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2.
BMJ Open ; 9(11): e028095, 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740463

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Between 1998 and 2009 reported exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) rates in South African infants, aged 0-6 months, ranged from 6.2% to 25.7%. In 2011, the National Minister of Health shifted policy to promote 'exclusive' breast feeding for all women in South Africa irrespective of HIV status (Tshwane Declaration of Support for Breastfeeding in South Africa). This analysis examines early EBF prior to and through implementation of the declaration. SETTING: Data from the three South Africa national, cross-sectional, facility-based surveys, conducted in 2010, 2011-12 and 2012-13, were analysed. Primary health facilities (n=580) were randomly selected after a stratified multistage probability proportional-to-size sampling to provide valid national and provincial estimates. PARTICIPANTS: A national sample of all infants attending their 6 weeks vaccination at selected facilities. The number of caregiver-infant pairs enrolled were 10 182, 10 106 and 9120 in 2010, 2011-12, and 2012-13, respectively. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: Exclusive breast feeding as measured using structured 24 hours recall plus prior 7 days (8 days inclusive prior to day interview) and WHO definition. RESULTS: The adjusted OR comparing EBF prevalence in 2011-12 and 2012-13 with 2010 were 2.08 and 5.51, respectively. Mothers with generally higher socioeconomic status, HIV-positive, unplanned pregnancy, primipara, postcaesarean delivery, resided in certain provinces and women who did not receive breastfeeding counselling had significantly lower odds of EBF. CONCLUSION: With what seemed to be an intransigently low EBF rate since 1998, South Africa saw an increase in early EBF for infants aged 4-8 weeks from 2010 to 2013, coinciding with a major national breastfeeding policy change. These increases were seen across all provinces and subgroups, suggesting a population-wide effect, rather than an increase in certain subgroups or locations. While these increases in EBF were significant, the 59.1% prevalence is still below desired levels of early EBF. Further improvements in EBF programmes are needed.

3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(Suppl 1): 783, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 2016 'Start Free, Stay Free, AIDS Free' global agenda, builds on the 2011-2015 'Global Plan'. It prioritises 22 countries where 90% of the world's HIV-positive pregnant women live and aims to eliminate vertical  transmission of HIV (EMTCT) and to keep mothers alive. By 2019, no Global Plan priority country had achieved EMTCT; however, 11 non-priority countries had. This paper synthesises the characteristics of the first four countries validated for EMTCT, and of the 21 Global Plan priority countries located in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We consider what drives vertical transmission of HIV (MTCT) in the 21 SSA Global Plan priority countries. METHODS: A literature review, using PubMed, Science direct and the google search engine was conducted to obtain global and national-level information on current HIV-related context and health system characteristics of the first four EMTCT-validated countries and the 21 SSA Global Plan priority countries. Data representing only one clinic, hospital or region were excluded. Additionally, key global experts working on EMTCT were contacted to obtain clarification on published data. We applied three theories (the World Health Organisation's building blocks to strengthen health systems, van Olmen's Health System Dynamics framework and Baral's socio-ecological model for HIV risk) to understand and explain the differences between EMTCT-validated and non-validated countries. Additionally, structural equation modelling (SEM) and linear regression were used to explain associations between infant HIV exposure, access to antiretroviral therapy and two outcomes: (i) percent MTCT and (iii) number of new paediatric HIV infections per 100 000 live births (paediatric HIV case rate). RESULTS: EMTCT-validated countries have lower HIV prevalence, less breastfeeding, fewer challenges around leadership, governance within the health sector or country, infrastructure and service delivery compared with Global Plan priority countries. Although by 2016 EMTCT-validated countries and Global Plan priority countries had adopted a public health approach to HIV prevention, recommending lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all HIV-positive pregnant and lactating women, EMCT-validated countries had also included contact tracing such as assisted partner notification, and had integrated maternal and child health (MCH) and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services, with services for HIV infection, sexually transmitted infections, and viral hepatitis. Additionally, Global Plan priority countries have limited data on key SRH indicators such as unmet need for family planning, with variable coverage of antenatal care, HIV testing and triple antiretroviral therapy (ART) and very limited contact tracing. Structural equation modelling (SEM) and linear regression analysis demonstrated that ART access protects against percent MTCT (p<0.001); in simple linear regression it is 53% protective against percent MTCT. In contrast, SEM demonstrated that the case rate was driven by the number of HIV exposed infants (HEI) i.e. maternal HIV prevalence (p<0.001). In linear regression models, ART access alone explains only 17% of the case rate while HEI alone explains 81% of the case rate. In multiple regression, HEI and ART access accounts for 83% of the case rate, with HEI making the most contribution (coef. infant HIV exposure=82.8, 95% CI: 64.6, 101.1, p<0.001 vs coef. ART access=-3.0, 95% CI: -6.2, 0.3, p=0.074). CONCLUSION: Reducing infant HIV exposure, is critical to reducing the paediatric HIV case rate; increasing ART access is critical to reduce percent MTCT. Additionally, our study of four validated countries underscores the importance of contact tracing, strengthening programme monitoring, leadership and governance, as these are potentially-modifiable factors.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/transmissão , HIV/imunologia , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Saúde Reprodutiva , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Aleitamento Materno , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Busca de Comunicante , Feminino , Soropositividade para HIV , Humanos , Lactente , Lactação , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Mães/educação , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Prevalência , Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Adulto Jovem
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(Suppl 1): 786, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526387

