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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33851291

RESUMO

In the present study, five NPs (containing ZnO, Au-ZnO, Cu-ZnO, TiO2, and Au-TiO2) were characterized using dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy, in order to observe their behavior under environmental change. The applicability of NPs for degradation of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), including benzo(a)pyrene, fluoranthene, and benzanthracene, using UV irradiation showed the high photocatalytic efficiency of doped NPs for the removal of the study pollutants. To predict the environmental impact and interaction between NPs and PAHs on marine organisms, Mytilus galloprovincialis mussels were exposed to concentrations of each chemical (50 and 100 µg/L) for 14 days. The mussel's response was determined using the oxidative stress biomarker approach. Measured biomarkers in the mussel's digestive gland showed possible oxidative mechanisms in a concentration-dependent manner occurring after exposure to PAHs and NPs separately. Overall, this finding provides an interesting combination to remove PAHs in water, and the incorporation of chemical element into the crystallographic structure of NPs and the combination of two different NPs to form a binary hybrid NPs are promising materials.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33694119

RESUMO

The toxicity of copper, cadmium, and dieldrin in adult Gammarus locusta (a marine amphipod) is currently unclear. Thus, G. locusta from the North Lake of Tunis were subjected to acute toxicity tests to assess LC50s at 48-96 h and to biomarker response tests through the assessment of catalase and acetylcholinesterase activities and malondialdehyde levels. The present study demonstrated the abilities of a chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticide (dieldrin) induce to oxidative stress and neurotoxicity. The comparison of metal toxicity showed that G. locusta was more sensitive to cadmium than copper. The three stressors caused significant inductions of all three biomarkers in a concentration-dependent manner. Catalase induction was dependent on exposure duration for all pollutants, while only copper led to increased malondialdehyde with longer exposure times. Catalase induction and malondialdehyde increase appeared to be sex dependent for all three pollutants. The neurotoxic effects of the pollutants were concentration dependent according to inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity. In conclusion, catalase, malondialdehyde, and acetylcholinesterase are efficient biomarkers of copper, cadmium, and dieldrin in G. locusta.

3.
Environ Pollut ; 277: 116727, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33640809

RESUMO

The response taxonomic and trophic of meiobenthic organisms, especially marine nematodes to polybrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-47) was studied using a community from Bizerte lagoon (Nord-East Tunisia). Four concentrations of BDE-47 [D1 (2.5 µg/kg dw), D2 (25 µg/kg dw), D3 (50 µg/kg dw), and D4 (100 µg/kg dw)] were applied, and responses were determined 30 days after exposure. Species abundance and all univariate indices were significantly affected in all treated microcosms compared to the control. The non-parametric cluster based on species abundance separated the nematode population into two groups: control + all treated microcosms. After grouping nematode species according to their trophic diversity, their abundance showed differential responses. The non-metric multi-dimensional scaling analysis and cumulative k-dominance based on the abundance of trophic groups abundances reflected significant separation between the control microcosm and each treatment condition. The correspondence analysis 2D plot generated from nematode species and trophic groups abundance showed the control microcosm was dominated by microvores, represented by two species of Terschellingia. However, when treated with the highest concentration of BDE-47, the community was occupied by the resistant trophic groups of facultative predators and epigrowth feeders represented by Metoncholaimus pristiurus and Paracomesoma dubium, respectively.


Assuntos
Éteres Difenil Halogenados , Nematoides , Animais , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/toxicidade , Tunísia
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560507

RESUMO

Numerous studies have focused on the response of meiofauna after exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), but none has been devoted to their uptake into nematode body compartments. The present study monitored PAH uptake by Oncholaimus campylocercoides which was selected after 40 days in the laboratory through original protocols from natural sediments collected in the Old Harbor of Bizerte, Tunisia. To achieve the mono-species level, a grain size magnification was applied by gradually adding a biosubstrate made from either the crushed shells of Mytilus galloprovincialis or minced leaves of Posidonia oceanica. After selection, O. campylocercoides was cultured and fed with earthworm powder (560 mg.l-1). Thereafter, it was exposed for 3 weeks to phenanthrene and chrysene (38, 116, and 348 ppb). Fluorescence microscopy revealed higher intensities of PAHs at the spicules, mouths, and pharynges compared with the other organs considered. Moreover, the buccal fluorescence showed a significant correlation with that measured in the biosubstrate made with shells of M. galloprovincialis.

