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1.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 291, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795315

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biochemical and haematological parameters have not been determined in Bactrian camels kept at high altitude. Therefore, this study was undertaken to characterise different physiological, haematological, biochemical, and morphometric parameters of Bactrian camels of high altitude. For this, total fourteen high altitude healthy Bactrian camels were selected from Leh-Ladakh, India, a high altitude area, and thereafter divided into three age groups (N = 3 young; N = 6 adult; N = 5 old camels) to characterise for above parameters. All the results were compared with Lowlander Bactrian camels. RESULTS: Morphometric measurement showed significant difference in body height, body length, front-hump height and girth, back-hump height and girth, abdomen girth, neck length, and circumference of the shank in the young age group camels as compared to other age groups of Bactrian camels (p < 0.05). Furthermore, all the physiological and haematological parameters were similar in all the age groups of camels (p < 0.05). However, the leukocyte, erythrocyte, Hb, platelets, monocyte, and ESR level were towards the higher side of the normal reference range of Lowlander Bactrian camels. Whereas, the biochemical analysis revealed a significant increase in triglycerides and decrease in protein levels in the younger age group as compared to other age groups (p < 0.05). Although, albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, iron, magnesium, urea, and creatinine levels were insignificant among the different groups, but observed towards the higher side of the low altitude reference range. Interestingly, the glucose levels in all the groups were observed towards the lower side of the range, which showed metabolic adaptation to high altitude. CONCLUSION: These findings suggested there is morphometric and biochemical variation in Bactrian camel of high altitude. The results further helped in establishing novel reference ranges for these parameters in Highlander Bactrian camel. Hence, this study will be the basis of future research on a Bactrian camel from high-altitude cold desert and helpful for better camel husbandry and health management in high altitude.

2.
3 Biotech ; 9(11): 402, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31681523

RESUMO

In era of antibiotic resistance, antibacterial silver nanoparticles are considered as potential alternative therapeutic agent to combat drug resistant pathogens. The aim of present study was to evaluate the antibacterial, antibiofilm and biocompatible potential of green synthesized Seabuckthorn silver nanoparticles (SBT@AgNPs). In the study, antibacterial efficiency of SBT@AgNPs was studied against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. SBT@AgNPs were found to possess high antibacterial activity which was indicated in terms of low minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations (2-4 µg/ml) obtained against test pathogens. Anti-biofilm activity of SBT@AgNPs on young as well as mature P. aeruginosa biofilms was also evaluated. SBT@AgNPs were able to eradicate the P. aeruginosa biofilms, which was further confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Quorum sensing assay also revealed the quorum quenching activity of SBT@AgNPs. Biocompatibility and cytocompatibility results demonstrated SBT@AgNPs to exhibit first-rate non-toxicity as no membrane damage on RBCs or detrimental morphology variation was seen in human dermal fibroblast. LC-MS analysis was also carried out to analyze the potential antibacterial chemical compounds present in aqueous extract of Seabuckthorn leaves. To the best of our knowledge this is first study in which green synthesized silver nanoparticles were exploited to eradicate young as well as mature biofilms of P. aeruginosa. Results showed that SBT@AgNPs are highly antibacterial, antibiofilm, nontoxic in nature and consequently can aid in biomedical applications.

3.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667684

RESUMO

Colostrum of goat is a well-known nutritional source of animal product, which is attributed to innumerable nutritional properties. To enrich nutritional resources for understanding various nutritional values of animal product at high altitude, chemometric analysis of antioxidant and mineral element study was carried out by comparing antioxidants capacity, free radical scavenging activity, and certain mineral elements in colostrums of native and non-native goat breeds. Colostrum samples were collected from native Changthangi (CNG) and non-native Sirohi (SIRO) goat breeds, situated at naturally exposed high altitude of 3505.2 m above mean sea level. The antioxidant of samples was measured by ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity assay, and mineral elemental quantification of Fe, Mg, Mn, Zn, Co, Cu, K, Ca, B, Ni, and Cr was performed using ICP-OES. The values of FRAP, DPPH, and Fe, Mg, Mn, Zn, Co, Cu, K, and Ca in colostrums of native goat breed was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher than the non-native goat. These data conclude that high altitude native goat has more antioxidant and mineral elements in colostrum than non-native colostrum. This study could provide a basis for establishing the role of colostrum supplements as a natural source to strengthen the endurance to modalities for the survival of newborn kids of goat within the native high altitude environment. This is the first report of a comparative chemometric analysis of colostrums of goat species and can be utilized to characterize the nutritional aspect of animal product with unique antioxidant and mineral nutrients composition in colostrum of goat.

