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1.
Cancer ; 126(13): 3013-3020, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Initiating screening at an earlier age based on cancer family history is one of the primary recommended strategies for the prevention and detection of early-onset colorectal cancer (EOCRC), but data supporting the effectiveness of this approach are limited. The authors assessed the performance of family history-based guidelines for identifying individuals with EOCRC. METHODS: The authors conducted a population-based, case-control study of individuals aged 40 to 49 years with (2473 individuals) and without (772 individuals) incident CRC in the Colon Cancer Family Registry from 1998 through 2007. They estimated the sensitivity and specificity of family history-based criteria jointly recommended by the American Cancer Society, the US Multi-Society Task Force on CRC, and the American College of Radiology in 2008 for early screening, and the age at which each participant could have been recommended screening initiation if these criteria had been applied. RESULTS: Family history-based early screening criteria were met by approximately 25% of cases (614 of 2473 cases) and 10% of controls (74 of 772 controls), with a sensitivity of 25% and a specificity of 90% for identifying EOCRC cases aged 40 to 49 years. Among 614 individuals meeting early screening criteria, 98.4% could have been recommended screening initiation at an age younger than the observed age of diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Of CRC cases aged 40 to 49 years, 1 in 4 met family history-based early screening criteria, and nearly all cases who met these criteria could have had CRC diagnosed earlier (or possibly even prevented) if earlier screening had been implemented as per family history-based guidelines. Additional strategies are needed to improve the detection and prevention of EOCRC for individuals not meeting family history criteria for early screening.

2.
Health Promot Pract ; : 1524839920912240, 2020 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32202155

RESUMO

Background. Latinos have lower colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates compared to other racial/ethnic groups in the United States, despite an overall increase in CRC screening over the past 10 years. To address this disparity, we implemented a promotor-led intervention to increase CRC screening test adherence in community-based settings, connecting community members with a partnering federally qualified health center. Purpose. To evaluate the Juntos Contra el Cáncer/Together Against Cancer (JUNTOS) intervention, by assessing pre-post changes in (1) CRC screening test adherence and (2) CRC knowledge and perceived barriers to CRC screening. We also assessed the feasibility and acceptability of program activities. Method. JUNTOS was a group-based intervention, delivered by promotores (community health workers), to promote CRC screening test adherence among Latino adults. The intervention consisted of a culturally tailored 2½-hour interactive workshop followed by an appointment scheduling assistance from a promotor. Workshop participants were Latino adults (males and females) aged 50 to 75 years who were not up-to-date with CRC screening guidelines. We conducted interviews before and 6 to 9 months after the workshop to assess program outcomes. Results. Of the 177 participants included, 118 reported completing the CRC screening test (66.7%) by 6 to 9 months postintervention. We observed baseline to 6- to 9-month increase in CRC knowledge and lower perceived barriers to obtaining CRC screening. Furthermore, the intervention was found to be feasible and acceptable. Conclusion. Results suggest that JUNTOS can be feasibly implemented in partnership with a federally qualified health center. The current study supports group-based CRC interventions in community and clinic settings.

3.
Am J Public Health ; 110(4): 587-594, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078353

RESUMO

Objectives. To compare usual care, inreach consisting of one-on-one education, mailed outreach offering a fecal immunochemical test (FIT), and a combination of outreach and inreach for promoting colorectal cancer (CRC) screening.Methods. We conducted a 4-arm randomized controlled trial from 2015 to 2018 at a US federally qualified health center near the California-Mexico border primarily serving low-income Hispanics/Latinos. A total of 673 individuals aged 50 to 75 years not up to date with screening were assigned to 1 of the 4 intervention groups. The primary outcome was CRC screening through 6 months follow-up.Results. A total of 671 patients were included in intention-to-screen analyses. Their mean age was 59.9 years, 48.9% were male, and 86.3% were primarily Spanish-speaking. Screening was 27.5% for usual care (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.21, 0.34), 52.7% for inreach (95% CI = 0.45, 0.60), 77.2% for outreach (95% CI = 0.71, 0.83), and 78.9% for combination of inreach and outreach (95% CI = 0.73, 0.85; P < .001 for all comparisons except P = .793 for outreach vs combination).Conclusions. Among individuals at high risk for noncompletion, inreach with one-on-one education nearly doubled, and outreach offering mailed FIT alone or in combination with inreach nearly tripled screening compared with usual care. Mailed FIT outreach was superior to inreach for promoting screening.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Idoso , California , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Imunoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sangue Oculto
4.
Cancer ; 125(23): 4203-4209, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479529