5.
Biomarkers ; 26(3): 240-247, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459570

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The Au-TiO2NPs have a wide range of applications and can easily enter the cells. Due to their properties, they can cause toxicity. OBJECTIVE: It was aimed to test the toxic effects of Au-TiO2 NPs in the brain, heart, kidney and liver of rats in this work. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All used rats in this work were treated using diverse concentrations (doses) of NPs (100 and 200 mg/kg bw) for 21 days. SOD, CAT, AChE activities and MDA, H2O2, NO contents were evaluated in different organs. RESULTS: The Au-TiO2 NPs exposure induced biochemical changes in different organs of rats in view of oxidative stress and neurotoxicity by the alteration of the activity of the enzyme of neurotransmitter (AChE activity). CONCLUSION: The Au-TiO2 NPs have the potential to interact with rat's biochemical status and cause undesirable effects. One of those damaging effects was oxidative stress and neurotoxicity. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The study signifies the impact of usage of Au-TiO2 NPs in the medical field for further exploration.

6.
Sci Total Environ ; 770: 145272, 2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33497902

RESUMO

The ubiquitous use of ethinylestradiol (EE2), an active constituent of birth control preparations, results in continuous release of this synthetic estrogen to surface waters. Many studies document the untoward effects of EE2 on the endocrine system of aquatic organisms. Effects of environmental EE2 on the nervous system are still poorly documented. We studied effects of pico- to nanomolar concentrations of EE2 on early nervous system development of zebrafish larvae. EE2 disrupted axonal nerve regeneration and hair cell regeneration up to 50%. Gene expression in larval brain tissues showed significantly upregulated expression of target genes, such as estrogen and progesterone receptors, and aromatase B. In contrast, downregulation of the tyrosine hydroxylase, involved in the synthesis of neurotransmitters, occurred concomitant with diminution of proliferating cells. Overall, the size of exposed fish larvae decreased by 25% and their swimming behavior was modified compared to non-treated larvae. EE2 interferes with nervous system development, both centrally and peripherally, with negative effects on regeneration and swimming behavior. Survival of fish and other aquatic species may be at risk in chronically EE2-contaminated environments.


Assuntos
Etinilestradiol , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Anticoncepção , Etinilestradiol/toxicidade , Larva , Sistema Nervoso , Natação , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 770: 145251, 2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33508666

RESUMO

Trophic web structuring in aquatic sediments is dependent on the biological interactions between metazoans and microbial communities. The presence of pollutants in these biotas can therefore impact the meiofauna structure via the modification of the microbial communities. The current study examined in a laboratory bioassay the response of meiobenthic communities, particularly marine nematode taxa from the Bizerte Lagoon to the effect of the most detected polybrominated diphenyl ether in this aquatic environment, BDE-47. Four doses [D1 (2.5 ppb Dry weight (DW)), D2 (25 ppb DW), D3 (50 ppb DW), and D4 (100 ppb DW)] were gradually applied and sediment microcosms were incubated for 30 days in the presence or absence of meiofauna. Our results show that BDE-47-enriched sediments decreased the meiofaunal taxa and bacterial abundance. A lower taxonomic diversity of the nematodes' general structure was observed with all doses used. The numerical analysis of the two dimensional (2D) non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) plots and the evolution of the relative abundances of each functional group of nematode genus assemblages revealed that the abundance of all biological traits was modified. Nevertheless, only three of the functional traits, adult length, feeding group, and amphid shape, showed a clear difference between the control and the treated microcosms. The similarity percentage analysis (SIMPER) revealed that the average dissimilarity between nematode genera communities and biological traits increased with BDE-47-enriched sediments. The nMDS second-stage ordination of inter-matrix rank correlations for matrices including genera and biological traits showed that the amphid shape was the functional trait closest to the generic distribution. Finally, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for the nematode biological traits and bacteria indicated a positive correlation of these microbes with the functional groups [1A, Cr, and ef], and a negative correlation only with the "cla"-type tail shape.


