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1.
Hamostaseologie ; 41(1): 35-41, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588453

RESUMO

Preventing thromboembolic events, while minimizing bleeding risks, remains challenging when managing patients with atrial fibrillation. Despite large and successful trial programs, several clinical concerns remain which commonly relate to fears of over- or underexposure to drugs and unfavorable outcomes. After a short summary of the main phase III trial findings, this short review discusses the evidence and clinical relevance of common clinical concerns (correct direct oral anticoagulant [DOAC] dosing; DOAC in moderate-to-severe renal impairment; and the relevance of fasting, nasogastric tube feeding, or high body mass index) on DOAC plasma levels. Finally, the need for specific DOAC antidotes will be addressed.

2.
Thromb Haemost ; 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33634446

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lack of data on balancing bleeding and thrombosis risk causes uncertainty about restarting anticoagulants after major bleeding. Anticoagulant reversal trials offer prospectively gathered data after major bleeding with well-documented safety events and restarting behavior. OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship of restarting anticoagulation with thrombosis, rebleeding and death. PATIENTS/METHODS: This is a post hoc analysis of a prospective factor Xa inhibitor reversal study at 63 centers in North America and Europe. We compared outcomes of restarted patients with those not restarted using landmark and time-dependent Cox Proportional Hazards models. Outcomes included thrombotic and bleeding events and death and a composite of all three. RESULTS: Of 352 patients enrolled, oral anticoagulation was restarted in 100 (28%) during 30-day follow-up. Thirty-four (9.7%) had thrombotic events, 15 (4.3%) had bleeding events (after day 3) and 49 (14%) died. In the landmark analysis comparing patients restarted within 14 days to those not, restarting was associated with decreased thrombotic events (hazard ratio [HR]=0.112; 95% CI, 0.001 to 0.944; P=0.043) and increased rebleeding (HR=8.39; 95% CI, 1.13 to 62.29; P=0.037). The time-dependent Cox model showed evidence for a reduction in a composite (thrombotic events, bleeding and death) attempting to capture net benefit (HR=0.384; 95% CI, 0.161 to 0.915; P=0.031). CONCLUSIONS: This analysis provides modest evidence that restarting anticoagulation in factor Xa inhibitor-associated major bleeding patients is correlated with reduced risk of thrombotic events and increased risk of re-bleeding. There is low-level evidence of net benefit for re-starting. A randomized trial of re-starting would be appropriate.

3.
J Thromb Haemost ; 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33306241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer represents a risk factor for splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT) and usual site venous thromboembolism (VTE). OBJECTIVES: To compare characteristics and outcomes of patients with cancer-associated SVT and usual site VTE. PATIENTS/METHODS: Patients with solid cancer and SVT were enrolled in an international, prospective registry between May 2008 and January 2012. The comparison cohort included (1:1 ratio) patients with solid cancer and usual site VTE treated at two thrombosis centers who had a minimum of 12-month follow-up at December 2019 or experienced one of the outcomes within 12-month follow-up. Recurrent VTE, major bleeding, and all-cause mortality were evaluated at 12-month follow-up. RESULTS: 264 patients (132 in each cohort) were enrolled. Patients with SVT were less likely to have metastatic disease (36.1% vs 72.5%) or receive cancer therapy at thrombosis diagnosis (29.6% vs 64.9%). The most frequent cancer types were hepato-biliary and pancreatic in the SVT cohort and gastrointestinal in the usual site VTE cohort. Fewer patients with SVT received anticoagulation (68.9% vs 99.2%) and treatment duration was shorter (6.0 vs 11.0 months). The cumulative incidence of major bleeding (2.3% vs 4.7%) was non-significantly lower in the SVT cohort, while recurrent thrombosis (4.7% vs 5.5%) and all-cause mortality (41.7% vs 39.4%) were comparable between the two cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of recurrent thrombosis and bleeding appears to be similar in cancer patients with SVT and cancer patients with usual site VTE, despite some differences in baseline characteristics and anticoagulant treatment. Further prospective studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

