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1.
J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci ; 59(3): 322-327, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32204749

RESUMO

Accurate assessment of coagulation in porcine studies is essential. We sought to establish normal values for porcine rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) according to the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology guidelines and to assess the effects of various preanalytical parameters on those measurements. Healthy Yorkshire-cross pigs (n = 81; 46 males and 35 females) were anesthetized. By using a 18-gauge needle attached to a vacuum phlebotomy tube, blood was acquired from the cranial vena cava. Tubes were filled in the following order: evacuation clot tube, EDTA tube, heparin tube, and 2 citrate tubes. The citrate tubes were randomly assigned to 30 min with or without constant agitation on a rocker. The following parameters were reported according to the manufacturer's recommendations: clotting time, clot formation time, α, (tangent to the clot formation curve when the clot firmness is 20 mm), clot firmness after 10 and 20 min, maximal clot firmness, maximum lysis, and lysis indexes at 30 and 45 min. Reference intervals were reported as mean ± 2 SD (parametric distribution) or 2.5th and 97.5th percentile of the population's results (nonparametric distribution). The effects of sex, sampling order, and agitation on ROTEM results were analyzed through linear regression. Neither sex nor sample agitation influenced any of the ROTEM parameters. Combined reference intervals were established for each ROTEM parameter by pooling data from the nonagitated tubes for both male and female pigs. This study is the first to establish ROTEM reference intervals from a large number of male and female adult Yorkshire-cross pigs and to provide a detailed description of preanalytical sample processing.

2.
Mil Med ; 185(Suppl 1): 42-49, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074339

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: External cooling of ischemic limbs has been shown to have a significant protective benefit for durations up to 4 hours. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It was hypothesized that this benefit could be extended to 8 hours. Six swine were anesthetized and instrumented, then underwent a 25% total blood volume hemorrhage. Animals were randomized to hypothermia or normothermia followed by 8 hours of Zone 3 resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta, then resuscitation with shed blood, warming, and 3 hours of critical care. Physiologic parameters were continuously recorded, and laboratory specimens were obtained at regular intervals. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between groups at baseline. There were no significant differences between creatine kinase in the hypothermia group when compared to the normothermia group (median [IQR] = 15,206 U/mL [12,476-19,987] vs 23,027 U/mL [18,745-26,843]); P = 0.13) at the end of the study. Similarly, serum myoglobin was also not significantly different in the hypothermia group after 8 hours (7,345 ng/mL [5,082-10,732] vs 5,126 ng/mL [4,720-5,298]; P = 0.28). No histologic differences were observed in hind limb skeletal muscle. CONCLUSION: While external cooling during prolonged Zone 3 resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta appears to decrease ischemic muscle injury, this benefit appears to be time dependent. As the ischemic time approaches 8 hours, the benefit from hypothermia decreases.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is recommended in adults with a non-compressible torso hemorrhage with occlusion times of less than 60 minutes. The tolerable duration in children is unknown. We used a pediatric swine controlled hemorrhage model to evaluate the physiologic effects of 30 and 60 minutes of REBOA. METHODS: Pediatric swine weighing 20-30kg underwent a splenectomy and a controlled 60% total blood volume hemorrhage over 30 minutes, followed by either Zone 1 REBOA for 30 minutes (30R) or 60 minutes (60R). Swine were then resuscitated with shed blood and received critical care for 240 minutes. RESULTS: During critical care, the 30R group's (n=3) pH, bicarbonate, base excess and lactate were no different than baseline, while at the end of critical care, these variables continued to differ from baseline in the 60R group (n=5) and were worsening (7.4 vs 7.2, p<0.001, 30.4 vs 18.4mmol/L, p<0.0001, 5.6 vs -8.5mmol/L, p<0.0001, 2.4 vs 5.7mmol/L, p<0.001, respectively). Compared to baseline, end creatinine and creatinine kinase were elevated in 60R swine (1.0 vs 1.7mg/dL, p<0.01 and 335.4 vs 961.0U/L, p<0.001, respectively), but not 30R swine (0.9 vs 1.2 mg/dL, p=0.06 and 423.7 vs 769.5U/L, p=0.15, respectively). There was no difference in survival time between the 30R and 60R pediatric swine, p=0.99. CONCLUSION: The physiologic effects of 30 minutes of Zone 1 REBOA in pediatric swine mostly resolved during the subsequent 4 hours of critical care, whereas the effects of 60 minutes of REBOA persisted and worsened after 4 hours of critical care. Sixty minutes of Zone 1 REBOA may create an irreversible physiologic insult in a pediatric population. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Not applicable, translational animal scienceOriginal article.