Assuntos
Nematoides , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Bactérias , Sedimentos Geológicos , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(14): 18176-18185, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33410041

RESUMO

Several studies have been performed on the effects of nanoparticles on aquatic life. However, most of them investigated marine organisms, not freshwater organisms. This study investigated biomarker responses after exposure for 48 h and 7 days to newly made gold and titanium dioxide (Au/TiO2) metallic nanoparticles (MNPs) (100 and 200 µg·L-1) using the freshwater bivalve mussel Unio ravoisieri. Biochemical analysis of the gills and digestive glands showed induction of oxidative stress following exposure of the bivalve to Au/TiO2 MNPs. After 2 or 7 days of exposure to Au/TiO2 MNPs, both utilized concentrations of Au/TiO2 MNPs induce an overproduction of H2O2. Catalase and glutathione S-transferase activities and the malonedialdehyde content significantly increased in the presence of Au/TiO2 MNPs, depending on the concentration and target organ. In contrast, acetylcholinesterase activity was significantly inhibited, indicating a discernible disturbance of the cholinergic system in the presence of Au/TiO2 MNPs. The behavior of the freshwater mussel was altered by reducing the clearance rate. Therefore, U. ravoisieri can be used as a model species in laboratory studies to mirror the presence of MNPs, and the biomarker approach is important for detecting the effects of Au/TiO2 MNPs. In addition, digestive gland is the target organ of Au/TiO2NPs contamination.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Nanopartículas , Unio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo , Titânio/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411276

RESUMO

In this study, a microcosm experiment was conducted for 30 days to assess the impact of the presence of juvenile gray shrimp Crangon crangon on meiofauna. The results suggested that juvenile shrimp had a significant negative impact on the abundance of nematodes and copepods, but no effect on polychaetes. Moreover, nematodes showed a significant decline in individual weight. The collected nematodes were taxonomically identified and assigned to five functional traits: shapes of the tail and amphid, life history, feeding types, and adult length. The nematode traits were affected by the number of shrimp introduced, and descriptors followed normal or inversed bell-shaped curves. When no shrimp were present, the nematofauna had a higher species richness compared with treatments of 4, 8, and 12 shrimp. Bell-shaped curve patterns were common in relation to the two phases of feeding for C. crangon. During the first phase, C. crangon consumed the nematode species Oncholaimus campylocercoides; thereafter, shrimp fed mostly on the nematode Anticoma eberthi and copepods.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010015

RESUMO

Meiobenthic nematodes are well-known bioindicators in aquatic ecosystem health programs. However, the explored taxa are still limited and practically devoted to the community level. The present study provided a new method of experimental isolation of a species from a pristine nematofauna. In our method, the nematofauna faced two types of sediment, namely, the leaves of Posidonia oceanica and shells of Mytilus galloprovincialis, under controlled laboratory conditions, and several changes in species composition occurred through gradual selection of the most adaptable nematode taxa to the new environments, which were previously defaunated. We used the selected nematode taxon, Marylynnia puncticaudata (Cyatholaimidae), to examine the possible effects of organic enrichment, and the results clearly showed that the body size of the nematodes significantly increased and they became fat when after enrichment using a powder made of marine agar (1200 mg l-1) and cuticles of Crangon crangon (900 mg l-1), but their relative body growth showed no discernible changes.

11.
Aquat Toxicol ; 228: 105632, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010638

RESUMO

An experiment was carried out using microcosms to evaluate the impact of the fluoroquinolone antibiotic on nematode trophic groups structure and bacterial abundance. Sediment samples were experimentally enriched with four increasing doses of ciprofloxacin [D1 (50 ppm), D2 (100 ppm), D3 (200 ppm) and D4 (500 ppm)] and compared to non-enriched sediments (used as control). Ciprofloxacin changed the trophic composition of nematodes taxa where the relative abundance of microvores (M), epigrowth feeders (EF) and ciliate consumers (CF), raised in a control microcosm, was highly affected and significantly decreased in response to the increasing doses. Nevertheless, the abundance of deposit feeders (DF), optional predators (FP) and exclusive predators (Pr) showed a significant increase. Results from the multivariate analysis showed a clear impact of this antibiotic on nematode trophic assemblages. Microcosms treated with the three highest doses [D2, D3 and D4] were different from the control. The exceptions were those treated with the lowest dose, D1, and which were grouped with the control. The SIMPER analysis results showed that the average dissimilarity continuously increased in the treated microcosms compared to the control. Furthermore, our results have shown that ciprofloxacin also leads to a significant decrease in bacterial density with the highest dose, which could explain the results obtained for nematode trophic groups distribution. Thus, the bacteriophages nematodes only use bacteria as a nutrition source and the lack or presence in small quantity of this food could induce a decrease in their abundance as well as changing of nematodes groups repartition. Our work demonstrates that the nematode responses were dependent on sediment enrichment with ciprofloxacin and opens new perspectives on the potential impact of antibiotics on functional nematode diversity.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Organismos Aquáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ciprofloxacino/toxicidade , Ecossistema , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Nematoides/fisiologia , Animais , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise por Conglomerados , Geografia , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Região do Mediterrâneo , Análise Multivariada , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Densidade Demográfica , Análise de Componente Principal , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111084, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810644