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the use of technology viz. mobile phones, personalised digital assistants, smartphones, notebook and tablets to monitor health and health care (mHealth) is mushrooming, only small, localised studies have described their use as a data collection tool. This paper describes the complexity, functionality and feasibility of mHealth for large scale surveillance at national and sub-national levels in South Africa, a high HIV-prevalence setting. METHODS: In 2010, 2011-12 and 2012-13 three nationally representative surveys were conducted amongst infants attending 580 facilities across all 51 districts, within all nine provinces of South Africa, to monitor the effectiveness of the programme to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). In all three surveys a technical protocol and iterative system for mobile data collection was developed. In 2012-13 the system included automated folders to store information about upcoming interviews. Paper questionnaires were used as a back-up, in case of mHealth failure. These included written instructions per question on limits, skips and compulsory questions. Data collectors were trained on both systems. RESULTS: In the 2010, 2011-12 and 2012-2013 surveys respectively, data from 10,554, 10,071, and 10,536 interviews, and approximately 186 variables per survey were successfully uploaded to 151 mobile phones collecting data from 580 health facilities in 51 districts, across all nine provinces of South Africa. A technician, costing approximately U$D20 000 p.a. was appointed to support field-based staff. Two percent of data were gathered using paper- questionnaires. The time needed for mHealth interviews was approximately 1,5 times less than the time needed for paper questionnaires 30-45 min versus approximately 120 min (including 60-70 min for the interview with an additional 45 min for data capture). In 2012-13, 1172 data errors were identified via the web-based console. There was a four-week delay in resolving data errors from paper-based surveys compared with a 3-day turnaround time following direct capture on mobile phones. CONCLUSION: Our experiences demonstrate the feasibility of using mHealth during large-scale national surveys, in the presence of a supportive data management team. mHealth systems reduced data collection time by almost 1.5 times, thus reduced data collector costs and time needed for data management.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular , Processamento Eletrônico de Dados/métodos , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Telemedicina/métodos , Cuidadores , Estudos Transversais , Assistência à Saúde , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco , Estudos de Viabilidade , Seguimentos , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Mães , África do Sul , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telemedicina/economia
7.
J Glob Health ; 8(2): 020901, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30356823

RESUMO

Background: Continuity of care is important for child well-being in all settings where postnatal retention of mother-infant pairs in care remains a challenge. This analysis reports on completeness of patient-held infant Road to Health Booklets (RtHBs), amongst HIV exposed and unexposed infants during the first two years after the RtHB was launched country-wide in South Africa. Methods: Secondary data were analysed from two nationally representative, cross-sectional surveys, conducted in 2011-12 and 2012-13. These surveys aimed to measure early effectiveness of the national programme for preventing vertical HIV transmission. Participants were eligible for this analysis if they were 4-8 weeks old, receiving their six-week immunisation, not needing emergency care and had their RtHBs reviewed. Caregivers were interviewed and data abstracted from RtHBs. RtHB completeness across both surveys was defined as the proportion of RtHBs with any of the following indicators recorded: infant birth weight, BCG immunisation, maternal syphilis results and maternal HIV status. A partial proportional odds logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with completeness. Survey sampling weights were included in all analyses. Results: Data from 10 415 (99.6%) participants in 2011-12 and 9529 (99.2%) in 2012-13 were analysed. Overall, recording of all four indicators increased from 23.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 22.2-24.0) in 2011-12 to 43.3% (95% CI = 42.3-44.4) in 2012-13. In multivariable models, expected RtHB completeness (ie, recording all four indicators vs recording of <4 indicators), was significantly (P<0.05) associated with survey year, marital status, socio-economic status, maternal antenatal TB screening, antenatal infant feeding counselling, delivery at a clinic or hospital and type of birth attendant. Conclusions: Routine patient-held infant health RtHB, a critical tool for continuity of care in high HIV/TB prevalence settings, was poorly completed, with less than 50% of the RtHB showing expected completeness. However, government efforts for improved usage of the booklet were evidenced by the near doubling of completeness from 2011 to 2013. Education about its importance and interventions aiming at optimising its use without violating user privacy should be continued.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Registros Médicos/normas , Folhetos , Cuidado Pós-Natal , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Observação , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , África do Sul , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Adolesc Health ; 62(4): 434-443, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29269045