4.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 157: 103125, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254037

RESUMO

Low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) therapy is recommended over vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) for the treatment of cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT) and extended therapy is recommended in those with active cancer to prevent recurrent thrombosis. However, the inconvenience of daily subcutaneous injections and the cost of LMWH therapy hinder long-term use. Observational data demonstrate that persistence with LMWH therapy is low in clinical practice and that many patients are switched to oral alternatives - namely VKAs and direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). Recently, the efficacy and safety of apixaban, edoxaban, and rivaroxaban versus LMWH therapy for the treatment of CAT have been demonstrated in randomized trials. This review provides a critical evaluation of studies with DOACs in this setting and an update on the guidance regarding anticoagulant use for the treatment of CAT. In recognition of the heterogeneity of patients with cancer and the challenges of CAT, patient cases with expert clinical perspectives are presented.

5.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 145(24): 1728-1734, 2020 12.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254245

RESUMO

COVID-19 represents a clinical situation that lacks precedence and clinical experience. It introduces a number of pitfalls in well-established clinical routines and poses unique challenges to diagnostic pathways. This review discusses the current evidence on the thromboembolic risk of COVID-19 patients, the recommendations for thromboprophylaxis and the relevance of abnormal coagulation tests. Pathophysiological concepts are discussed and practical solutions and current guidance recommendations are presented.

6.
Lancet Haematol ; 7(12): e884-e891, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33242445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have largely replaced vitamin K antagonists in many indications for anticoagulation. Prescribed to millions of patients, including women of reproductive age, exposure to DOACs in early pregnancy is not uncommon, but data on the embryotoxic risks are scarce. We aimed to assess the risk of DOAC embryotoxicity in a large sample of reported cases. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we collected individual case reports of DOAC exposure in pregnancy from gynaecologists, haematologists, and vascular specialists starting from May, 2015. We obtained exports in April and October, 2017, August, 2018, and December, 2019, from the pharmacovigilance databases of the DOAC manufacturers, the European Medicines Agency (EMA), the German drug authority, and searched the homepage of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for pregnancy exposure reports. Data from the International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) registry were obtained in August, 2018, and on July 21, 2020; data from the Teratology Information Service in Ulm, Germany, were received July 22, 2020. We also ran a systematic literature search on July 22, 2020, for cases of DOAC exposure. These data were compiled with those from our 2016 risk assessment and duplicate reports were excluded. Fetal or neonatal abnormalities were classified as a major birth defect according to the European Concerted Action on Congenital Anomalies and Twins (EUROCAT) classification and adjudicated into four categories: relation to DOAC exposure likely, possible, unlikely, or unrelated. FINDINGS: We identified 1193 reports of DOAC exposure during pregnancy: 49 from physicians, 48 from the ISTH registry, 29 from the Teratology Information Service, 62 from the German drug authority, 536 from Bayer (extracted from the Bayer pharmacovigilance system, the WHO VigiBase, and from the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System), 87 from Boehringer Ingelheim, 16 from Daiichi Sankyo, 98 from the literature search, two from the FDA homepage search, ten from the Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy Review, and 256 from the EMA reports. After excluding potential duplicates, we identified 614 unique cases of DOAC exposure in pregnancy occurring between Feb 1, 2007, and July 9, 2020, that consisted of rivaroxaban in 505 (82%) pregnancies, dabigatran in 36 (6%), apixaban in 50 (8%), and edoxaban in 23 (4%). The median duration of DOAC exposure was 5·3 weeks (IQR 4·0-7·0) into pregnancy. Information on pregnancy outcome was available in 336 (55%) of 614 pregnancies: 188 (56%) livebirths, 74 (22%) miscarriages, and 74 (22%) elective pregnancy terminations. 21 (6%; 95% CI 4-9) of 336 showed fetal abnormalities, of which 12 (4%; 2-6) were adjudicated as major birth defects potentially related to DOAC exposure. INTERPRETATION: Although reports of pregnancy outcomes after DOAC exposure are missing important details and predominantly describe rivaroxaban exposures, the available data do not suggest that DOAC exposure in pregnancy carries a high risk of embryopathy. The 2016 ISTH guidance against elective pregnancy termination for fear of DOAC embryotoxicity and the recommendation in favour of close pregnancy surveillance is still valid. Pregnancy outcome data are inconsistently captured in pharmacovigilance databases, indicating a strong need for a more robust system of reporting. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Inibidores do Fator Xa/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 26: 1076029620954910, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33085526

