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1.
Virology ; 562: 128-141, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315103

RESUMO

Picornavirus family members cause disease in humans. Human rhinoviruses (RV), the main causative agents of the common cold, increase the severity of asthma and COPD; hence, effective agents against RVs are required. The 2A proteinase (2Apro), found in all enteroviruses, represents an attractive target; inactivating mutations in poliovirus 2Apro result in an extension of the VP1 protein preventing infectious virion assembly. Variations in sequence and substrate specificity on eIF4G isoforms between RV 2Apro of genetic groups A and B hinder 2Apro as drug targets. Here, we demonstrate that although RV-A2 and RV-B4 2Apro cleave the substrate GAB1 at different sites, the 2Apro from both groups cleave equally efficiently an artificial site containing P1 methionine. We determined the RV-A2 2Apro structure complexed with zVAM.fmk, containing P1 methionine. Analysis of this first 2Apro-inhibitor complex reveals a conserved hydrophobic P4 pocket among enteroviral 2Apro as a potential target for broad-spectrum anti-enteroviral inhibitors.

2.
Biochimie ; 183: 100-107, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476699

RESUMO

The folate and methionine cycles, constituting one-carbon metabolism, are critical pathways for cell survival. Intersecting these two cycles, 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) directs one-carbon units from the folate to methionine cycle, to be exclusively used for methionine and S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) synthesis. MTHFR deficiency and upregulation result in diverse disease states, rendering it an attractive drug target. The activity of MTHFR is inhibited by the binding of AdoMet to an allosteric regulatory domain distal to the enzyme's active site, which we have previously identified to constitute a novel fold with a druggable pocket. Here, we screened 162 AdoMet mimetics using differential scanning fluorimetry, and identified 4 compounds that stabilized this regulatory domain. Three compounds were sinefungin analogues, closely related to AdoMet and S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy). The strongest thermal stabilisation was provided by (S)-SKI-72, a potent inhibitor originally developed for protein arginine methyltransferase 4 (PRMT4). Using surface plasmon resonance, we confirmed that (S)-SKI-72 binds MTHFR via its allosteric domain with nanomolar affinity. Assay of MTHFR activity in the presence of (S)-SKI-72 demonstrates inhibition of purified enzyme with sub-micromolar potency and endogenous MTHFR from HEK293 cell lysate in the low micromolar range, both of which are lower than AdoMet. Nevertheless, unlike AdoMet, (S)-SKI-72 is unable to completely abolish MTHFR activity, even at very high concentrations. Combining binding assays, kinetic characterization and compound docking, this work indicates the regulatory domain of MTHFR can be targeted by small molecules and presents (S)-SKI-72 as an excellent candidate for development of MTHFR inhibitors.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2)/antagonistas & inibidores , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2)/química , S-Adenosilmetionina/química , Regulação Alostérica , Humanos , Domínios Proteicos
3.
IUCrJ ; 7(Pt 4): 693-706, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32695416

RESUMO

DHTKD1 is a lesser-studied E1 enzyme among the family of 2-oxoacid de-hydrogenases. In complex with E2 (di-hydro-lipo-amide succinyltransferase, DLST) and E3 (dihydrolipo-amide de-hydrogenase, DLD) components, DHTKD1 is involved in lysine and tryptophan catabolism by catalysing the oxidative de-carboxyl-ation of 2-oxoadipate (2OA) in mitochondria. Here, the 1.9 Šresolution crystal structure of human DHTKD1 is solved in complex with the thi-amine diphosphate co-factor. The structure reveals how the DHTKD1 active site is modelled upon the well characterized homologue 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) de-hydrogenase but engineered specifically to accommodate its preference for the longer substrate of 2OA over 2OG. A 4.7 Šresolution reconstruction of the human DLST catalytic core is also generated by single-particle electron microscopy, revealing a 24-mer cubic scaffold for assembling DHTKD1 and DLD protomers into a megacomplex. It is further demonstrated that missense DHTKD1 variants causing the inborn error of 2-amino-adipic and 2-oxoadipic aciduria impact on the complex formation, either directly by disrupting the interaction with DLST, or indirectly through destabilizing the DHTKD1 protein. This study provides the starting framework for developing DHTKD1 modulators to probe the intricate mitochondrial energy metabolism.

4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2813, 2020 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499479

RESUMO

5'-aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS) catalyzes the first step in heme biosynthesis, generating 5'-aminolevulinate from glycine and succinyl-CoA. Inherited frameshift indel mutations of human erythroid-specific isozyme ALAS2, within a C-terminal (Ct) extension of its catalytic core that is only present in higher eukaryotes, lead to gain-of-function X-linked protoporphyria (XLP). Here, we report the human ALAS2 crystal structure, revealing that its Ct-extension folds onto the catalytic core, sits atop the active site, and precludes binding of substrate succinyl-CoA. The Ct-extension is therefore an autoinhibitory element that must re-orient during catalysis, as supported by molecular dynamics simulations. Our data explain how Ct deletions in XLP alleviate autoinhibition and increase enzyme activity. Crystallography-based fragment screening reveals a binding hotspot around the Ct-extension, where fragments interfere with the Ct conformational dynamics and inhibit ALAS2 activity. These fragments represent a starting point to develop ALAS2 inhibitors as substrate reduction therapy for porphyria disorders that accumulate toxic heme intermediates.