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Adolescent females aged 15-19 account for 62% of new HIV infections and give birth to 16 million infants annually. We quantify the risk of early mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV among adolescents enrolled in nationally representative MTCT surveillance studies in South Africa. METHODS: Data from 4,814 adolescent (≤19 years) and 25,453 adult (≥20 years) mothers and their infants aged 4-8 weeks were analyzed. These data were gathered during three nationally representative, cross-sectional, facility-based surveys, conducted in 2010, 2011-2012, and 2012-2013. All infants were tested for HIV antibody (enzyme immunoassay), to determine HIV exposure. Enzyme immunoassay-positive infants or those born to self-reported HIV-positive mothers were tested for HIV infection (total nucleic acid polymerase chain reaction). Maternal HIV positivity was inferred from infant HIV antibody positivity. All analyses were weighted for sample realization and population live births. RESULTS: Adolescent mothers, compared with adult mothers, have almost three times less planned pregnancies 14.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 12.5-16.5) versus 43.9% (95% CI: 42.0-45.9) in 2010 and 15.2% (95% CI: 13.0-17.9) versus 42.8% (95% CI: 40.9-44.6) in 2012-2013 (p < .0001), less prevention of MTCT uptake (odds ratio [OR] in favor of adult mothers = 3.36, 95% CI: 2.95-3.83), and higher early MTCT (adjusted OR = 3.0, 95% CI: 1.1-8.0), respectively. Gestational age at first antenatal care booking was the only significant predictor of early MTCT among adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions that appeal to adolescents and initiate sexual and reproductive health care early should be tested in low- and middle-income settings to reduce differential service uptake and infant outcomes between adolescent and adult mothers.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 37(6): 559-563, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29189609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: South Africa represents the first high-burden setting to introduce routine virologic testing at birth within its early infant diagnosis program, implemented in June 2015. National HIV birth testing coverage, intrauterine transmission rates and case rates for the first year since introduction of universal birth testing are reported. METHODS: HIV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test data from June 2015 to May 2016 were extracted from the National Health Laboratory Service's central data repository by year, month, age, result and geographic location. Birth testing was defined as all HIV PCR tests performed at <7 days of life; coverage as the proportion of all HIV-exposed neonates born who were tested at birth; estimated intrauterine transmission rate as the percentage of HIV PCR positive tests in HIV-exposed neonates tested and case rates as the number of HIV PCR positive tests per 100,000 total live births. RESULTS: Between June 2015 and May 2016, the South African national monthly birth testing coverage increased from 39% (8636 tests) to 93% (20,479 tests). During this period, the number of positive tests at birth increased from 114 to 234 per month, equating to a national intrauterine transmission rate of 1.1% and a birth case rate of 247 per 100,000 live births. CONCLUSIONS: Universal birth testing for all HIV-exposed neonates is rapidly being achieved in South Africa, facilitating earlier detection of intrauterine infected neonates. However, the successful linkage into care of HIV-infected neonates and their treatment outcomes remain to be assessed.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico Precoce , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Triagem Neonatal , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , HIV/genética , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Testes Sorológicos , África do Sul/epidemiologia
11.
J Glob Health ; 7(1): 010701, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28567281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: South Africa has utilized three independent data sources to measure the impact of its program for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV. These include the South African National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS), the District Health Information System (DHIS), and South African PMTCT Evaluation (SAPMTCTE) surveys. We compare the results of each, outlining advantages and limitations, and make recommendations for monitoring transmission rates as South Africa works toward achieving elimination of mother-to-child transmission (eMTCT). METHODS: HIV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test data, collected between 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2014, from the NHLS, DHIS and SAPMTCTE surveys were used to compare early mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) rates in South Africa. Data from the NHLS and DHIS were also used to compare early infant diagnosis (EID) coverage. RESULTS: The age-adjusted NHLS early MTCT rates of 4.1% in 2010, 2.6% in 2011 and 2.3% in 2012 consistently fall within the 95% confidence interval as measured by three SAPMTCTE surveys in corresponding time periods. Although DHIS data over-estimated MTCT rates in 2010, the MTCT rate declines thereafter to converge with age-adjusted NHLS MTCT rates by 2012. National EID coverage from NHLS data increases from around 52% in 2010 to 87% in 2014. DHIS data over-estimates EID coverage, but this can be corrected by employing an alternative estimate of the HIV-exposed infant population. CONCLUSION: NHLS and DHIS, two routine data sources, provide very similar early MTCT rate estimates that fall within the SAPMTCTE survey confidence intervals for 2012. This analysis validates the usefulness of routine data sources to track eMTCT in South Africa.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico Precoce , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Feminino , Guias como Assunto , HIV/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , África do Sul/epidemiologia
12.
Matern Child Health J ; 21(1): 1-8, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27514391