4.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 88(2): 298-304, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Partial resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (pREBOA) and intermittent REBOA (iREBOA) are techniques to extend the therapeutic duration of REBOA by balloon titration for distal flow or cyclical balloon inflation/deflation to allow transient distal flow, respectively. We hypothesized that manually titrated pREBOA would reduce blood losses and ischemic burden when compared with iREBOA. METHODS: Following 20% blood volume controlled hemorrhage, 10 anesthetized pigs underwent uncontrolled hemorrhage from the right iliac artery and vein. Once in hemorrhagic shock, animals underwent 15 minutes of complete zone 1 REBOA followed by 75 minutes of either pREBOA or iREBOA (n = 5/group). After 90 minutes, definitive hemorrhage control was obtained, animals were resuscitated with the remaining collected blood, and then received 2 hours of critical care. RESULTS: There were no differences in mortality. Animals randomized to iREBOA spent a larger portion of the time at full occlusion when compared with pREBOA (median, 70 minutes; interquartile range [IQR], 70-80 vs. median, 20 minutes; IQR, 20-40, respectively; p = 0.008). While the average blood pressure during the intervention period was equivalent between groups, this was offset by large fluctuations in blood pressure and significantly more rescue occlusions for hypotension with iREBOA. Despite lower maximum aortic flow rates, the pREBOA group tolerated a greater total amount of distal aortic flow during the intervention period (median, 20.9 L; IQR, 20.1-23.0 vs. median, 9.8 L; IQR, 6.8-10.3; p = 0.03) with equivalent abdominal blood losses. Final plasma lactate and creatinine concentrations were equivalent, although iREBOA animals had increased duodenal edema on histology. CONCLUSION: Compared with iREBOA, pREBOA reduced the time spent at full occlusion and the number of precipitous drops in proximal mean arterial pressure while delivering more distal aortic flow but not increasing total blood loss in this highly lethal injury model. Neither technique demonstrated a survival benefit. Further refinement of these techniques is necessary before clinical guidelines are issued.


