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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31897550

RESUMO

PURPOSE: There are a number of developments in intra-articular therapies that have been determined to be differentiating factors within the classes of treatments. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of intra-articular treatments of primary knee osteoarthritis in the short term (3 months follow-up), using a network meta-analysis design, while taking within-class differentiating factors into consideration. METHODS: A literature search of MEDLINE (through OVID), EMBASE (through OVID), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for all trials comparing intra-articular therapies was conducted on November 12, 2018. The treatments assessed were high molecular weight and low molecular weight hyaluronic acid injections, extended-release corticosteroids, standard-release corticosteroids, platelet-rich plasma, and saline. A frequentist network meta-analysis was conducted for each outcome. RESULTS: Sixty-four articles (9710 patients) met the inclusion criteria. High molecular weight hyaluronic acid (- 0.53, 95% CI - 0.81 to - 0.25) and PRP (- 0.79, 95% CI - 1.32 to - 0.26) were the only treatments with a confidence interval that lay completely above the MID threshold; however, PRP results varied within sensitivity analyses. For the function analysis, high molecular weight hyaluronic acid (SMD - 0.76, 95% CI - 1.30 to - 0.22) was the only treatment with a confidence interval entirely above the MID. Extended-release corticosteroid demonstrated a possible benefit in functional improvement (SMD - 0.98, 95% CI - 1.79 to - 0.17) compared to that of standard-release corticosteroid (SMD - 0.14, 95% CI - 0.72 to 0.44). CONCLUSION: High molecular weight HA was the only treatment to surpass the MID for both pain and function outcomes. Extended-release corticosteroids may provide additional clinical benefit over standard-release corticosteroids. Platelet-rich plasma demonstrated possibly beneficial results; however, wide confidence intervals and sensitivity analyses made the conclusions of efficacy uncertain. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 1. Systematic review of level 1 evidence.

3.
Obes Surg ; 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898044

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Banded sleeve gastrectomy (BSG), a modification of the laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (SG), and one anastomotic gastric bypass/mini-gastric bypass (OAGB/MGB), a modification to the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), have been reported to enhance weight loss and minimize significant weight regain when compared with the SG and RYGB respectively. However, there has not been any report or study comparing these two operations. OBJECTIVE: We did a retrospective cohort study comparing these two operations and present a review and analysis with follow-up for 6 years. METHOD: A review of all the operations performed at MBRSC in 2011 from a prospectively maintained database was done. Patients who had either a BSG or OAGB/MGB were identified. Data on the patients' profile, co-morbid conditions, perioperative complications, late complications, weight loss, resolution of comorbidities, and changes in quality of life (QLF) were collected reviewed and analyzed. RESULT: Sixty-eight patients were identified who had a primary BSG and 55 who had an OAGB/MGB in 2011. The follow-up rate, the age, BMI, and gender composition were similar in both groups. There were more patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in the BSG group than in the OAGB/MGB group (44.1% vs. 27.2%). The incidences of hypertension (HTN) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) were higher in the OAGB/MGB group (62% vs. 36% and 96.3% vs. 2.9% respectively). The weight loss was faster in the OAGB/MGB group in the first year, but by the sixth year, the weight loss was slightly higher in the BSG group (84% vs. 79%). Resolution rate of T2D and HTN was higher after the OAGB/MGB group, 86.6% vs. 75.7% and 85.3% vs. 64.0% respectively. There was a 20% incidence of nutrient deficiencies in OAGB/MGB group and none in the BSG group. CONCLUSION: Both operations produced excellent weight loss and maintenance in the short to intermediate term. There was better resolution of T2D and HTN after OAGB/MGB at the expense of a higher incidence of nutrient deficiency and some protein caloric malnutrition. There is need for prospective and larger series studies to confirm these findings.