RESUMO

A microcosm experiment was conducted to evaluate the impacts of the fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin on meiobenthic taxa abundance, nematode genus structure, and functional trait parameters. Sediment samples were experimentally enriched with four different doses of ciprofloxacin [D1 (50 ppm Dry weight 'DW'), D2 (100 ppm DW), D3 (200 ppm DW), and D4 (500 ppm DW)] and were then compared with non-enriched sediments (controls). After one month of exposure, the data showed that ciprofloxacin had altered the meiofaunal taxa abundance. A change in the structure of nematofaunal genera was observed, particularly with the highest dose (D4), which was characterized by the lowest taxonomic diversity. The SIMPER analysis revealed that the average dissimilarity between nematode communities increased with increasing doses of ciprofloxacin. Two dimensional (2D) non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) plots and relative abundances of functional groups of nematode genus assemblages revealed that all functional trait abundances were affected, particularly with the highest dose. However, only the amphid shape and feeding group functions showed a clear distribution separation between the control and ciprofloxacin treatments. The nMDS second-stage ordination of inter-matrix rank correlations for matrices including genus and functional traits showed that the tail shape was the closest functional trait to the generic distribution. Thus, only the curves of cumulative dominance related to the tail shape mirrored discernibly the sedimentary concentrations in ciprofloxacin.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Ciprofloxacino , Nematoides , Animais , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Análise Multivariada
13.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 1): 115263, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768926

RESUMO

A microcosm experiment was carried out to study the ecotoxicity and interactions between heavy metals and polyvinyl chloride microplastics. Fifteen treatments were tested and results were examined after one month. In details, this work aims to study the ecotoxicological effects of cadmium (10 and 20 mg kg-1 Dry Weight DW), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and its modified forms; PVC-DETA (PD) and PVC-TETA (PT) (20 and 40 mg kg-1 DW), separately and in mixtures, on meiofauna from Bizerte lagoon (NE Tunisia) with focus on nematode features. The results obtained showed that individual treatments were toxic for meiofauna and particularly for free-living nematodes. No clear trends characterized the numerical responses but significant reductions were observed for diversity indices. Moreover, the binary combinations of contaminants have a lesser toxic effect compared to their individual effects. This effect could be related to the high-capacity chelating ability of PVC and its polymers against cadmium.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Cloreto de Polivinila , Animais , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Tunísia
14.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 157: 111375, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658716

RESUMO

At the end of March 2020, ivermectin was confirmed as a drug for COVID-19 treatment. A significant amount of ivermectin could deposit into sediments of the semi-closed Mediterranean Sea, where three European COVID-19 epicenters are located: Italy, Spain, and France. Meiobenthic nematodes were exposed to three ivermectin doses (1.8 ng.g-1, 9 ng.g-1, and 18 ng.g-1) for 10 days. Ivermectin caused a great reduction in abundance. However, the diversity indices decreased only at high doses. Ivermectin disadvantaged the 1B-Cr-Id functional type (non-selective deposit feeders and nematodes with circular or indistinct amphids) and benefited the 2A-REL-Sp type (epistrate feeders and nematodes with rounded or elongated loop amphids). Thus, Trophic Diversity and Amphideal Diversity index values increased with sedimentary ivermectin enrichment. Large amphideal foveas were more efficient for 2A-REL-Sp nematodes to avoid ivermectin. The responses of the functional type 2A-REL-Sp and corresponding taxa predict post-COVID-19 environmental concerns and the bioaccumulation of ivermectin in seafoods.