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of colorectal cancer screening with fecal immunochemical tests (FITs) of stool blood depends on high rates of colonoscopy follow-up for abnormal FITs and the use of high-quality tests. This study characterized colonoscopy referral and completion among patients with abnormal FITs and the types of FITs implemented in a sample of Southern California Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs). METHODS: FQHCs in San Diego, Imperial, and Los Angeles Counties were invited to define a cohort of ≥150 consecutive patients with abnormal FITs in 2015-2016 and to provide data on sex, insurance status, diagnostic colonoscopy referrals and completion within 6 months of abnormal FITs, and the types (brands) of FITs implemented. The primary outcomes were the proportions with colonoscopy referrals and completion for all patients at each FQHC and in aggregate. RESULTS: Eight FQHCs provided data for 1229 patients with abnormal FITs; 46% were male, and 20% were uninsured. Among patients with abnormal FITs, 89% (1091 of 1229; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.87-0.91) had a colonoscopy referral, and 44% (539 of 1229; 95% CI, 0.41-0.47) had colonoscopy completion. Across FQHCs, the range for colonoscopy referral was 73% to 96%, and the range for completion was 18% to 57%. Six of the 8 FQHCs (75%) reported FIT brands with limited data to support their effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS: In a sample of Southern California FQHCs, diagnostic colonoscopy completion after abnormal FITs was substantially below the nationally recommended benchmark to achieve 80% completion, and the use of FIT brands with limited data to support their effectiveness was high. These findings suggest a need for policies and multilevel interventions to promote diagnostic colonoscopy among individuals with abnormal FITs and the use of higher quality FITs.


Assuntos
Colonoscopia/métodos , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Fezes/química , Imunoquímica/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , California , Estudos Transversais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
5.
Dig Dis Sci ; 64(9): 2489-2496, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30915656

RESUMO

Mailed outreach promoting colorectal cancer (CRC) screening with a stool blood test kit may increase participation, but magnitude and consistency of benefit of this intervention strategy is uncertain. Our aim was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing mailed outreach offering stool tests to usual care, clinic-based screening offers on CRC screening uptake in the USA. We performed a systematic literature search of five databases for RCTs of mailed outreach from January 1980 through June 2017. Primary outcome was screening completion, summarized using random-effects meta-analysis as pooled differences in proportion completing the screening and relative risk of achieving screening compared to control. Subgroup analyses by test type offered-fecal immunochemical test (FIT) or guaiac fecal occult blood test (gFOBT), the presence of telephone reminders, and the presence of predominant underserved/minority population within study were performed. Quality of evidence was evaluated using the GRADE framework. Seven RCTs which enrolled 12,501 subjects were included (n = 5703 assigned mailed outreach and n = 6798 usual care). Mailed outreach resulted in a 28% absolute (95% CI 25-30%; I2 = 47%) and a 2.8-fold relative (RR 2.65, 95% CI 2.03-3.45; I2 = 92%) increase in screening completion compared to usual care, with a number needed to invite estimated to be 3.6. Similar outcomes were observed across subgroups. Overall body of evidence was at moderate quality. Mailed outreach offering a gFOBT or FIT is associated with a large and consistent increase in CRC screening completion and should be considered for more widespread implementation for improving screening rates nationwide.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Correspondência como Assunto , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Imunoquímica , Marketing de Serviços de Saúde , Sangue Oculto , Serviços Postais , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estados Unidos
6.
J Racial Ethn Health Disparities ; 5(3): 530-535, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28634873