5.
J Orthop Trauma ; 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809418

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine if the Radiographic Union Score for Hip (RUSH) measured at 3 and 6 months post-femoral neck fracture were predictive of re-operation for infection, non-union, delayed union, avascular necrosis, or implant failure within 24 months of initial surgery. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Logistic regression was performed to investigate associations between lower RUSH and re-operation. Results were reported as odds ratios (OR), 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs), and associated p-values. All tests were 2-tailed with alpha=0.05. SETTING: 81 clinical sites across eight countries. PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS: Data from 734 of the clinical trial participants with radiographs at 3- and 6-months post-fracture fixation were included. INTERVENTION: A reviewer blinded to patients' outcomes independently assigned a RUSH at each follow-up time point. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Revision surgery rate related to intervention. RESULTS: Lower RUSH at 3 and 6 months were associated with increased odds of re-operation within 24 months of fracture fixation. For every 2-point decrease in RUSH at 3 months, there was a 16% increase in the odds of a patient experiencing a re- operation (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.10-1.22; p<0.0001). A similar association was observed at the 6-month assessment for every 2-point decrease (OR=1.05, 95% CI 1.01-1.09; p=0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Decreased radiographic healing as early as 3-months post-fracture fixation is associated with developing patient important femoral neck fracture re-operations. This relationship may guide early treatment decisions, suggesting that 3- and 6-month RUSH are a useful surrogate measure of re-operations within 24 months of fracture fixation. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II.

6.
BMJ Case Rep ; 12(10)2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676501

RESUMO

A 73-year-old man presented to accident and emergency with headache and diplopia. Examination of the eye movements revealed a bilateral complete horizontal gaze palsy. On admission, a CT scan of the brain was performed, which was unremarkable. An MRI of the brain was then performed, which confirmed tiny acute infarcts involving the pons and the right cerebellum. This man was promptly treated with aspirin 300 mg one time per day, as per the stroke pathway. Further diagnostic workup later revealed atrial flutter. This man was therefore commenced on apixaban. The differential diagnoses for bilateral gaze palsy include the following: multiple sclerosis, infarction, haemorrhage and space occupying lesion. Bilateral gaze palsy is often associated with other neurological symptoms.

7.
Surg Obes Relat Dis ; 15(12): 2087-2093, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711943

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Functional ability is often impaired as a direct consequence of severe obesity. Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for severe obesity. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of weight loss after bariatric surgery on patients with impaired functional ambulatory abilities due to obesity. SETTINGS: A high-volume university-affiliated bariatric surgery center in India. METHOD: We conducted a prospective study in a cohort of nonambulatory patients with functional disabilities (bedridden, wheelchair-bound, or walker-dependent) who underwent bariatric surgery. Data on sex, body mass index, co-morbid conditions, the severity of pain, and types of limitations in functional abilities were collected at baseline and at 1 year after bariatric surgery and analyzed. RESULTS: Forty-five patients were enrolled in this study with 100% follow-up at 1 year. The mean age and body mass index of the patients were 54.7 ± 8.5 years and 54.2 ± 8.6 kg/m2, respectively. Thirty-four (75.5%) were female, 27 (60%) were walker-dependent, 14 (31.1%) were wheelchair-bound, and 4 (8.9%) were bedridden. At baseline 88.8% and 75.5% patients had severe knee and back pain, respectively. The percentage of total weight loss was 22% and 31% at 6 and 12 months, respectively. At 1 year, 37 (82.2%) patients were ambulating independently, only 1 (2.2%) patient was still bedridden, and 7 (15.5%) patients were walker-dependent. Mild, moderate, and severe classification on all functional ability scales were significantly improved. CONCLUSION: Weight loss after bariatric surgery results in significant amelioration of knee and/or back pain with an improvement in functional abilities and quality of life.