Assuntos
5-Aminolevulinato Sintetase/química , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , 5-Aminolevulinato Sintetase/deficiência , 5-Aminolevulinato Sintetase/genética , Acil Coenzima A/química , Catálise , Domínio Catalítico , Cristalografia por Raios X , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/genética , Heme/química , Humanos , Cinética , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Protoporfiria Eritropoética/genética , Especificidade por Substrato
5.
Emerg Top Life Sci ; 3(1): 63-73, 2019 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523197

RESUMO

Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) represent a growing group of monogenic disorders each associated with inherited defects in a metabolic enzyme or regulatory protein, leading to biochemical abnormalities arising from a metabolic block. Despite the well-established genetic linkage, pathophysiology and clinical manifestations for many IEMs, there remains a lack of transformative therapy. The available treatment and management options for a few IEMs are often ineffective or expensive, incurring a significant burden to individual, family, and society. The lack of IEM therapies, in large part, relates to the conceptual challenge that IEMs are loss-of-function defects arising from the defective enzyme, rendering pharmacologic rescue difficult. An emerging approach that holds promise and is the subject of a flurry of pre-/clinical applications, is substrate reduction therapy (SRT). SRT addresses a common IEM phenotype associated with toxic accumulation of substrate from the defective enzyme, by inhibiting the formation of the substrate instead of directly repairing the defective enzyme. This minireview will summarize recent highlights towards the development of emerging SRT, with focussed attention towards repurposing of currently approved drugs, approaches to validate novel targets and screen for hit molecules, as well as emerging advances in gene silencing as a therapeutic modality.

6.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol ; 72: 27-39, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26751394

RESUMO

Legume lectins are the most thoroughly studied group of lectins and have been widely linked to many pathological processes. Their use as immunohistochemistry markers for cell profiling and cancer diagnosis have made these molecules important tools for immunological studies and have stimulated the prospection and characterization of new lectins. The crystal structures of a recombinant seed lectin from Vatairea macrocarpa (rVML) and its complexes with GalNAcα1-O-Ser, GalNAc and α-lactose, have been determined at 1.90, 1.97, 2.70 and 1.83Å resolution, respectively. Small angle X-ray scattering and calorimetry assays have confirmed the same pH stable oligomerization pattern and binding profiles proposed for its wild-type counterpart. In silico analyzes have explored the potential of this recombinant lectin as new tool for cancer research through a comparative profile with other legume lectins widely used for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. The results suggest the recognition of specific epitopes exhibited on different cancer cells as a process that relies on the disposition of hydrophobic clusters and charged regions around the lectin carbohydrate-binding site, favouring the anchorage of different groups in the antigen boundaries, highlighting the different potential of each analyzed lectin. In conclusion, the experimental results and comparative analysis show that rVML is as a promising tool for cancer research, able to bind with high affinity specific tumor-associated antigens, highly stable and easily produced.


Assuntos
Antígenos Glicosídicos Associados a Tumores/metabolismo , Fabaceae/química , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Lectinas de Plantas/química , Lectinas de Plantas/metabolismo , Acetilgalactosamina/metabolismo , Lactose/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica
7.
Biochim Biophys Acta ; 1821(7): 1012-21, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22561231

RESUMO

Monoacylglycerol lipases (MGLs) catalyse the hydrolysis of monoacylglycerol into free fatty acid and glycerol. MGLs have been identified throughout all genera of life and have adopted different substrate specificities depending on their physiological role. In humans, MGL plays an integral part in lipid metabolism affecting energy homeostasis, signalling processes and cancer cell progression. In bacteria, MGLs degrade short-chain monoacylglycerols which are otherwise toxic to the organism. We report the crystal structures of MGL from the bacterium Bacillus sp. H257 (bMGL) in its free form at 1.2Å and in complex with phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride at 1.8Å resolution. In both structures, bMGL adopts an α/ß hydrolase fold with a cap in an open conformation. Access to the active site residues, which were unambiguously identified from the protein structure, is facilitated by two different channels. The larger channel constitutes the highly hydrophobic substrate binding pocket with enough room to accommodate monoacylglycerol. The other channel is rather small and resembles the proposed glycerol exit hole in human MGL. Molecular dynamics simulation of bMGL yielded open and closed states of the entrance channel and the glycerol exit hole. Despite differences in the number of residues, secondary structure elements, and low sequence identity in the cap region, this first structure of a bacterial MGL reveals striking structural conservation of the overall cap architecture in comparison with human MGL. Thus it provides insight into the structural conservation of the cap amongst MGLs throughout evolution and provides a framework for rationalising substrate specificities in each organism.