Assuntos
Antivirais/toxicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus , Ivermectina , Nematoides , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Animais , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , França , Humanos , Itália , Ivermectina/toxicidade , Mar Mediterrâneo , Espanha
15.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 165: 104463, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359554

RESUMO

Cypermethrin (Cyp) is a kind of pyrethroids compound that is broadly used against different species of insects and pests. Cyp can also elicit a range of neurotoxic, immunotoxic, genotoxic and reproductive toxic effects on various experimental organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa against the toxicity damage induced by Cyp exposure. The Hibiscus sabdariffa calyxes extract was given to mice (200-500 mg/kg bw). The mice, which were treated with Cyp and Hibiscus sabdariffa, were divided into six groups of six mice each. Groups I, IV and VI were used as control and groups II CYP control (20 mg/kg body weight)., groups III and V were treated with Hibiscus sabdariffa extract (200 and 500 mg/kg body weight) plus (20 mg/kg body weight) for 21 days Furthermore, HPLC was used to identify the compound fraction. This result showed Cyp -induced biochemical changes in all organs of mice. Cyp caused decreased CAT activity, inhibition of AChE activity and increased the levels of H2O2 and MDA in brain, heart, liver and kidney. Hibiscus sabdariffa exhibited antioxidant effect and significantly attenuated the neurotoxicity of Cyp. Hibiscus sabdariffa exhibits neuroprotective effects and can be an effective and novel alternative approach to reduce the risk caused by pyrethroid compound.


Assuntos
Hibiscus , Piretrinas , Animais , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo , Extratos Vegetais
16.
Environ Pollut ; 263(Pt B): 114529, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32283405

RESUMO

Meiobenthic nematodes have been designated as sensitive global models in the development of biomonitoring and ecotoxicology monitoring programs howbeit the sensitivity of these organisms against oxidative stress biomarkers have never been addressed. The present study aimed to decipher this research axis after selecting and culturing a single nematode species from an entire community through original laboratory protocols. The purpose of this investigation was to change the grain size of the sediment into the immediate environment of nematodes by progressively adding a biosubstrate made from Sepia officinalis endoskeletton. At the end of the experiment, Metoncholaimus pristiurus became the unique component of the nematode species when the sediment was enriched with 80% of S. officinalis powder. After the mono-species level had been achieved, the selected species was fed on an another biosubstrate made from bodies of Porcellio scaber under the identical laboratory controlled conditions of light and temperature adopted during the selection process. Accordingly, the bioassay protocol this study layed new foundations for the study of meiobenthic nematodes in the biomarker field. Our results revealed that, in case of M. pritiurus, discernible oxidative stress responses are valid for catalase and gluthatione S-transferase. Indeed, for both enzymes, a clear increase in the activity was recorded, and the response was more reinforced when zinc and permethrin were administrated in combination. The relevance of the protocols proposed in this work parallels their global applicability to reach and maintain the monospecific level in laboratory by using biosubstrates made from animals widely distributed. It is true also that our data provided the first results in terms of biochemical biomarkers for meiobenthic nematodes and showed that the selected taxa, M. pristiurus, could be one of the first marine taxa responding early to the tested stressors, zinc and permethrin, even at very low concentrations.


Assuntos
Isópodes , Nematoides , Animais , Biomarcadores , Catalase , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estresse Oxidativo
17.
Environ Pollut ; 262: 114350, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197121

RESUMO

A laboratory bioassay was conducted to investigate the ecotoxicity of a chromium-enriched superfood, Spirulina platensis, on the meiofauna collected from the Ghar El Melh lagoon, Tunisia. After 1 month of exposure, the abundances of meiobenthic taxa and the taxonomic and morpho-functional diversity of nematodes showed significant differences between the Spirulina and Spirulina + chromium groups. The nematodes were more tolerant of all types of stressors compared to harpacticoids, polychaetes, and oligochaetes, and the lowest taxonomic and morpho-functional diversity of nematodes was observed in the highest sedimentary concentration of S. platensis (50% DW). The mixed treatments may have been richer in micro-habitats and subject to low selective pressure, thereby hosting nematodes with a wide range of adaptations. The responses of the nematode species differed depending on their functional traits. Spirulina enriched with chromium induced two responses for the same feeding group: high toxicity for Daptonema fallax and low toxicity for two Theristus species (T. flevensis and T. modicus). The ecotoxicity of the Spirulina/chromium mixtures were lower than that of Spirulina alone, suggesting mutual neutralization between these two elements. The association between functional traits and taxonomic diversity showed that the effects of the mixtures were not additive and that one of the stressors camouflaged the effect of the other. Our findings should encourage the commercialization of chromium-enriched S. platensis owing to its lower ecotoxicity than Spirulina alone.