8.
Surg Obes Relat Dis ; 15(12): 2033-2037, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are few publications on revising sleeve gastrectomy (SG) to one-anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB). OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to determine outcomes in terms of weight loss and resolution of co-morbidities in patients who had SG revised to OAGB. SETTINGS: A high-volume university-affiliated bariatric surgery center in India. METHOD: Information was collected from patients identified in a prospectively maintained database of patients who had a revision from SG to OAGB. An analysis of outcomes in terms of weight loss and maintenance with up to 3-years follow-up is reported. RESULTS: Thirty-two patients were revised from SG to OAGB. Of the 32 revised patients, 9 (28%) had type 2 diabetes, 15 (47%) had hypertension, and 2 (6%) had sleep apnea at the time of the initial SG. At the time of revision only 2 of 32 (6.25%) had type 2 diabetes, 3 (9.4%) had hypertension, and none had sleep apnea. The average initial weight in this study before SG was 118 kg and body mass index was 44.04 kg/m2. The average weight at the nadir and at revision was 92.1 and 103.5 kg, respectively. Average weight was 93.5, 94.3, and 100.6 kg (P < .002) at 1-, 2-, and 3-year follow-up, respectively. There was reoccurrence of type 2 diabetes in 1 patient at 3 years after revision due to weight regain. There were no complications in this study. CONCLUSION: In this study, revision of SG to OAGB because of inadequate weight loss or significant weight regain was safe and effective at 2-year follow-up; however, there was a tendency toward weight regain at 3 years. Multicenter studies with larger series of patients and longer-term follow-up after SG revision to OAGB are needed.

9.
Surg Obes Relat Dis ; 15(12): 2038-2044, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is the gold standard in bariatric surgery. One-anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB) has been reported to have equivalent or better weight loss, with added advantages of being technically easy, amenable to reintervention/reversal, and offering better food tolerance. OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to compare weight loss, metabolic syndrome outcome, complications, and long-term nutritional outcomes between the 2 procedures. SETTINGS: A high-volume, private-practice bariatric surgery center in India. METHOD: This retrospective study is based on prospectively maintained data in a cohort of patients who had either RYGB or OAGB in 2012 at a single institution by a single surgeon. Patients were all eligible for 5-year follow-up. RESULTS: On hundred twenty-two patients had RYGB and 90 had OAGB. The mean age was 44 and 46.4 years, body mass index was 45.8 and 42, percentage of total weight loss was 36.4 and 25.9, and percentage of excess weight loss was 81.6 and 66.7 for OAGB and RYGB groups, respectively. Resolution of type 2 diabetes was 79%, hypertension 57%, dyslipidemia 56%, and sleep apnea 94.54% in OAGB patients compared with type 2 diabetes of 61%, hypertension of 43%, dyslipidemia of 53%, and sleep apnea of 90.74% in RYGB patients. OAGB patients had more nutritional deficiencies than RYGB patients: anemia 44% versus 17%, hypoalbuminemia 32% versus 15%, and hypocalcemia 19% versus 8%, and other complications 7.8% versus 1.6%, respectively. There were no deaths in this study. CONCLUSION: OAGB is associated with more weight loss and better resolution of co-morbid conditions. However, it is also associated with more nutritional deficiencies. There is a need for long-term follow-up and multicenter reports to confirm these findings.