Assuntos
Oclusão com Balão/métodos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Ressuscitação/métodos , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Animais , Aorta/cirurgia , Oclusão com Balão/efeitos adversos , Oclusão com Balão/instrumentação , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Humanos , Masculino , Ressuscitação/efeitos adversos , Ressuscitação/instrumentação , Choque Hemorrágico/etiologia , Choque Hemorrágico/mortalidade , Análise de Sobrevida , Sus scrofa , Fatores de Tempo , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma , Resultado do Tratamento , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico
5.
J Pediatr Surg ; 55(2): 346-352, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) has not been studied in children. We hypothesized that REBOA was feasible and would improve hemorrhage control and survival time, compared to no aortic occlusion, in a pediatric swine liver injury model. METHODS: Pediatric swine were randomized to Zone 1 REBOA or no intervention (control). Piglets underwent a partial liver amputation and free hemorrhage followed by either REBOA or no intervention for 30 min, then a damage control laparotomy and critical care for 4 h. RESULTS: Compared to control piglets (n = 5), REBOA piglets (n = 6) had less blood loss (34.0 ±â€¯1.6 vs 61.3 ±â€¯2.5 mL/kg, p < 0.01), higher end hematocrit (28.1 ±â€¯2.1 vs 17.1 ±â€¯4.1%, p = 0.03), higher end creatinine (1.4 ±â€¯0.1 vs 1.2 ±â€¯0.1 mg/dL, p = 0.05), higher end ALT and AST (56 ±â€¯4 vs 32 ±â€¯6 U/L, p = 0.01 and 155 ±â€¯26 vs 69 ±â€¯25 U/L, p = 0.05) and required more norepinephrine during critical care (1.4 ±â€¯0.3 vs 0.3 ±â€¯0.3 mg/kg, p = 0.04). All REBOA piglets survived, whereas 2 control piglets died, p = 0.10. CONCLUSION: In pediatric swine, 30 min of REBOA is feasible, decreases blood loss after liver injury and may improve survival. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 1.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Partial resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (pREBOA) and intermittent-REBOA (iREBOA) are techniques to extend the therapeutic duration of REBOA by balloon titration for distal flow or cyclical balloon inflation/deflation to allow transient distal flow, respectively. We hypothesized that manually-titrated pREBOA would reduce blood losses and ischemic burden when compared to iREBOA. METHODS: Following 20% blood volume controlled hemorrhage, 10 anesthetized pigs underwent uncontrolled hemorrhage from the right iliac artery and vein. Once in hemorrhagic shock, animals underwent 15 minutes of complete Zone 1 REBOA followed by 75 minutes of either pREBOA or iREBOA (N=5/group). After 90 minutes, definitive hemorrhage control was obtained, animals were resuscitated with the remaining collected blood, and then received 2 hours of critical care. RESULTS: There were no differences in mortality. Animals randomized to iREBOA spent a larger portion of the time at full occlusion when compared to pREBOA (median [IQR]; 70 minutes [70, 80] versus 20 minutes [20, 40] respectively; p=0.008). While the average blood pressure during the intervention period was equivalent between groups, this was offset by large fluctuations in blood pressure and significantly more rescue occlusions for hypotension with iREBOA. Despite lower maximum aortic flow rates, the pREBOA group tolerated a greater total amount of distal aortic flow during the intervention period (median [IQR]; 20.9 L [20.1-23.0] vs 9.8 L [6.8-10.3]; p=0.03) with equivalent abdominal blood losses. Final plasma lactate and creatinine concentrations were equivalent, although iREBOA animals had increased duodenal edema on histology. CONCLUSION: Compared to iREBOA, pREBOA reduced the time spent at full occlusion and the number of precipitous drops in proximal MAP while delivering more distal aortic flow but not increasing total blood loss in this highly lethal injury model. Neither technique demonstrated a survival benefit. Further refinement of these techniques is necessary before clinical guidelines are issued. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III STUDY TYPE: Therapeutic.

7.
Ann Surg ; 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714315

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether persistent opioid use after injury is associated with subsequent long-term development of clinically recognized opioid abuse. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Opioid abuse is an epidemic in the United States and trauma can initiate persistent use; however, it remains unclear whether persistent opioid use contributes to the subsequent development of opioid abuse. The care of combat casualties by the Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs uniquely allows investigation of this long-term outcome. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study randomly selected 10,000 battle-injured United States military personnel. We excluded patients who died during initial hospitalization or within 180 days of discharge, had a preinjury opioid abuse diagnosis, or had missing data in a preselected variable. We defined persistent opioid use as filling an opioid prescription 3 to 6 months after discharge and recorded clinically recognized opioid abuse using relevant diagnosis codes. RESULTS: After exclusion, 9284 subjects were analyzed, 2167 (23.3%) of whom developed persistent opioid use. During a median follow-up time of 8 years, 631 (6.8%) patients developed clinically recognized opioid abuse with a median time to diagnosis of 3 years. Injury severity and discharge opioid prescription amount were associated with persistent opioid use after trauma. After adjusting for patient and injury-specific factors, persistent opioid use was associated with the long-term development of clinically recognized opioid abuse (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.99-2.86). CONCLUSIONS: Nearly a quarter of patients filled an opioid prescription 3 to 6 months after discharge, and this persistent use was associated with long-term development of opioid abuse.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576422