Assuntos
Nematoides , Spirulina , Animais , Cromo , Ecossistema , Tunísia
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(10): 11403-11412, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965497

RESUMO

Organic enrichment due to human impact is one of the major threats that affect benthic communities in semi-enclosed marine ecosystems, such as the Mediterranean Sea. However, many emerging sources of organic pollutants, such as those released to nature through human practices related to esthetics and cosmetics, remain underestimated, despite being an increasingly important source of organic matter input following a decade of expansion by the cosmetic industry. Therefore, an experiment was designed to explore the influence of collagen, the main component of commercialized skin anti-aging products, on a Mediterranean community of free-living marine nematodes from a beach in Rimel, northeast Tunisia. The effects of exposure for 30 days to a control treatment and three test treatments, corresponding to three levels of sedimentary enrichment with collagen (3, 6, and 12 ppm dry weight (DW)), were examined using a microcosm approach. Reductions in abundance and diversity were noted with an increase in collagen enrichment, together with a slight increase in individual weight. The presence of three species characteristic of control microcosms, Ptycholaimellus ponticus, Theristus modicus, and Kraspedonema reflectans, was clearly affected at the lowest dose; these were therefore classified as "collagen-sensitive." In contrast, the numbers of "collagen-tolerant" species, including Sigmophoranema rufum, Lauratonema hospitum, Enoploides spiculohamatus, and Trichotheristus mirabilis, increased significantly in the treated microcosms.


Assuntos
Sedimentos Geológicos , Nematoides , Animais , Bioensaio , Colágeno , Ecossistema , Humanos , Mar Mediterrâneo , Tunísia
19.
Aquat Toxicol ; 208: 71-79, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639746

RESUMO

Nanoparticle decoration with noble metal represents a promising alternative to improve their photocatalytic and photovoltaic properties. However, toxicity can be influenced by such modification, as the bioavailability of these substances may be influenced. To understand how decoration influences the NP impacts in marine ecosystems, we exposed suspension-feeding clams, Ruditapes decussatus, to two photocatalyst nanocomposites, TiO2 NPs and AuTiO2 NPs, over 2 concentrations, 50 µg L-1and 100 µg L-1, in a laboratory experiment. Accumulation of Au and Ti in gills and digestive gland was noted in clams after exposure to TiO2 NPs and AuTiO2 NPs using inductively coupled plasma optic emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). TiO2 and AuTiO2 NPs alter the behavior of the clams Ruditapes decussatus by reducing filtration and respiration rates. Furthermore, the highest concentration of TiO2NPs induces an overproduction of H2O2 in gills and digestive gland and NO production only in gills. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities were induced in gills and digestives gland in concentration and nanocomposite type dependent manner. Decorated form presented higher Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in gills and digestive gland than the undecorated form, suggesting different mechanisms of action that may be mediated through oxidative stress. In conclusion, the considered parameters could represent reliable biomarkers for the assessment of NP toxicity on R. decussatus as biological biomonitoring model. In addition, based on the obtained results, nanoparticle decoration influences the toxicity of metal nanoparticles in marine organism.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Bivalves/metabolismo , Ouro/toxicidade , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Nanocompostos/toxicidade , Titânio/toxicidade , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Bivalves/efeitos dos fármacos , Catalase/metabolismo , Catálise , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Luz , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Nanocompostos/ultraestrutura , Neurotoxinas/toxicidade , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(1): 342-361, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30397753

RESUMO

A study of pesticides in the Bizerte lagoon watershed on the Mediterranean coast of Tunisia showed that herbicides and fungicides are the most commonly used compounds. A survey was made of selected farmers. Pesticide contamination was monitored in the water column and sediments at four selected sampling sites (lagoon (A) and in three oueds-Chegui (B), Garaa (C), and Tinja (D)). Polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) were used to assess pesticide contamination. Thirty-two pesticides were investigated; the total concentration of active ingredients ranged from 35.9 ng L-1 in Tinja oued to 1246 ng L-1 in Chegui oued. In the lagoon, the total concentration of pesticides was 67.7 ng L-1. In the sediments, the highest concentration was measured in Chegui oued in the spring (31 ng g-1 dw). The main compounds found in the analyzed sediments were prosulfocarb and tebuconazole molecules.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Praguicidas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Agricultura , Poluição Ambiental , Fungicidas Industriais , Herbicidas , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Rios/química , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tunísia
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