10.
Can J Surg ; 62(6): 369-380, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782292

RESUMO

Background: Medical cannabis use is an emerging topic of interest in orthopedics. Although there is a large amount of literature on medical cannabis use for managing various types of pain, few studies have focused on orthopedic conditions. There is little high-quality evidence in core orthopedic areas. The objective of this study was to summarize the literature on the efficacy of cannabis use for pain related to orthopedic conditions. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of the literature on the use of cannabinoids for pain management in core orthopedic conditions. Two independent reviewers extracted information on reporting quality, risk of bias, drugs, population, control, duration of study, pain outcomes and the authors' conclusions regarding efficacy for pain outcomes. Results: We identified 33 orthopedic studies, including 21 primary studies and 12 reviews. Study quality was generally low to moderate. Six of the included studies had a control group and 15 were noncontrolled studies. Methodologies, drugs and protocols of administration varied greatly across studies. Study conclusions were generally positive in noncontrolled studies and mixed in controlled studies. Studies using higher doses tended to conclude that cannabis use was effective, but the potential for harmful effects may also be increased with higher doses. Conclusion: Variability in the methodologies used in cannabis research makes it challenging to draw conclusions about dosing, routes and frequency of administration. Most of the existing evidence suggests that medical cannabis use is effective, but this efficacy has been demonstrated only when either there is no comparator or cannabis is compared with placebo. Studies using an active comparator have not demonstrated efficacy. Future research should focus on improving study reporting and methodologic quality so that protocols that optimize pain control while minimizing harmful effects can be determined.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Displaced mid-third clavicle fractures are common, and their management remains unclear. Although several meta-analyses have compared specific operative techniques with nonoperative management, it is not possible to compare different operative constructs with one another using a standard meta-analysis. Conversely, a network meta-analysis allows comparisons among more than two treatment arms, using both direct and indirect comparisons between interventions across many trials. To our knowledge, no network meta-analysis has been performed to compare the multiple treatment options for displaced clavicle fractures. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: We performed a network meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) to determine from among the approaches used to treat displaced midshaft clavicle fractures: (1) the intervention with the highest chance of union at 1 year, (2) the intervention with the lowest risk of revision surgery, and (3) the intervention with the highest functional outcome scores. Secondarily, we also (4) compared the surgical subtypes in the available RCTs on the same above endpoints. METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were reviewed for relevant randomized controlled trials published up to July 25, 2018. Two hundred and eighty four papers were reviewed, with 22 meeting inclusion criteria of RCTs with appropriate randomization techniques, adult population, minimum of 1 year follow-up and including at least one operative treatment arm. In total, 1002 patients were treated with a plate construct, 378 with an intramedullary device, and 585 patients were managed nonoperatively. Treatment subtypes included locked intramedullary devices (56), unlocked intramedullary devices (322), anterior plating (89), anterosuperior plating (150), superior plating (449) or plating not otherwise specified (314). We performed a network meta-analysis to compare and rank the treatments for displaced clavicle fractures. We considered the following outcomes: union achievement, revision surgery risk and functional outcomes (DASH and Constant Scores). The minimal clinically important difference (MCID) was considered for both Constant and DASH scores to be at 8 points, representing the average of MCID scores reported for both DASH and Constant in the evidence, respectively. RESULTS: Union achievement was lower in patients treated nonoperatively (88.9%), and higher in patients treated operatively (96.7%, relative risk [RR] 1.128 [95% CI 1.1 to 1.17]; p < 0.001), Number needed to treat (NNT) = 10). Union achievement increased with any plate construct (97.8%, RR 1.13 [95% CI 1.1 to 1.7]; p < 0.0001, NNT = 9) and with anterior or anterosuperior plates (99.3%, RR 1.14 [95% CI 1.1 to 1.8]; p < 0.0001, NNT = 8). Risk of reoperation, when considering planned removal of hardware, was similar across all treatment arms. Lastly, operative treatment outperformed nonoperative treatment with minor improvements in DASH and Constant scores, though not approaching the MCID. At the subtype level, anterosuperior plating ranked highest in DASH and Constant functional scores with mean differences reaching 10-point improvement for Constant scores (95% CI 4.4 to 2.5) and 7.6 point improvement for DASH (95% CI 5.2 to 20). CONCLUSIONS: We found that surgical treatment led to a greater likelihood of union at 1 year of follow-up among adult patients with displaced mid-third clavicle fractures. In aggregate, surgical treatment did not increase functional scores by amounts that patients were likely to consider clinically important. Use of specific subtypes of plating (anterior, anterosuperior) resulted in improvements in the Constant score that were slightly above the MCID but did not reach the MCID for the DASH score, suggesting that any outcomes-score benefits favoring surgery were likely to be imperceptible or small. In light of these findings, we believe patients can be informed that surgery for this injury can increase the likelihood of union incrementally (about 10 patients would need to undergo surgery to avoid one nonunion), but they should not expect better function than they would achieve without surgery; most patients can avoid surgery altogether with little absolute risk of nonunion. Patients who opt for surgery must be told that the decision should be weighed against complications and the possibility of undergoing a second procedure for hardware removal. Patients opting not to have surgery for acute midshaft clavicle fractures can be told that nonunion occurs in slightly more than 10% of patients, and that these can be more difficult to manage than acute fractures. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level I, therapeutic study.