RESUMO

PURPOSE: While resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is contraindicated in patients with aortic injuries, this technique may benefit poly-trauma patients with less extreme thoracic injuries. The purpose of this study was to characterize the effects of thoracic injury on hemodynamics during REBOA and the changes in pulmonary contusion over time in a swine model. METHODS: Twelve swine were anesthetized, instrumented, and randomized to receive either a thoracic injury with 5 impacts to the chest or no injury. All animals underwent controlled hemorrhage of 25% blood volume followed by 45 min of Zone 1 REBOA. Animals were then resuscitated with shed blood, observed during a critical care period, and euthanized after 6 h of total experimental time. RESULTS: There were no differences between the groups at baseline. The only difference after 6 h was a lower hemoglobin in the thoracic trauma group (8.4 ± 0.8 versus 9.4 ± 0.6 g/dL, P = 0.04). The average proximal mean arterial pressures were significantly lower in the thoracic trauma group during aortic occlusion [103 (98-108) versus 117 (115-124) mmHg, P = 0.04]. There were no differences between the pulmonary contusion before REBOA and at the end of the experiment in size (402 ± 263 versus 356 ± 291 mL, P = 0.782) or density (- 406 ± 127 versus - 299 ± 175 HFU, P = 0.256). CONCLUSIONS: Thoracic trauma blunted the proximal arterial pressure augmentation during REBOA but had minimal impacts on resuscitative outcomes. This initial study indicates that REBOA does not seem to exacerbate pulmonary contusion in swine, but blunt thoracic injuries may attenuate the expected rises in proximal blood pressure during REBOA.

9.
Shock ; 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389905

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tranexamic acid (TXA) improves survival in traumatic hemorrhage, but difficulty obtaining intravenous (IV) access may limit its use in austere environments, given its incompatibility with blood products. The bioavailability of intramuscular (IM) TXA in a shock state is unknown. We hypothesized that IM and IV administration have similar pharmacokinetics and ability to reverse in vitro hyperfibrinolysis in a swine controlled-hemorrhage model. METHODS: Twelve Yorkshire cross swine were anesthetized, instrumented, and subjected to a 35% controlled hemorrhage, followed by resuscitation. During hemorrhage, they were randomized to receive a 1 g IV TXA infusion over 10 minutes, 1 g IM TXA in two 5 mL injections, or 10 mL normal saline IM injection as a placebo group to assess model adequacy. Serum TXA concentrations were determined using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and plasma samples supplemented with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) were analyzed by rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM). RESULTS: All animals achieved class III shock. There was no difference in the concentration-time areas under the curve (AUC) between TXA given by either route. The absolute bioavailability of IM TXA was 97%. IV TXA resulted in a higher peak serum concentration during the infusion, with no subsequent differences. Both IV and IM TXA administration caused complete reversal of in vitro tPA-induced hyperfibrinolysis. CONCLUSION: The pharmacokinetics of IM TXA were similar to IV TXA during hemorrhagic shock in our swine model. IV administration resulted in a higher serum concentration only during the infusion, but all levels were able to successfully correct in vitro hyperfibrinolysis. There was no difference in total body exposure to equal doses of TXA between the two routes of administration. IM TXA may prove beneficial in scenarios where difficulty establishing dedicated IV access could otherwise limit or delay its use.

10.
Ethn Dis ; 29(3): 451-462, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367165

RESUMO

Objective: To determine: 1) rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among individuals with and without prior US military service; and 2) variation in CVD outcomes by race/ethnicity. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of the 2011-2016 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System during 2018-2019. Groups with (n=369,844) and without (n=2,491,784) prior service were compared overall, and by race/ethnicity. CVD odds were compared using logistic regression. Rate-difference decomposition was used to estimate relative contributions of covariates to differences in CVD prevalence. Results: CVD was associated with military service (OR=1.34; P<.001). Among non-Hispanic Blacks, prior service was associated with a lower odds of CVD (OR=.69; P<.001), fully attenuating the net difference in CVD between individuals with and without prior service. Non-Hispanic Whites who served had the highest odds of CVD, while Hispanics with prior service had the same odds of CVD as non-Hispanic Whites without prior service. After age, smoking and body mass index status were the largest contributors to CVD differences by race/ethnicity. Conclusions: Results from this study support an association between prior military service and CVD and highlight differences in this association by race/ethnicity. Knowledge of modifiable health behaviors that contribute to differences in CVD outcomes could be used to guide prevention efforts.

