, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24728361

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to perform an epidemiological survey to determine the areas at risk of visceral leishmaniasis through the detection and quantification of natural infection by Leishmania infantum in Lutzomyia longipalpis. The sandflies were captured between February 2009 and January 2010, at 21 sites in four regions of the Fortaleza municipality. Samples were screened for the presence of Leishmania DNA by Real Time PCR (qPCR), amplification of kDNA minicircle sequence. Out of the 123 pools of analyzed sandflies, 45 were positive for L.infantum, and the minimum infection rate was 3.7%. In the north, south, east and west regions, the pool screen assay predicted sand-fly infection prevalence of 3.4%, 4.7%, 4.9% and 8.4%, respectively. The parasite load ranged from 2.45 ± 0.96 to 2,820,246 ± 106,072. No statistical differences were found with respect to the frequency of sand-fly infection between the regions (P=0.3014), seasons (P = 0.3906) or trap locations (P = 0.8486). Statistical differences were found with respect to the frequency of sand-fly infection between the two seasons only in the west region (P=0.0152). The qPCR was able to detect and quantify L. infantum in L. longipalpis, therefore succeeding in identifying the areas of greatest risk of VL transmission.


Assuntos
Leishmania infantum/fisiologia , Phlebotomus/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Carga Parasitária
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