13.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 101(20): 1852-1859, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Internal fixation is currently the standard of care for Garden-I and II femoral neck fractures in elderly patients. However, there may be a degree of posterior tilt (measured on preoperative lateral radiograph) above which failure is likely, and primary arthroplasty would be preferred. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the association between posterior tilt and the risk of subsequent arthroplasty following internal fixation of Garden-I and II femoral neck fractures in elderly patients. METHODS: This study is a preplanned secondary analysis of data collected in the FAITH (Fixation using Alternative Implants for the Treatment of Hip fractures) trial, an international, multicenter, randomized controlled trial comparing the sliding hip screw with cannulated screws in the treatment of femoral neck fractures in patients ≥50 years old. For each patient who sustained a Garden-I or II femoral neck fracture and had an adequate preoperative lateral radiograph, the amount of posterior tilt was categorized as <20° or ≥20°. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to assess the association between posterior tilt and subsequent arthroplasty during the 2-year follow-up period, controlling for potential confounders. RESULTS: Of the 555 patients in the study sample, 67 (12.1%) had posterior tilt ≥20° and 488 (87.9%) had posterior tilt <20°. Overall, 73 (13.2%) of 555 patients underwent subsequent arthroplasty in the 24-month follow-up period. In the multivariable analysis, patients with posterior tilt ≥20° had a significantly higher risk of subsequent arthroplasty compared with those with posterior tilt <20° (22.4% [15 of 67] compared with 11.9% [58 of 488]; hazard ratio, 2.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.24 to 4.00; p = 0.008). The other factor associated with subsequent arthroplasty was age ≥80 years (p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: In this analysis of patients with Garden-I and II femoral neck fractures, posterior tilt ≥20° was associated with a significantly increased risk of subsequent arthroplasty. Primary arthroplasty may be considered for Garden-I and II femoral neck fractures with posterior tilt ≥20°, especially among older patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

14.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 27(10): 1591-1597, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479206

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is a need to determine which bariatric operations are the most effective for patients with super obesity and super-super obesity. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed on patients with super obesity and super-super obesity at Mohak Bariatrics and Robotics Surgery Center in Indore, India. RESULTS: Five hundred fourteen patients with super obesity and super-super obesity had surgery at our center from January 2010 through December 2013. The baseline characteristics were different in different operations. The initial average age, weight, and BMI were 44.4 (SD 11.9) years, 145.4 (SD 24.2) kg, and 55.48 (SD 5.32) kg/m2 , respectively. Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) (227 [44.2%]) was the most common procedure, followed by one-anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB) (124 [24.1%]), Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) (102 [19.8%]), banded sleeve gastrectomy (BSG) (33 [6.4%]), and banded Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (BRYGB) (28 [5.4%]). After 3 years, the percentages of excess body weight loss (%EBWL) for SG, OAGB, RYGB, BSG, and BRYGB were 62.38%, 78.59%, 69.55%, 85.11%, and 75.77% (P < 0.0001), respectively. Failure to achieve BMI < 35 kg/m2 was more frequent in the group who underwent SG (67.9%), followed by RYGB (29.16%), BRYGB (22.2%), OAGB (9.87%), and none in the BSG group. CONCLUSIONS: BSG, OAGB, and BRYGB have very good to excellent midterm outcomes for patients with super obesity and super-super obesity, whereas RYGB and SG have average outcomes at 3 years. There is a need for multicenter, long-term, and prospective studies to be performed to confirm these findings.