11.
Front Vet Sci ; 6: 197, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31275952

RESUMO

While hemorrhagic shock might be the result of various conditions, hemorrhage control and resuscitation are the corner stone of patient management. Hemorrhage control can prove challenging in both the acute care and surgical settings, especially in the abdomen, where no direct pressure can be applied onto the source of bleeding. Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) has emerged as a promising replacement to resuscitative thoracotomy (RT) for the management of non-compressible torso hemorrhage in human trauma patients. By inflating a balloon at specific levels (or zones) of the aorta to interrupt blood flow, hemorrhage below the level of the balloon can be controlled. While REBOA allows for hemorrhage control and augmentation of blood pressure cranial to the balloon, it also exposes caudal tissue beds to ischemia and the whole body to reperfusion injury. We aim to introduce the advantages of REBOA while reviewing known limitations. This review outlines a step-by-step approach to REBOA implementation, and discusses common challenges observed both in human patients and during translational large animal studies. Currently accepted and debated indications for REBOA in humans are discussed. Finally, we review possible applications for veterinary patients and how REBOA has the potential to be translated into clinical veterinary practice.

12.
J Am Coll Surg ; 229(5): 508-515.e1, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risk prediction is important during combat operations because resources are limited and triage decisions must be rapid and accurate. We evaluated 2 point-of-care urinary biomarker tests for risk prediction in combat casualties. STUDY DESIGN: This was an observational cohort study of critically injured military personnel admitted to Craig Joint Theater Hospital in Afghanistan from October 2012 to December 2013. We collected urine within 3 hours of admission and measured urinary biomarkers with NephroCheck and a neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin dipstick (NGALds) to evaluate their ability to predict a combined end point of need for renal replacement therapy or death. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated and receiver operator characteristic curves were generated for both tests. RESULTS: A total of 89 patients were included for analysis. The median Injury Severity Score was 18 and the combined end point occurred in 12 (13.5%) patients. NephroCheck was not associated with the combined end point (OR 1.56; 95% CI 0.81 to 3.03; p = 0.19) and the area under the curve of the receiver operator characteristic curve was 0.65. The NGALds was highly associated with the combined end point (OR 4.93; 95% CI 2.18 to 11.14; p < 0.001) and the area under the curve of the receiver operator characteristic curve was 0.84. The NGALds remained significantly associated with the combined end point in a logistic regression model that included Injury Severity Score as a covariate (OR 4.10; 95% CI 1.74 to 9.67; p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Measurement of urinary biomarkers with an NGALds, but not NephroCheck, predicts poor outcomes in combat casualties. An NGALds is a simple urine dipstick that could be deployed to combat zones to prioritize aeromedical evacuation, help with triage decisions, and predict resource use.

13.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 87(3): 590-598, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The cardiac effects of resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) are largely unknown. We hypothesized that increased afterload from REBOA would lead to cardiac injury, and that partial flow using endovascular variable aortic control (EVAC) would mitigate this injury. METHODS: Eighteen anesthetized swine underwent controlled 25% blood volume hemorrhage. Animals were randomized to either Zone 1 REBOA, Zone 1 EVAC, or no intervention (control) for 45 minutes. Animals were then resuscitated with shed blood, observed during critical care, and euthanized after a 6-hour total experimental time. Left ventricular function was measured with a pressure-volume catheter, and blood samples were drawn at routine intervals. RESULTS: The average cardiac output during the intervention period was higher in the REBOA group (9.3 [8.6-15.4] L/min) compared with the EVAC group (7.2 [5.8-8.0] L/min, p = 0.01) and the control group (6.8 [5.8-7.7] L/min, p < 0.01). At the end of the intervention, the preload recruitable stroke work was significantly higher in both the REBOA and EVAC groups compared with the control group (111.2 [102.5-148.6] and 116.7 [116.6-141.4] vs. 67.1 [62.7-87.9], p = 0.02 and p < 0.01, respectively). The higher preload recruitable stroke work was maintained throughout the experiment in the EVAC group, but not in the REBOA group. Serum troponin concentrations after 6 hours were higher in the REBOA group compared with both the EVAC and control groups (6.26 ± 5.35 ng/mL vs 0.92 ± 0.61 ng/mL and 0.65 ± 0.38 ng/mL, p = 0.05 and p = 0.03, respectively). Cardiac intramural hemorrhage was higher in the REBOA group compared with the control group (1.67 ± 0.46 vs. 0.17 ± 0.18, p = 0.03), but not between the EVAC and control groups. CONCLUSION: In a swine model of hemorrhagic shock, complete aortic occlusion resulted in cardiac injury, although there was no direct decrease in cardiac function. EVAC mitigated the cardiac injury and improved cardiac performance during resuscitation and critical care.