RESUMO

African Americans (AAs) and obese individuals have increased thrombotic risk. This study evaluated the effectiveness and safety of rivaroxaban versus warfarin in obese, AAs with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) or venous thromboembolism (VTE). Optum® De-Identified Electronic Health Record (EHR) data was used to perform separate propensity-score matched analyses of adult, oral anticoagulant (OAC)-naïve AAs with NVAF or acute VTE, respectively; who had a body mass index≥30kg/m2 and ≥12-months EHR activity with ≥1-encounter before OAC initiation. Cox regression was performed and reported as hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). For the NVAF analysis, 1,969 rivaroxaban- and 1,969 warfarin-users were matched. Rivaroxaban was not associated with a difference in stroke/systemic embolism versus warfarin (HR = 0.88, 95%CI = 0.60-1.28), but less major bleeding (HR = 0.68, 95%CI = 0.50-0.94) was observed. Among 683 rivaroxaban-users with VTE, 1:1 matched to warfarin-users, rivaroxaban did not alter recurrent VTE (HR = 1.36, 95%CI = 0.79-2.34) or major bleeding (HR = 0.80, 95%CI = 0.37-1.71) risk versus warfarin at 6-months (similar findings observed at 3- and 12-months). Rivaroxaban appeared to be associated with similar thrombotic, and similar or lower major bleeding risk versus warfarin in these obese, AA cohorts.

8.
Thromb Haemost ; 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877956

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Clinical guidelines recommend anticoagulation therapy for the treatment of cancer-associated venous thromboembolism (VTE), but little is known about preferences. Therefore, the objective of this discrete choice experiment (DCE) was to elucidate patient preferences regarding anticoagulation convenience attributes. METHODS: Adult patients with cancer-associated VTE who switched to direct oral anticoagulants were included in a single-arm study (COSIMO). Patients were asked to decide between hypothetical treatment options based on a combination of the following attributes: route of administration (injection/tablet), frequency of intake (once/twice daily), need for regular controls of the international normalized ratio (INR) at least every 3 to 4 weeks (yes/no), interactions with food/alcohol (yes/no), and distance to treating physician (1 vs. 20 km) as an additional neutral attribute. DCE data were collected by structured telephone interviews and analyzed based on a conditional logit regression. RESULTS: Overall, 163 patients (mean age 63.7 years, 49.1% female) were included. They strongly preferred oral administration compared with self-injections (importance of this attribute for overall treatment decisions: 73.8%), and a treatment without dietary restrictions (11.8%). Even if these attributes were less important (7.2% and 6.5%, respectively), patients indicated a preference for a shorter distance to the treating physician and once-daily dosing compared with twice-daily intake. "Need for regular controls of INR at least every 3 to 4 weeks" showed no significant impact on the treatment decision (0.7%). CONCLUSION: This study showed that treatment-related decision making in cancer-associated VTE, assuming comparable effectiveness and safety of anticoagulant treatments, is predominantly driven by "route of administration," with patients strongly preferring oral administration.