RESUMO

Regular use of colorectal cancer screening can reduce incidence and mortality, but participation rates remain low among low-income, Spanish-speaking Latino adults. We conducted two distinct pilot studies testing the implementation of evidence-based interventions to promote fecal immunochemical test (FIT) screening among Latinos aged 50-75 years who were not up-to-date with CRC screening (n = 200) at a large Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) in San Diego, CA. One pilot focused on an opportunistic clinic visit "in-reach" intervention including a 30-min session with a patient navigator, review of an educational "flip-chart," and a take-home FIT kit with instructions. The second pilot was a system-level "outreach" intervention consisting of mailed materials (i.e., FIT kit, culturally and linguistically tailored instructions, and a pre-paid return envelope). Both received follow-up calls to promote screening completion and referrals for additional screening and treatment if needed. The primary outcome was FIT kit completion and return within 3 months assessed through electronic medical records. The in-reach pilot consisted of mostly insured (85%), women (82%), and Spanish-speaking (88%) patients. The outreach pilot consisted of mostly of Spanish-speaking (73%) women (64%), half of which were insured (50%). At a 3-month follow-up, screening completion was 76% for in-reach and 19% for outreach. These data demonstrate that evidence-based strategies to promote CRC screening can be implemented successfully within FQHCs, but implementation (particularly of mailed outreach) may require setting and population-specific optimization. Patient, provider, and healthcare system related implementation approaches and lessons learned from this study may be implemented in other primary care settings.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Hispano-Americanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Idoso , Centros Comunitários de Saúde , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Fezes/química , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Navegação de Pacientes , Projetos Piloto , Pobreza
7.
J Rheumatol ; 42(8): 1376-82, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25877497

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease severity on pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women with and without autoimmune diseases. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted using the Organization of Teratology Information Specialists Autoimmune Diseases in Pregnancy Project. Pregnant women with RA enrolled between 2005 and 2013 were selected if they (1) delivered a live-born singleton infant; and (2) completed 3 telephone-based measures of RA disease severity prior to 20 weeks' gestation, including the Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI), pain score, and patient's global scale. Associations between RA disease severity and preterm delivery, small for gestational age (SGA), or cesarean delivery were tested in unadjusted and multivariate analyses using modified Poisson regression models. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 440 women with RA. Several unadjusted comparisons yielded significant associations. After adjustment for covariates, increasing disease severity was associated with risk for preterm delivery and SGA. For each unit increase in HAQ-DI (0-1), the adjusted relative risk (aRR) for preterm delivery increased by 58% (aRR 1.58, 95% CI 1.17-2.15). Among those with HAQ-DI > 0.5, the aRR for SGA was 1.81 (95% CI 1.01-3.33). CONCLUSION: RA disease severity in early pregnancy, as measured in this study, was predictive of preterm delivery and SGA. These findings suggest that the risk of preterm delivery and SGA in women with RA might be lowered if RA is well controlled early in pregnancy.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/diagnóstico , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Resultado da Gravidez , Adulto , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
8.
PLoS One ; 9(1): e86708, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24489772

RESUMO

Periodontitis is a progressive disease of the periodontium with a complex, polymicrobial etiology. Recent Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) studies of the microbial diversity associated with periodontitis have revealed strong, community-level differences in bacterial assemblages associated with healthy or diseased periodontal sites. In this study, we used NGS approaches to characterize changes in periodontal pocket bacterial diversity after standard periodontal treatment. Despite consistent changes in the abundance of certain taxa in individuals whose condition improved with treatment, post-treatment samples retained the highest similarity to pre-treatment samples from the same individual. Deeper phylogenetic analysis of periodontal pathogen-containing genera Prevotella and Fusobacterium found both unexpected diversity and differential treatment response among species. Our results highlight how understanding interpersonal variability among microbiomes is necessary for determining how polymicrobial diseases respond to treatment and disturbance.


Assuntos
Fusobacterium/classificação , Microbiota/genética , Periodontite/microbiologia , Filogenia , Prevotella/classificação , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Fusobacterium/genética , Fusobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Índios Norte-Americanos , Periodontite/tratamento farmacológico , Periodontite/etnologia , Periodonto/efeitos dos fármacos , Periodonto/microbiologia , Prevotella/genética , Prevotella/isolamento & purificação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
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