Assuntos
Aorta , Oclusão com Balão , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Isquemia Miocárdica/prevenção & controle , Ressuscitação/métodos , Animais , Aorta/fisiopatologia , Aorta/cirurgia , Oclusão com Balão/efeitos adversos , Oclusão com Balão/métodos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Masculino , Isquemia Miocárdica/etiologia , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia , Suínos , Função Ventricular Esquerda
14.
Injury ; 50(4): 855-858, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922662

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) has emerged as a therapy for hemorrhagic shock to limit ongoing bleeding and support proximal arterial pressures. Current REBOA algorithms recommend zone selection based on suspected anatomic location of injury rather than severity of shock. We examined the effects of Zone 1 versus Zone 3 REBOA in patients enrolled in the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma Aortic Occlusion for Resuscitation in Trauma and Acute Care Surgery (AORTA) Registry. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The prospective observational AORTA Registry was queried from November 2013 to November 2017. Patients who received REBOA were included if their initial systolic blood pressure (SBP) was less than 90 mmHg upon arrival and they were not receiving cardiopulmonary resuscitation. RESULTS: There were 762 patients recorded in the AORTA database during the study period. Of these, 245 underwent REBOA and 99 patients met inclusion criteria. The initial balloon position was Zone 1 in 55 patients, Zone 3 in 36 patients, and unknown or Zone 2 in 8 patients. The change in proximal SBP was greater after REBOA in the Zone 1 group compared to the Zone 3 group (58 ± 4 mmHg vs 41 ± 4 mmHg, P = 0.008). The zone of occlusion was significantly associated with the change in proximal SBP in a linear regression analysis which included initial SBP, Glasgow Coma Scale score, and Injury Severity Score (Coefficient 26.82, 95% Confidence Interval 8.11-45.54, P = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: In the hypotensive trauma patient, initial Zone 1 REBOA provides maximal hemodynamic support. Algorithms recommending initial Zone 3 placement for hypotensive trauma patients should be reconsidered.


Assuntos
Aorta/fisiopatologia , Oclusão com Balão , Cuidados Críticos , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Ressuscitação , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia , Traumatismos Torácicos/complicações , Oclusão com Balão/métodos , Guias como Assunto , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Estudos Prospectivos , Ressuscitação/métodos , Choque Hemorrágico/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos Torácicos/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos Torácicos/terapia , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma
15.
J Am Coll Surg ; 228(5): 769-775.e1, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30797081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Opioids are the mainstay of pain management in critically ill trauma patients. However, the risks of opioid use mandate a different approach. Multimodal analgesia employs a combination of opioid and nonopioid agents using different mechanisms that have synergistic effects in treating pain. This study examines the effects of multimodal analgesia on the opioid requirements of critically ill trauma patients. STUDY DESIGN: This was a pre-post cohort study of adult trauma ICU patients before and after implementation of a multimodal pain management order set. Patients were excluded if their hospital stay was less than 5 days, head Abbreviated Injury Scale score was greater than 1, or pre-injury medications included methadone or buprenorphine. The total oral morphine equivalent (OME) dose was calculated for each 24-hour period on days 2 through 5 of admission and the last 24 hours before discharge using standardized ratios. The primary endpoint was cumulative OME doses over the second through fifth days of admission. RESULTS: There were 65 patients in the pre-group and 62 in the post-group. Median cumulative OME dose was significantly lower in the post-group (125.6 mg, interquartile range [IQR] 45.0 to 415.0 mg) compared with the pre-group (481.5 mg, IQR 174.8 to 881.3 mg), p < 0.001. Patients who received 3 or more multimodal agents had a lower cumulative OME dose (116.3 mg, IQR 52.5 to 496.5 mg) compared with those who were on 1 to 2 multimodal agents (363 mg, IQR 115.5 to 743 mg) or 0 multimodal agents (479 mg, IQR 185 to 736.5 mg), p = 0.024. There were no differences between pre-group and post-group mean pain scores on hospital day 5 (4.48 ± 0.34 vs 3.50 ± 0.38, p = 0.058) or at hospital discharge (3.43 ± 0.34 vs 3.56 ± 0.32, p = 0.789). CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of a multimodal pain management strategy significantly reduced opioid use in critically ill trauma patients without compromising patient comfort.

