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J Neural Eng ; 18(2)2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418555


Objective.We investigated using the morphological response of retinal microglia as indicators of tissue damage from electrical overstimulation by imaging them through an optically transparent stimulus electrode.Approach.To track the microglia, we used a transgenic mouse where the microglia expressed a water soluble green fluorescent protein. The clear stimulus electrode was placed epiretinally on the inner limiting membrane and the microglia layers were imaged using time-lapse confocal microscopy. We examined how the microglia responded both temporally and spatially to local overstimulation of the retinal tissue. Using confocal microscope vertical image stacks, the microglia under the electrode were imaged at 2.5 min intervals. The retina was overstimulated for a 5 min period using 1 ms 749µC cm-2ph-1biphasic current pulses and changes in the microglia morphology were followed for 1 h post stimulation. After the imaging period, a label for cellular damage was applied to the retina.Main results.The microglia response to overstimulation depended on their spatial location relative to the electrode lumen and could result in three different morphological responses. Some microglia were severely injured and became a series of immotile ball-like fluorescent processes. Other microglia survived, and reacted rapidly to the injury by extending filopodia oriented toward the damage zone. This response was seen in inner retinal microglia outside the stimulus electrode edge. A third effect, seen with the deeper outer microglia under the electrode, was a fading of their fluorescent image which appeared to be due to optical scatter caused by overstimulation-induced retinal edema.Significance.The microglial morphological responses to electrical overstimulation injury occur rapidly and can show both direct and indirect effects of the stimulus electrode injury. The microglia injury pattern closely follows models of the electric field distribution under thinly insulated disc electrodes.

Microglia , Retina , Animais , Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Eletrodos , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Retina/fisiologia
Rev Sci Instrum ; 84(8): 084301, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24007081


We developed and validated a versatile test method for precise quantification of phase retardation in corneal tissues using a femtosecond laser. It is based on an experimental system for direct measurement of corneal phase rotation due to corneal birefringence effects using a dual-polarizer, computer-controlled, femtosecond laser design. It also includes a comprehensive analytical model using Jones matrices. The test method presented is used for quantification of phase retardation in corneal tissues by employing the experimental data obtained from corneal phase rotation measurements and using analytical model assessments. The experimental and theoretical results obtained, and thus, the system's high accuracy and repeatability potential for assessing the corneal phase retardation are validated using control phase retardation evaluation.

Córnea/citologia , Lasers , Fenômenos Ópticos , Animais , Bovinos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
Biomed Opt Express ; 3(5): 1116-26, 2012 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22567601


We have designed, fabricated, and tested a nanoparticle-embedded phantom (NEP) incorporated into a model eye in order to characterize the point spread function (PSF) of retinal optical coherence tomography (OCT) devices in three dimensions under realistic imaging conditions. The NEP comprises a sparse distribution of highly backscattering silica-gold nanoshells embedded in a transparent UV-curing epoxy. The commercially-available model eye replicates the key optical structures and focusing power of the human eye. We imaged the model eye-NEP combination with a research-grade spectral domain OCT system designed for in vivo retinal imaging and quantified the lateral and axial PSF dimensions across the field of view in the OCT images. We also imaged the model eye-NEP in a clinical OCT system. Subtle features in the PSF and its dimensions were consistent with independent measurements of lateral and axial resolution. This model eye-based phantom can provide retinal OCT device developers and users a means to rapidly, objectively, and consistently assess the PSF, a fundamental imaging performance metric.