9.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(11): 2852-2860, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients on anticoagulant treatment, the major bleeding (MB) definition released by the International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) is widely accepted. However, this definition identifies MBs with highly variable short-term risk of death. OBJECTIVES: The study aims were to derive and validate a classification of ISTH-defined MBs for the risk of short-term death. METHODS: Consecutive patients admitted for ISTH-defined MB occurring while on treatment with oral anticoagulants were included in the study and divided into a derivation and a validation cohort. Death within 30 days was the primary study outcome. RESULTS: Among 1077 patients with MB, 64/517 and 63/560 patients in the derivation and validation cohort died, respectively. In the derivation cohort, Glasgow coma scale (GCS) <14 and shock were predictors of death; critical site bleeding and hemoglobin decrease ≥2 g/dL, or transfusion ≥ 2 units were not. GCS <14 (hazard ratio [HR], 8.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.93-19.13) was predictor of death in intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) and shock at admission (HR, 4.84; 95% CI, 2.01-11.70) and pericardial bleeding (HR, 11.37; 95% CI, 1.33-97.31) in non-ICH MBs. The predictive value of GCS <14 in ICH and shock and pericardial bleeding in non-ICH MBs was confirmed in the validation cohort. None of the patients with isolated ocular or articular bleeding died. A prognostic classification of ISTH-defined MBs for the risk of short-term death is proposed as "serious," "severe," and "life-threatening" (ICH with GCS <14 or non-ICH with shock) MBs. CONCLUSION: According to our study, ISTH-defined MBs can be stratified for the risk of death within 30 days.

10.
Eur Respir J ; 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early discharge of patients with acute low-risk pulmonary embolism (PE) requires validation by prospective trials with clinical and quality of life outcomes. METHODS: The multinational Home Treatment of Pulmonary Embolism (HoT-PE) single-arm management trial investigated early discharge followed by ambulatory treatment with rivaroxaban. The study was stopped for efficacy after the positive results of the predefined interim analysis at 50% of the planned population. The present analysis includes the entire trial population (576 patients). In addition to three-month recurrence (primary outcome) and one-year overall mortality, we analysed self-reported disease-specific (Pulmonary Embolism Quality of Life [PEmb-QoL] questionnaire) and generic (five-level five-dimension EuroQoL [EQ-5D-5L] scale) quality of life as well as treatment satisfaction (Anti-Clot Treatment Scale [ACTS]) after PE. RESULTS: The primary efficacy outcome occurred in three (0.5%; upper 95.0% CI 1.3%) patients. One-year mortality was 2.4%. The mean PEmb-QoL decreased from 28.9±20.6% at 3 weeks to 19.9±15.4% at 3 months, a mean change (improvement) of -9.1% (p<0.0001). Improvement was consistent across all PEmb-QoL dimensions. EQ-5D-5L was 0.89±0.12 3 weeks after enrolment and improved to 0.91±0.12 at 3 months (p<0.0001). Female sex and cardiopulmonary disease were associated with poorer disease-specific and generic quality of life; older age, with faster worsening of generic quality of life. The ACTS burden score improved from 40.5±6.6 points at 3 weeks to 42.5±5.9 at 3 months (p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Our results further support early discharge and ambulatory oral anticoagulation for selected patients with low-risk PE. Targeted strategies may be necessary to further improve quality of life in specific patient subgroups.

11.
Angiology ; 71(9): 773-790, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638610

RESUMO

A systematic literature review was conducted to identify and summarize the clinical efficacy and safety of available antithrombotic therapies after peripheral endovascular or surgical revascularization in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). Five databases were searched using free-text and Emtree/Mesh terms for PAD, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and antithrombotic therapies of interest (ie, single antiplatelet therapy, dual antiplatelet therapy, and vitamin K antagonists). Randomized controlled trials were eligible for inclusion if they assessed the risk of thrombotic events (ie, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, cardiovascular death, limb ischemia, or limb amputation) or safety profile (ie, minor, moderate, major, or fatal bleeding events) after revascularization. In total, 16 RCTs were identified. Only a few studies reported on treatment effects of the investigated therapies. Myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, cardiovascular death, and amputation were reported in up to 2.3%, 2.3%, 5.6%, and 7.3% of patients, respectively. Bleeding events were observed in up to 8.4% (major) and 1.5% (fatal) of patients. Despite available treatments, patients with PAD undergoing revascularization remain at risk of thrombotic events. There is a need for new treatments that will help to optimize care for patients with symptomatic PAD undergoing revascularization.