16.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 86(4): 694-701, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30633103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Potassium-binding polymers have shown promising results in an anephric porcine hyperkalemia model. The benefits of the polymer in a clinically relevant injury model remain unknown. We hypothesized that potassium-binding cartridges would control serum potassium concentration in a porcine hemorrhagic shock model with supraceliac aortic occlusion and a limb crush injury. METHODS: Ten Yorkshire-cross swine were anesthetized and instrumented. Pigs underwent splenectomy and bilateral nephrectomy. Hemorrhagic shock was induced for 30 minutes while a leg compression device was applied. Pigs underwent supraceliac aortic occlusion for 60 minutes and were resuscitated with shed blood. The leg compression device was removed 20 minutes after balloon deflation. After 20 minutes of reperfusion, animals were randomized to extracorporeal circulation with (treatment) or without (control) the potassium binding cartridges. In both groups, blood was circulated through a hemodialyzer with a peristaltic pump. In the treatment group, the ultrafiltrate was diverted from the hemodialyzer through cartridges containing the polymer and returned to the extracorporeal circuit. Animals were resuscitated with 0.9% saline boluses and a norepinephrine infusion. The change in serum potassium concentration (ΔK) was calculated as serum [K]T390 - serum [K]T0. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in serum potassium concentration between groups (p < 0.001). ΔK was significantly higher in the control than the treatment group (3.75 [3.27-4.42] and 1.15 [0.62-1.59] mmol/L, respectively; p = 0.03). There were no differences in mean arterial pressure (p = 0.14), isotonic crystalloids requirement (p = 0.51), or norepinephrine dose (p = 0.83) between groups. Serum lactate concentration was significantly higher in the control group (p < 0.001). At the end of the experiment, the [K] was reduced by 25% (24.9%-27.8%) across the cartridges. CONCLUSION: The cartridges controlled serum potassium concentrations without dialysate and retained potassium binding capabilities over 4 hours. There were no deleterious effects on hemodynamic parameters. Those cartridges might be beneficial adjuncts for hyperkalemia management in austere environments. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Translational science study, level I.

17.
Mil Med ; 184(3-4): 81-83, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30215751

RESUMO

Trauma-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) has affected many U.S. warfighters throughout history. We seek to provide a historical review of the epidemiology of combat-acquired AKI and to highlight the importance of adapting current renal replacement therapy (RRT) capabilities to prepare for the next armed conflict. While severe AKI was rare in the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, an analysis of prior wars suggests that it will be more common in future combat operations characterized by prolonged evacuation times, limited resuscitation capabilities, and delayed aeromedical evacuation. Therefore, the military community must develop RRT capabilities to satisfy the demands of prolonged field care and austere environments. We propose a series of solutions such as re-enforcing forward deployment of conventional RRT capabilities as well as novel therapies such as improvised dialysis systems or sorbent-based RRT.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Terapia de Substituição Renal/métodos , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Distúrbios de Guerra/complicações , Distúrbios de Guerra/terapia , Previsões/métodos , Humanos , Terapia de Substituição Renal/tendências
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