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Bull World Health Organ ; 98(12): 859-868, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33293746


Objective: To determine the regional- and district-level newborn prevalence of sickle cell trait and disease, and the prevalence of haemoglobin variants and genetic modifiers of sickle cell disease, in the nine regions of north-western United Republic of Tanzania. Methods: We repurposed dried blood spot samples from children (aged 0-24 months) born to mothers living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), collected as part of the HIV Early Infant Diagnosis programme, for sickle cell diagnosis. We performed isoelectric focusing to determine whether samples had normal haemoglobin, sickle cell trait, sickle cell disease or a rare haemoglobin variant. We shipped samples diagnosed as disease or variant to Cincinnati Children's Hospital in the United States of America for deoxyribonucleic-acid-based analyses to determine the prevalence of α-thalassaemia, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency or fetal haemoglobin genetic modifiers. Findings: We analysed a total of 17 200 specimens during February 2017-May 2018. We observed a prevalence of sickle cell trait and disease of 20.3% (3492/17 200) and 1.2% (210/17 200), respectively. District-level trait varied from 8.6% (5/58) to 28.1% (77/274). Among confirmed sickle cell disease specimens, we noted 42.7% (61/143) had 1-gene deletion and 14.7% (21/143) had 2-gene deletion α-thalassaemia trait. We documented G6PD A- deficiency in 19.2% (14/73) of males. Conclusion: Our calculated prevalence is twice as high as previously reported and reinforces the need for enhanced sickle cell diagnostic services. Our district-level data will inform public health policy, allowing screening and disease-modifying hydroxyurea therapy to be focused on high-prevalence areas, until universal newborn screening is available.

Afr J Lab Med ; 7(1): 657, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30167386


Background: Use of laboratory evidence-based patient health care in Tanzania remains a complex problem, as with many other countries in sub-Saharan Africa. As at 2010, 39 African countries, including Tanzania, had no clinical laboratories that met the minimum requirements for international laboratory standards (International Organization for Standardization [ISO] 15189). Objective: The aim of this article is to share experience from Bugando Medical Centre laboratory's milestones in reaching ISO 15189 accreditation. Methods: Mentors to address the laboratory management and technical requirements performed a gap analysis using the Southern African Development Community Accreditation system checklist. Several non-conformances were detected. System and technical procedures were developed, approved and communicated. Quality indicators were established to measure laboratory improvement and to identify issues which require immediate and preventive actions. Results: The departments' external quality assessment performance increased after ISO 15189 implementation (e.g. Parasitology from 45% to 100%, Molecular Biology from no records to 100%, Biochemistry 50% to 95%, Tuberculosis Microscopy 60% to 100%, and Microbiology from 48.1% to 100%). There was a reduction in complaints, from eight to two per week. Rejected samples were reduced from 7.2% to 1.2%. Turn-around time was not recorded before implementation but reached 92% (1644/1786) of the defined targets, and the proportion of contamination in blood cultures decreased from 16% to 4%. Conclusion: Our experience suggests that the implementation of a quality management system is possible in resource-limited countries like Tanzania. Mentorship is necessary and should be done by professional laboratory mentors trained in quality management systems. Financial resources and motivated staff are key to achieving ISO 15189 accreditation.

BMC Infect Dis ; 18(1): 110, 2018 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29510670


BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) contact tracing is a key strategy for containing TB and provides addition to the passive case finding approach. However, this practice has not been implemented in Tanzania, where there is unacceptably high treatment gap of 62.1% between cases estimated and cases detected. Therefore calls for more aggressive case finding for TB to close this gap. We aimed to determine the magnitude and predictors of bacteriologically-confirmed pulmonary TB among household contacts of bacteriologically-confirmed pulmonary TB index cases in the city of Mwanza, Tanzania. METHODS: This study was carried out from August to December 2016 in Mwanza city at the TB outpatient clinics of Tertiary Hospital of the Bugando Medical Centre, Sekou-Toure Regional Hospital, and Nyamagana District Hospital. Bacteriologically-confirmed TB index cases diagnosed between May and July 2016 were identified from the laboratory registers book. Contacts were traced by home visits by study TB nurses, and data were collected using a standardized TB screening questionnaire. To detect the bacterioriologically-confirmed pulmonary TB, two sputum samples per household contact were collected under supervision for all household contacts following standard operating procedures. Samples were transported to the Bugando Medical Centre TB laboratory for investigation for TB using fluorescent smear microscopy, GeneXpert MTB/RIF and Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture. Logistic regression was used to determine predictors of bacteriologically-confirmed pulmonary TB among household contacts. RESULTS: During the study period, 456 household contacts from 93 TB index cases were identified. Among these 456 household contacts, 13 (2.9%) were GeneXpert MTB/RIF positive, 18 (3.9%) were MTB-culture positive and four (0.9%) were AFB-smear positive. Overall, 29 (6.4%) of contacts had bacteriologically-confirmed pulmonary TB. Predictors of bacteriologically-confirmed pulmonary TB among household contacts were7being married (Odds ratio [OR], 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-8.0; p = 0.012) and consuming less than three meals a day (OR, 3.7; 95% CI, 1.6-8.7; p = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that in Mwanza, Tanzania, seven in 100 contacts living in the same house with a TB patient develop bacteriologically-confirmed pulmonary TB. These results therefore underscore the need to implement routine TB contact tracing to control tuberculosis in high TB burden countries such as Tanzania.

Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ambulatório Hospitalar , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escarro/microbiologia , Tanzânia
Hum Pathol ; 37(1): 23-31, 2006 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16360412


We set out to analyze the presence of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)/human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) in different neoplasms occurring in East Africa, a region characterized by a high KSHV/HHV-8 seroprevalence rate and endemic Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). Our results suggest that, in endemic regions of Africa, KSHV/HHV-8 is predominantly associated with KS, independently of HIV status. During the course of this study, other important information came to light. We found the presence of KSHV/HHV-8 in 2 cases of lymph nodes partially involved by Burkitt's lymphoma and KS and in 1 case of multicentric Castleman disease. Our immunophenotypic and molecular data seem to suggest 2 different mechanisms of viral infection are at work in lymphoid cells. On one hand, when B cells show a latent phase infection with KSHV/HHV-8, after the germinal center reaction, naive B cells become resting memory B cells, similarly to Epstein-Barr virus-infected B cells. On the other hand, when lytic genes such as vIL6 are expressed in naive B cells, they may be driven to differentiate into plasmablasts without undergoing germinal center reaction. Interestingly, among KSHV/HHV-8-positive cases, in those in which there was also lymphoma, the neoplastic cells were negative for KSHV/HHV-8. This further confirms that KSHV/HHV-8 is involved in the neoplastic transformation of only certain types of lymphoma, probably in relation to their precursor infected cell. In conclusion, the maturation stage of KSHV/HHV-8-positive B cells as well as the type of viral infection may well determine the morphological, phenotypic, and clinical characteristics of KSHV/HHV-8-associated lymphomas.

Centro Germinativo/virologia , Herpesvirus Humano 8/isolamento & purificação , Linfoma/virologia , Sarcoma de Kaposi/virologia , Adulto , Antígenos Virais , Linfócitos B/patologia , Linfócitos B/virologia , Linfoma de Burkitt/patologia , Linfoma de Burkitt/virologia , Hiperplasia do Linfonodo Gigante/patologia , Hiperplasia do Linfonodo Gigante/virologia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica , Criança , DNA Viral/análise , Feminino , Centro Germinativo/patologia , HIV/genética , HIV/isolamento & purificação , Herpesvirus Humano 4/genética , Herpesvirus Humano 4/isolamento & purificação , Herpesvirus Humano 8/genética , Herpesvirus Humano 8/imunologia , Humanos , Linfoma/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Nucleares , RNA Viral/análise , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sarcoma de Kaposi/patologia