Assuntos
Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Doença Arterial Periférica/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Arterial Periférica/cirurgia , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; 117(18): 312-319, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few data have been published to date on outcomes after the common clinical experience of severe hemorrhage in orally anticoagulated patients. METHODS: A prospective, multicenter observational study was carried out to investigate outcomes and management in a series of consecutive patients who sustained a severe hemorrhage under treatment with vitamin K antagonists (VKA) or direct oral anticoagulant drugs (DOAC). The primary endpoint was in-hospital death up to and including day 30 after hospital admission. The secondary endpoints were the duration of bleeding, in-hospital death due to hemorrhage (as defined by the study physician examining the patient's records), the use of antagonists, the extent of supportive measures used to stop the hemorrhage, and an assessment of causality. Consecutive patients were recruited until a predefined number of patients was reached in both groups. RESULTS: Among 193 patients with severe hemorrhage, 97 had been taking a VKA, and 96 had been taking a DOAC. 13.0 % (95% confidence interval [8.6; 18.5]; 25/193) of the overall group patients died in the first 30 days after hospital admission, including 17.5% ([10.6; 26.6]; 17/97) in the VKA group and 8.3% ([3.7; 15.8]; 8/96) in the DOAC group (p = 0.085). The median duration of bleeding was 19.8 hours in the VKA group and 27.8 hours in the DOAC group (p = 0.632). The in-hospital mortality due to hemorrhage was higher in the VKA group than in the DOAC group (15.5% [15/97] versus 4.2% [4/97]; p = 0.014). Only the use of prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs) lowered the median duration of hemorrhage in the two patient groups. In 35% (68/193) of the patients, the hemorrhage was caused by an external influence, most commonly a fall. CONCLUSION: The in-hospital mortality was higher among patients treated with VKA than among patients treated with DOAC, although the difference failed to reach statistical significance.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Vitamina K/antagonistas & inibidores , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588288

RESUMO

There is limited data evaluating clinical outcomes of rivaroxaban versus warfarin in obese patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE). Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of rivaroxaban versus warfarin in obese VTE patients. We performed a cohort analysis using Optum® De-Identified Electronic Health Record data from 11/1/2012 to 9/30/2018. Patients with a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2 admitted to the hospital, emergency department or observation unit for VTE, prescribed rivaroxaban or warfarin as their first oral anticoagulant (OAC) within 7-days and had ≥12-months of EHR activity prior were included. We excluded patients with OAC use at baseline or cancer. Patients were 1:1 matched (standard differences<0.10). Primary outcomes were recurrent VTE and major bleeding at 3-, 6- and 12-months using an intent-to-treat approach. Subanalyses of BMI 30.0-34.9, 35.0-39.9 and ≥ 40 kg/m2 were performed. Risk was compared using Cox regression and reported as hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We identified 6755 rivaroxaban and 6755 warfarin users with BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 and incident VTE. At 3-, 6- and 12-months, rivaroxaban was associated with a reduced hazard of recurrent VTE compared to warfarin (HR 0.61, 95%CI 0.51-0.72; HR 0.65, 95%CI 0.55-0.77; HR 0.63, 95%CI 0.54-0.74) with no difference in major bleeding (HR 0.99, 95%CI 0.68-1.44; HR 0.90, 95%CI 0.64-1.26; HR 1.00, 95%CI 0.73-1.36). No statistical difference was found across BMI categories for either recurrent VTE (p-interaction≥0.43) or major bleeding (p-interaction ≥ 0.58) at any time point. In obese VTE patients, prescription of rivaroxaban was associated with a significantly reduced risk of recurrent VTE versus warfarin, without impacting major bleeding. Our findings remained consistent across BMI classes.