15.
N Engl J Med ; 381(23): 2199-2208, 2019 12 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, hip fractures are among the top 10 causes of disability in adults. For displaced femoral neck fractures, there remains uncertainty regarding the effect of a total hip arthroplasty as compared with hemiarthroplasty. METHODS: We randomly assigned 1495 patients who were 50 years of age or older and had a displaced femoral neck fracture to undergo either total hip arthroplasty or hemiarthroplasty. All enrolled patients had been able to ambulate without the assistance of another person before the fracture occurred. The trial was conducted in 80 centers in 10 countries. The primary end point was a secondary hip procedure within 24 months of follow-up. Secondary end points included death, serious adverse events, hip-related complications, health-related quality of life, function, and overall health end points. RESULTS: The primary end point occurred in 57 of 718 patients (7.9%) who were randomly assigned to total hip arthroplasty and 60 of 723 patients (8.3%) who were randomly assigned to hemiarthroplasty (hazard ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64 to 1.40; P = 0.79). Hip instability or dislocation occurred in 34 patients (4.7%) assigned to total hip arthroplasty and 17 patients (2.4%) assigned to hemiarthroplasty (hazard ratio, 2.00; 99% CI, 0.97 to 4.09). Function, as measured with the total Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) total score, pain score, stiffness score, and function score, modestly favored total hip arthroplasty over hemiarthroplasty. Mortality was similar in the two treatment groups (14.3% among the patients assigned to total hip arthroplasty and 13.1% among those assigned to hemiarthroplasty, P = 0.48). Serious adverse events occurred in 300 patients (41.8%) assigned to total hip arthroplasty and in 265 patients (36.7%) assigned to hemiarthroplasty. CONCLUSIONS: Among independently ambulating patients with displaced femoral neck fractures, the incidence of secondary procedures did not differ significantly between patients who were randomly assigned to undergo total hip arthroplasty and those who were assigned to undergo hemiarthroplasty, and total hip arthroplasty provided a clinically unimportant improvement over hemiarthroplasty in function and quality of life over 24 months. (Funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00556842.).


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril , Fraturas do Colo Femoral/cirurgia , Hemiartroplastia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Fraturas do Colo Femoral/fisiopatologia , Seguimentos , Hemiartroplastia/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Qualidade de Vida , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Método Simples-Cego
16.
Surg Obes Relat Dis ; 15(9): 1431-1438, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (SG) is the most commonly performed bariatric/metabolic operation. However, inadequate long-term weight loss remains a problem in some cases, possibly from gastric-sleeve dilation. Adding a reinforcing ring around the proximal gastric sleeve has been proposed, but relevant data are scant. We performed the largest, longest-term study yet of banded SG (BSG) compared to nonbanded SG. SETTING: University hospital. METHODS: In 2012, 68 patients at our institution underwent BSG, and 152 underwent SG. Data were prospectively collected into a standardized database from both cohorts during in-person visits at 0, .5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 postoperative years, enabling this retrospective matched cohort study. RESULTS: The groups were extremely well-matched at baseline for all relevant characteristics. Operative time was longer and blood loss greater with BSG, but these differences were clinically inconsequential. The only major perioperative complications were 1 hemorrhage in each group. Follow-up at 5 years was 81% for BSG and 67% for SG. Weight loss was equivalent between groups at 6 and 12 months. Thereafter, weight loss was substantially greater following BSG compared to SG at 2, 3, 4, and 5 years, with the magnitude of difference increasing at each successive year. At 5 years, total body mass index decrease was 33.0 ± 12.0% for BSG versus 21.7 ± 18.2% for SG (P = .0001). No major late complications occurred in either group. At 5 years, BSG patients reported minimal food intolerances, rare postprandial vomiting, and almost no heartburn. CONCLUSIONS: BSG is safe and produces substantially more weight loss than nonbanded SG at 2 through 5 postoperative years, with minimal side effects.