RESUMO

Introduction Increasing access to HIV-related care and treatment for children aged 0-18 years in resource-limited settings is an urgent global priority. In 2011-2012 the percentage increase in children accessing antiretroviral therapy was approximately half that of adults (11 vs. 21 %). We propose a model for increasing access to, and retention in, paediatric HIV care and treatment in resource-limited settings. Methods Following a rapid appraisal of recent literature seven main challenges in paediatric HIV-related care and treatment were identified: (1) lack of regular, integrated, ongoing HIV-related diagnosis; (2) weak facility-based systems for tracking and retention in care; (3) interrupted availability of dried blood spot cards (expiration/stock outs); (4) poor quality control of rapid HIV testing; (5) supply-related gaps at health facility-laboratory interface; (6) poor uptake of HIV testing, possibly relating to a fatalistic belief about HIV infection; (7) community-associated reasons e.g. non-disclosure and weak systems for social support, resulting in poor retention in care. Results To increase sustained access to paediatric HIV-related care and treatment, regular updating of Policies, review of inter-sectoral Plans (at facility and community levels) and evaluation of Programme implementation and impact (at national, subnational, facility and community levels) are non-negotiable critical elements. Additionally we recommend the intensified implementation of seven main interventions: (1) update or refresher messaging for health care staff and simple messaging for key staff at early childhood development centres and schools; (2) contact tracing, disclosure and retention monitoring; (3) paying particular attention to infant dried blood spot (DBS) stock control; (4) regular quality assurance of rapid HIV testing procedures; (5) workshops/meetings/dialogues between health facilities and laboratories to resolve transport-related gaps and to facilitate return of results to facilities; (6) community leader and health worker advocacy at creches, schools, religious centres to increase uptake of HIV testing and dispel fatalistic beliefs about HIV; (7) use of mobile communication technology (m-health) and peer/community supporters to maintain contact with patients. Discussion and Conclusion We propose that this package of facility, community and family-orientated interventions are needed to change the trajectory of the paediatric HIV epidemic and its associated patterns of morbidity and mortality, thus achieving the double dividend of improving HIV-free survival.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/economia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adolescente , Antirretrovirais/economia , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Busca de Comunicante , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Sistemas de Identificação de Pacientes/normas
13.
J Glob Health ; 6(2): 020405, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27698999