16.
Curr Med Res Opin ; 36(7): 1081-1088, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32347755

RESUMO

Background: Although rivaroxaban has demonstrated consistent drug levels in normal weight and obese patients, sufficient confirmation of equal clinical effectiveness and safety is currently lacking.Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of rivaroxaban versus warfarin for prevention of stroke and systemic embolism (SSE) in obese nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) patients.Methods: Using Optum de-identified Electronic Health Record (EHR) data from November 2011 to September 2018,we evaluated NVAF patients with a body mass index (BMI)≥30 kg/m2 newly initiated on rivaroxaban or warfarin (index date), with ≥12-months of EHR activity and ≥1 encounter before the index date. We excluded patients with valvular disease or evidence of oral anticoagulant (OAC) use at baseline. Patients who were prescribed rivaroxaban were 1:1 propensity-score matched to patients who were prescribed warfarin (standard differences <0.10 achieved for all covariates). Outcomes included SSE and major bleeding using an intent-to-treat approach. Subanalyses stratified by BMI (30.0-34.9, 35.0-39.9 and ≥40 kg/m2) were performed. Cox regression was performed and reported as hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).Results: We included 35,613 rivaroxaban and 35,613 warfarin users with NVAF. Patients were followed for a median of 2.6 years (25%-75% range = 1.2-4.1). Rivaroxaban was associated with a reduced risk of SSE (HR = 0.83, 95%CI = 0.73-0.94) and major bleeding (HR = 0.82, 95%CI = 0.75-0.89) compared to warfarin. Subanalysis did not show a statistically significant interaction across BMI categories for SSE (p-interaction = .58) or major bleeding (p-interaction = .44) outcomes.Conclusions: Among obese NVAF patients, prescription of rivaroxaban was associated with a reduced risk of SSE and major bleeding compared to warfarin, which remained consistent across BMI classes.

17.
Thromb Res ; 190: 91-98, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32335423

RESUMO

Edoxaban is licensed in many countries around the world, following successful phase-III trials in stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (SPAF) and treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE), but at present, little is known about edoxaban-related bleeding complications in daily care. Using data from a prospective, non-interventional oral anticoagulation registry, we analysed rates, management and outcome of edoxaban-related bleeding. Between 1 October 2011 and 28 February 2019, 996 patients were enrolled in the edoxaban cohort and a total of 891 bleeding events were observed (53.2% ISTH minor, 41.9% clinically relevant non-major and 4.9% major bleeding events). In case of major bleeding, surgical or interventional treatment was performed in 25.0% and prothrombin complex concentrate was given in 2 cases. In the time-to-first-event analysis, 100-patient-year rates of major bleeding were 3.1/100 patient-years (95% CI 2.2-4.2). In the as-exposed analysis, case-fatality rates of edoxaban-associated bleeding leading to hospitalizations were 7.5% and 9.0% at days 30 and 90 post bleeding, respectively. Taken together, our data indicate that, in real life, rates of edoxaban-related major bleeding in line with rates observed in phase III trials and that bleeding pattern, management and outcome of these events are not different from those reported for other direct factor Xa inhibitors. Clinical Trial Notation: Dresden NOAC Registry - ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01588119.

18.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(7): 1672-1685, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, the randomized EINSTEIN-Jr study showed similar efficacy and safety for rivaroxaban and standard anticoagulation for treatment of pediatric venous thromboembolism (VTE). The rivaroxaban dosing strategy was established based on phase 1 and 2 data in children and through pharmacokinetic (PK) modeling. METHODS: Rivaroxaban treatment with tablets or the newly developed granules-for-oral suspension formulation was bodyweight-adjusted and administered once-daily, twice-daily, or thrice-daily for children with bodyweights of ≥30, ≥12 to <30, and <12 kg, respectively. Previously, these regimens were confirmed for children weighing ≥20 kg but only predicted in those <20 kg. Based on sparse blood sampling, the daily area under the plasma concentration-time curve [AUC(0-24)ss ] and trough [Ctrough,ss ] and maximum [Cmax,ss ] steady-state plasma concentrations were derived using population PK modeling. Exposure-response graphs were generated to evaluate the potential relationship of individual PK parameters with recurrent VTE, repeat imaging outcomes, and bleeding or adverse events. A taste-and-texture questionnaire was collected for suspension-recipients. RESULTS: Of the 335 children (aged 0-17 years) allocated to rivaroxaban, 316 (94.3%) were evaluable for PK analyses. Rivaroxaban exposures were within the adult exposure range. No clustering was observed for any of the PK parameters with efficacy, bleeding, or adverse event outcomes. Results were similar for the tablet and suspension formulation. Acceptability and palatability of the suspension were favorable. DISCUSSION: Based on this analysis and the recently documented similar efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban compared with standard anticoagulation, we conclude that bodyweight-adjusted pediatric rivaroxaban regimens with either tablets or suspension are validated and provide for appropriate treatment of children with VTE.