17.
BMJ Open ; 9(9): e033150, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551393

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Inflammation, dehydration, hypotension and bleeding may all contribute to the development of acute kidney injury (AKI). Accelerated surgery after a hip fracture can decrease the exposure time to such contributors and may reduce the risk of AKI. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Hip fracture Accelerated surgical TreaTment And Care tracK (HIP ATTACK) is a multicentre, international, parallel-group randomised controlled trial (RCT). Patients who suffer a hip fracture are randomly allocated to either accelerated medical assessment and surgical repair with a goal of surgery within 6 hours of diagnosis or standard care where a repair typically occurs 24 to 48 hours after diagnosis. The primary outcome of this substudy is the development of AKI within 7 days of randomisation. We anticipate at least 1998 patients will participate in this substudy. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: We obtained ethics approval for additional serum creatinine recordings in consecutive patients enrolled at 70 participating centres. All patients provide consent before randomisation. We anticipate reporting substudy results by 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02027896; Pre-results.

18.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222276, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513622

RESUMO

NEURAL CORRELATES OF MIND WANDERING: The ability to detect mind wandering as it occurs is an important step towards improving our understanding of this phenomenon and studying its effects on learning and performance. Current detection methods typically rely on observable behaviour in laboratory settings, which do not capture the underlying neural processes and may not translate well into real-world settings. We address both of these issues by recording electroencephalography (EEG) simultaneously from 15 participants during live lectures on research in orthopedic surgery. We performed traditional group-level analysis and found neural correlates of mind wandering during live lectures that are similar to those found in some laboratory studies, including a decrease in occipitoparietal alpha power and frontal, temporal, and occipital beta power. However, individual-level analysis of these same data revealed that patterns of brain activity associated with mind wandering were more broadly distributed and highly individualized than revealed in the group-level analysis. MIND WANDERING DETECTION: To apply these findings to mind wandering detection, we used a data-driven method known as common spatial patterns to discover scalp topologies for each individual that reflects their differences in brain activity when mind wandering versus attending to lectures. This approach avoids reliance on known neural correlates primarily established through group-level statistics. Using this method for individual-level machine learning of mind wandering from EEG, we were able to achieve an average detection accuracy of 80-83%. CONCLUSIONS: Modelling mind wandering at the individual level may reveal important details about its neural correlates that are not reflected when using traditional observational and statistical methods. Using machine learning techniques for this purpose can provide new insight into the varieties of neural activity involved in mind wandering, while also enabling real-time detection of mind wandering in naturalistic settings.

19.
J Orthop Trauma ; 33(10): 487-496, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464855

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the distribution of femoral neck shortening after internal fixation and to determine whether shortening is associated with inferior hip function at 24 months after a hip fracture in patients 50 years of age or older. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: A secondary analysis of data from 81 clinical centers included in the Fixation using Alternative Implants for the Treatment of Hip Fractures (FAITH) trial. PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred fifty patients, 50 years of age or older, who had an isolated femoral neck fracture and underwent timely operative fixation of the fracture. INTERVENTION: Femoral neck shortening was measured as a categorical variable and classified into one of the following groups, as determined by the Central Adjudication Committee: no shortening, mild shortening (≤5 mm), moderate shortening (6-10 mm), or severe shortening (>10 mm). MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENT: The primary outcome for the current analysis was hip function, as measured by the Western Ontario & McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index questionnaire, at 24 months after injury. RESULTS: Two-thirds of patients had no or mild shortening (≤5 mm), whereas one-third of patients had moderate or severe shortening (>5 mm). After adjusting for surgical treatment, a greater amount of femoral neck shortening was found to be associated with poorer hip function (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: We found that increasing femoral neck shortening was associated with inferior hip function. Although internal fixation often results in successful union, patients who heal in a shortened position report poorer functional outcomes. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

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