Assuntos
Bacillus/enzimologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Monoacilglicerol Lipases/química , Monoglicerídeos/química , Fluoreto de Fenilmetilsulfonil/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Bacillus/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Domínio Catalítico , Clonagem Molecular , Sequência Conservada , Cristalografia por Raios X , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Monoacilglicerol Lipases/genética , Monoacilglicerol Lipases/metabolismo , Monoglicerídeos/metabolismo , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Homologia Estrutural de Proteína , Especificidade por Substrato
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 109(17): 6525-30, 2012 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22493238

RESUMO

Opioid peptides are involved in various essential physiological processes, most notably nociception. Dipeptidyl peptidase III (DPP III) is one of the most important enkephalin-degrading enzymes associated with the mammalian pain modulatory system. Here we describe the X-ray structures of human DPP III and its complex with the opioid peptide tynorphin, which rationalize the enzyme's substrate specificity and reveal an exceptionally large domain motion upon ligand binding. Microcalorimetric analyses point at an entropy-dominated process, with the release of water molecules from the binding cleft ("entropy reservoir") as the major thermodynamic driving force. Our results provide the basis for the design of specific inhibitors that enable the elucidation of the exact role of DPP III and the exploration of its potential as a target of pain intervention strategies.


Assuntos
Dipeptidil Peptidases e Tripeptidil Peptidases/metabolismo , Entropia , Oligopeptídeos/metabolismo , Peptídeos Opioides/metabolismo , Calorimetria , Cristalografia por Raios X , Dipeptidil Peptidases e Tripeptidil Peptidases/química , Humanos , Ligantes , Modelos Moleculares , Oligopeptídeos/química , Peptídeos Opioides/química , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica
9.
Microsc Microanal ; 14(2): 150-8, 2008 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18312720

RESUMO

Biofilms are assemblages of microorganisms and their associated extracellular products at an interface and typically with an abiotic or biotic surface. The study of the morphology of biofilms is important because they are associated with processes of biofouling, corrosion, catalysis, pollutant transformation, dental caries, drug resistance, and so forth. In the literature, biofilms have been examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM), which has proven to be a potent tool to study different aspects of the biofilm development on solid surfaces. In this work, we used AFM to investigate topographical changes during the development process of Enterococcus faecalis biofilms, which were generated on sterile cellulose nitrate membrane (CNM) filters in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth agar blood plates after 24, 36, 72, 192, and 360 h. AFM height images showed topographical changes due to biofilm development, which were used to characterize several aspects of the bacterial surface, such as the presence of extracellular polymeric substance, and the biofilm development stage. Changes in the development stage of the biofilm were shown to correlate with changes in the surface roughness as quantified through the mean roughness.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Colódio , Enterococcus faecalis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Filtros Microporos , Microscopia de Força Atômica/métodos , Meios de Cultura , Humanos , Propriedades de Superfície
10.
BMC Struct Biol ; 7: 52, 2007 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17683532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lectins are mainly described as simple carbohydrate-binding proteins. Previous studies have tried to identify other binding sites, which possible recognize plant hormones, secondary metabolites, and isolated amino acid residues. We report the crystal structure of a lectin isolated from Canavalia gladiata seeds (CGL), describing a new binding pocket, which may be related to pathogen resistance activity in ConA-like lectins; a site where a non-protein amino-acid, alpha-aminobutyric acid (Abu), is bound. RESULTS: The overall structure of native CGL and complexed with alpha-methyl-mannoside and Abu have been refined at 2.3 A and 2.31 A resolution, respectively. Analysis of the electron density maps of the CGL structure shows clearly the presence of Abu, which was confirmed by mass spectrometry. CONCLUSION: The presence of Abu in a plant lectin structure strongly indicates the ability of lectins on carrying secondary metabolites. Comparison of the amino acids composing the site with other legume lectins revealed that this site is conserved, providing an evidence of the biological relevance of this site. This new action of lectins strengthens their role in defense mechanisms in plants.


Assuntos
Canavalia/química , Lectinas de Plantas/química , Sementes/química , Aminobutiratos/química , Aminobutiratos/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Cristalografia por Raios X , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Modelos Moleculares , Lectinas de Plantas/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16511174

RESUMO

A chitin-binding protein named PPL-2 was purified from Parkia platycephala seeds and crystallized. Crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 55.19, b = 59.95, c = 76.60 A, and grew over several days at 293 K using the hanging-drop method. Using synchrotron radiation, a complete structural data set was collected to 1.73 A resolution. The preliminary crystal structure of PPL-2, determined by molecular replacement, presents a correlation coefficient of 0.558 and an R factor of 0.439. Crystallographic refinement is in progress.


Assuntos
Quitina/metabolismo , Fabaceae/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Sementes/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Cristalização , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Alinhamento de Sequência , Difração de Raios X
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