19.
Eur J Intern Med ; 75: 35-43, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955918

RESUMO

The association between preceding treatment with antiplatelet agents (APs), vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) or direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) and mortality after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) remains unclear. The aim of this multicenter, prospective cohort study was to assess the risk for death after ICH in consecutive patients who were on treatment with APs, VKAs, DOACs, or no antithrombotic agent. The primary outcome was in-hospital death by day 30. ICH volume at admission and volume expansion were centrally assessed. Out of 598 study patients, in-hospital death occurred in 21% of patients who were on treatment with APs, 25% with VKAs, 30% with DOACs, and 13% with no antithrombotics. Crude death rate was higher in patients on antithrombotics as compared to patients receiving no antithrombotic agent. At multivariate analysis, age (HR 1.07; 95% CI 1.04-1.10), previous stroke (HR 1.83; 95% CI 1.14-2.93), GCS ≤8 at admission (HR 6.06; 95% CI 3.16-9.74) and GCS 9-12 (HR 3.38; 95% CI 1.81-6.33) were independent predictors of death. Treatment with APs (HR 1.29; 95% CI 0.61-2.76), VKAs (HR 1.42; 95% CI 0.70-2.88) or DOACs (HR 1.28; 95% CI 0.61-2.73) were not predictors of death in the overall study population, in non-trauma associated ICH as well as when GCS was not included in the model. ICH volume and volume expansion were independent predictors of death. In conclusion, preceding treatment with antithrombotic is associated with the severity of ICH. Age, previous stroke and clinical severity at presentation were independent predictors of in-hospital death in patients with ICH.

20.
Eur Heart J ; 41(4): 509-518, 2020 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120118

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate the efficacy and safety of early transition from hospital to ambulatory treatment in low-risk acute PE, using the oral factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a prospective multicentre single-arm investigator initiated and academically sponsored management trial in patients with acute low-risk PE (EudraCT Identifier 2013-001657-28). Eligibility criteria included absence of (i) haemodynamic instability, (ii) right ventricular dysfunction or intracardiac thrombi, and (iii) serious comorbidities. Up to two nights of hospital stay were permitted. Rivaroxaban was given at the approved dose for PE for ≥3 months. The primary outcome was symptomatic recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) or PE-related death within 3 months of enrolment. An interim analysis was planned after the first 525 patients, with prespecified early termination of the study if the null hypothesis could be rejected at the level of α = 0.004 (<6 primary outcome events). From May 2014 through June 2018, consecutive patients were enrolled in seven countries. Of the 525 patients included in the interim analysis, three (0.6%; one-sided upper 99.6% confidence interval 2.1%) suffered symptomatic non-fatal VTE recurrence, a number sufficiently low to fulfil the condition for early termination of the trial. Major bleeding occurred in 6 (1.2%) of the 519 patients comprising the safety population. There were two cancer-related deaths (0.4%). CONCLUSION: Early discharge and home treatment with rivaroxaban is effective and safe in carefully selected patients with acute low-risk PE. The results of the present trial support the selection of appropriate patients for ambulatory treatment of PE.

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