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eliminating mother-to-child transmission of HIV (EMTCT), defined as ≤50 infant HIV infections per 100 000 live births, is a global priority. Since 2011 policies to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) shifted from maternal antiretroviral (ARV) treatment or prophylaxis contingent on CD4 cell count to lifelong maternal ARV treatment (cART). We sought to measure progress with early (4-8 weeks postpartum) MTCT prevention and elimination, 2011-2013, at national and sub-national levels in South Africa, a high antenatal HIV prevalence setting ( ≈ 29%), where early MTCT was 3.5% in 2010. METHODS: Two surveys were conducted (August 2011-March 2012 and October 2012-May 2013), in 580 health facilities, randomly selected after two-stage probability proportional to size sampling of facilities (the primary sampling unit), to provide valid national and sub-national-(provincial)-level estimates. Data collectors interviewed caregivers of eligible infants, reviewed patient-held charts, and collected infant dried blood spots (iDBS). Confirmed positive HIV enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and positive total HIV nucleic acid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) indicated infant HIV exposure or infection, respectively. Weighted survey analysis was conducted for each survey and for the pooled data. FINDINGS: National data from 10 106 and 9120 participants were analyzed (2011-12 and 2012-13 surveys respectively). Infant HIV exposure was 32.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) 30.7-33.6%), in 2011-12 and 33.1% (95% CI 31.8-34.4%), provincial range of 22.1-43.6% in 2012-13. MTCT was 2.7% (95% CI 2.1%-3.2%) in 2011-12 and 2.6% (95% CI 2.0-3.2%), provincial range of 1.9-5.4% in 2012-13. HIV-infected ARV-exposed mothers had significantly lower unadjusted early MTCT (2.0% [2011-12: 1.6-2.5%; 2012-13:1.5-2.6%]) compared to HIV-infected ARV-naive mothers [10.2% in 2011-12 (6.5-13.8%); 9.2% in 2012-13 (5.6-12.7%)]. Pooled analyses demonstrated significantly lower early MTCT among exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) mothers receiving >10 weeks ARV prophylaxis or cART compared with EBF and no ARVs: (2.2% [95% CI 1.25-3.09%] vs 12.2% [95% CI 4.7-19.6%], respectively); among HIV-infected ARV-exposed mothers, 24.9% (95% CI 23.5-26.3%) initiated cART during or before the first trimester, and their early MTCT was 1.2% (95% CI 0.6-1.7%). Extrapolating these data, assuming 32% EIA positivity and 2.6% or 1.2% MTCT, 832 and 384 infants per 100 000 live births were HIV infected, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Although we demonstrate sustained national-level PMTCT impact in a high HIV prevalence setting, results are far-removed from EMTCT targets. Reducing maternal HIV prevalence and treating all maternal HIV infection early are critical for further progress.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Aleitamento Materno , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Lactente , Mães , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Prevalência , África do Sul
14.
PLoS One ; 10(7): e0132425, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26147598

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We examined uptake of prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) services, predictors of missed opportunities, and infant HIV transmission attributable to missed opportunities along the PMTCT cascade across South Africa. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 4-8 week old infants receiving first immunisations in 580 nationally representative public health facilities in 2010. This included maternal interviews and testing infants' dried blood spots for HIV. A weighted analysis was performed to assess uptake of antenatal and perinatal PMTCT services along the PMTCT cascade (namely: maternal HIV testing, CD4 count test/result, and receiving maternal and infant antiretroviral treatment) and predictors of dropout. The population attributable fraction associated with dropouts at each service point are estimated. RESULTS: Of 9,803 mothers included, 31.7% were HIV-positive as identified by reactive infant antibody tests. Of these 80.4% received some form of maternal and infant antiretroviral treatment. More than a third (34.9%) of mothers dropped out from one or more steps in the PMTCT service cascade. In a multivariable analysis, the following characteristics were associated with increased dropout from the PMTCT cascade: adolescent (<20 years) mothers, low socioeconomic score, low education level, primiparous mothers, delayed first antenatal visit, homebirth, and non-disclosure of HIV status. Adolescent mothers were twice (adjusted odds ratio: 2.2, 95% confidence interval: 1.5-3.3) as likely to be unaware of their HIV-positive status and had a significantly higher rate (85.2%) of unplanned pregnancies compared to adults aged ≥20 years (55.5%, p = 0.0001). A third (33.8%) of infant HIV infections were attributable to dropout in one or more steps in the cascade. CONCLUSION: A third of transmissions attributable to missed opportunities of PMTCT services can be prevented by optimizing the uptake of PMTCT services. Identified risk factors for low PMTCT service uptake should be addressed through health facility and community-level interventions, including raising awareness, promoting women education, adolescent focused interventions, and strengthening linkages/referral-system between communities and health facilities.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Linfócito CD4/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/congênito , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Parto Domiciliar/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Idade Materna , Serviços de Saúde Materna/organização & administração , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico , Paridade , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Gravidez na Adolescência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Zidovudina/uso terapêutico
15.
AIDS ; 29 Suppl 2: S137-43, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26102624

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: After a late start and poor initial performance, the South African Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission (PMTCT) programme achieved rapid progress in achieving effective national-scale implementation of a complex intervention across a large number of different geographic and socioeconomic contexts. This study shows how quality-improvement methods played a significant part in PMTCT improvements. METHODS: The South African rollout of the PMTCT programme underwent significant evolution, from a largely ineffective, context-insensitive, top-down cascaded training approach to a sophisticated bottom-up health systems' intervention that used modern adaptive designs. Several demonstration projects used quality-improvement methods to improve the performance of the PMTCT programme. These results prompted a national redesign of key elements of the PMTCT programme which were rapidly scaled up across the country using a unified, simplified data-driven approach. RESULTS: The scale up of the quality-improvement approach contributed to a dramatic fall in the nationally reported transmission rate for mother to child transmission of HIV. By 2012, measured infection rate of HIV-exposed infants at around 6 weeks after birth was 2.6%, close to the reported transmission rates under clinical trial conditions. CONCLUSION: Quality-improvement methods can be used to improve reliability of complex treatment programmes delivered at primary-care level. Rapid scale up and effective population coverage can be accomplished through a sequence of demonstration, testing and rapid spread of locally tested implementation strategies supported by real-time feedback of a simplified indicator dataset and multilevel leadership support.


Assuntos
Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Programas de Rastreamento/organização & administração , Vigilância da População/métodos , Medicina Preventiva/organização & administração , Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Mães , Gravidez , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores Socioeconômicos , África do Sul/epidemiologia
16.
Curr HIV/AIDS Rep ; 12(2): 246-55, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25877252

RESUMO

Tremendous gains have been made in the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) in sub-Saharan Africa. Ambitious goals for the "virtual elimination" of pediatric HIV appear increasingly feasible, driven by new scientific advances, forward-thinking health policy, and substantial donor investment. To fulfill this promise, however, rapid and effective implementation of evidence-based practices must be brought to scale across a diversity of settings. The discipline of implementation research can facilitate this translation from policy into practice; however, to date, its core principles and frameworks have been inconsistently applied in the field. We reviewed the recent developments in implementation research across each of the four "prongs" of a comprehensive PMTCT approach. While significant progress continues to be made, a greater emphasis on context, fidelity, and scalability-in the design and dissemination of study results-would greatly enhance current efforts and provide the necessary foundation for future evidence-based programs.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/organização & administração , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Gravidez
17.
South Afr J HIV Med ; 16(1): 386, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29568595

RESUMO

In January 2015, the South African National Department of Health released new consolidated guidelines for the prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV, in line with the World Health Organization's (WHO) PMTCT Option B+. Implementing these guidelines should make it possible to eliminate mother to child transmission (MTCT) of HIV and improve long-term maternal and infant outcomes. The present article summarises the key recommendations of the 2015 guidelines and highlights current gaps that hinder optimal implementation; these include late antenatal booking (as a result of poor staff attitudes towards 'early bookers' and foreigners, unsuitable clinic hours, lack of transport to facilities, quota systems being applied to antenatal clients and clinic staff shortages); poor compliance with rapid HIV testing protocols; weak referral systems with inadequate follow-up; inadequate numbers of laboratory staff to handle HIV-related monitoring procedures and return of results to the correct facility; and inadequate supply chain management, leading to interrupted supplies of antiretroviral drugs. Additionally, recommendations are proposed on how to address these gaps. There is a need to evaluate the implementation of the 2015 guidelines and proactively communicate with ground-level implementers to identify operational bottlenecks, test solutions to these bottlenecks, and develop realistic implementation plans.

18.
Bull World Health Organ ; 91(1): 70-4, 2013 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23397353

RESUMO

PROBLEM: The World Health Organization has produced clear guidelines for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, ensuring that all PMTCT programme components are implemented to a high quality in all facilities presents challenges. APPROACH: Although South Africa initiated its PMTCT programme in 2002, later than most other countries, political support has increased since 2008. Operational research has received more attention and objective data have been used more effectively. LOCAL SETTING: In 2010, around 30% of all pregnant women in South Africa were HIV-positive and half of all deaths in children younger than 5 years were associated with the virus. RELEVANT CHANGES: Between 2008 and 2011, the estimated proportion of HIV-exposed infants younger than 2 months who underwent routine polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests to detect early HIV transmission increased from 36.6% to 70.4%. The estimated HIV transmission rate decreased from 9.6% to 2.8%. Population-based surveys in 2010 and 2011 reported transmission rates of 3.5% and 2.7%, respectively. LESSONS LEARNT: CRITICAL ACTIONS FOR IMPROVING PROGRAMME OUTCOMES INCLUDED: ensuring rapid implementation of changes in PMTCT policy at the field level through training and guideline dissemination; ensuring good coordination with technical partners, such as international health agencies and international and local nongovernmental organizations; and making use of data and indicators on all aspects of the PMTCT programme. Enabling health-care staff at primary care facilities to initiate antiretroviral therapy and expanding laboratory services for measuring CD4+ T-cell counts and for PCR testing were also helpful.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia
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