4.
Clin Neuropharmacol ; 42(3): 80-87, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082833

RESUMO

This review describes the characteristics of a number of pathologies, which are considered from the point of view of chronobiology, that is, the way in which biological processes are expressed throughout the 24-hour day. This perspective is a relatively new way of thinking about disease and additionally about how to treat diseases. It has called attention to the importance of not only the quantity of a drug that is administered but also when it is administered. In addition, the review presents an overview of the emerging clinical strategies known as chronotherapeutics, that is, the effects of the daily scheduling of drug administration and the consequences of the activity and efficacy of therapies that are applied in this manner. This article also reviews innovative ways in which physicians are applying time-specified drug treatment (chronopharmacology) for sleep disorders. Here, we present a systematic description of chronopharmacology as well as definitions of key terms that, we believe, will be helpful for newcomers to the field. It is hoped that greater awareness of this new perspective on pharmacology will promote its adoption by researchers and clinicians.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Cronobiológicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ritmo Circadiano/efeitos dos fármacos , Cronoterapia Farmacológica , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos
5.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 7681, 2018 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29769561

RESUMO

Ladakhi cattle is native population of Leh and Ladakh region and constantly exposed to hypobaric hypoxia over many generations. In present study, transcriptome signatures of cattle from Ladakh region (~5500 m) and Sahiwal cattle from tropical regions were evaluated using Agilent 44 K microarray chip. The top up-regulated genes in Ladakhi cows were INHBC, ITPRI, HECA, ABI3, GPR171, and HIF-1α involved in hypoxia and stress response. In Sahiwal cows, the top up-regulated genes eEF1A1, GRO1, CXCL2, DEFB3 and BOLA-DQA3 were associated with immune function and inflammatory response indicating their strong immune potential to combat the pathogens prevalent in the tropical conditions. The molecular pathways highly impacted were MAPK signaling, ETC, apoptosis, TLR signaling and NF- kB signaling pathway indicating signatures of adaptive evolution of these two cattle types in response to diverse environments. Further, qPCR analysis revealed increased expression of DEGs such as HIF-1, EPAS-1, VEGFA, NOS2, and GLUT-1/SLC2A1 in cattle types from high altitude suggesting their pivotal role in association with high altitude adaptation. Based on data generated, native cattle of Ladakh region was found to be genetically distinct from native cattle adapted to the tropical region of India.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Altitude , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Hipóxia/genética , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos , Transdução de Sinais , Transcriptoma
6.
Cell Biol Int ; 42(9): 1141-1148, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29719086

RESUMO

Ladakh is an important part of the Trans-Himalayan region located between the Kunlun mountain range in the north and the main Great Himalayas to the south in the state of Jammu and Kashmir of India. The local cattle from Leh and Ladakh region, known as "Ladakhi cattle" is a unique germplasm having an excellent adaptation potential to high altitude hypobaric stress. In the present study, an effort was made to evaluate the transcriptional pattern of hypoxia inducing factor-1 (HIF-1) and several of its regulated genes in PBMCs of local Ladakhi cattle, Holstein Frisian crosses, Jersey (exotic) maintained at high altitude region and Sahiwal (Bos indicus) and Karan Fries (cross bred) cattle maintained in tropical environment. The combined data set indicated increased expression of HIF-1 and its regulated genes viz., glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and hexokinase (HK2) in high altitude cattle indicating their importance in maintaining cellular homeostasis during high altitude hypoxia. The data indicated that hypoxia associated genes accumulated under hypoxic conditions are part of an essential adaptive component for adaptation to the high altitude of the trans-Himalayan region. In contrary, higher expression of molecular chaperons' viz., HSP70 and HSP90 in tropically adapted cattle give tolerance to high ambient temperature prevalent in tropical condition. In conclusion, HIF-1 and its regulatory genes could be termed as important candidates for producing homeostatic responses to hypoxia in cattle populations reared in higher altitudes of the Trans-Himalayan region.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Hipóxia/genética , Altitude , Doença da Altitude/genética , Doença da Altitude/metabolismo , Doença da Altitude/veterinária , Animais , Pressão Atmosférica , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/genética , Hexoquinase/genética , Temperatura Alta , Hipóxia/veterinária , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/análise , Índia , Transcriptoma/genética , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética
7.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 5954, 2018 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29654246

RESUMO

Extremes of climate and hypobaric hypoxia cause poor growth performance in broiler chickens at high altitude. The present study examined the potential of Hippophae rhamnoides extract as phytogenic feed additive for broilers reared at 3500 m above mean sea level (MSL). Higher content of phytomolecules were recorded during characterization of the extract. Immunomodulatory activity of extract was observed in chicken lymphocytes through in-vitro studies. Thereafter, for in vivo study, 105 day old Rhode Island Red (RIR) Cross-bred chicks were randomly distributed in to control and treatments T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, and T6 which were supplemented with H. rhamnoides aqueous extract along with basal diet, at level of 100, 150, 200, 300, 400, and 800 mg/kg body weight of chicken, respectively. Among the experimental groups, birds in the T3 group represent the highest body weight. Furthermore, treatment group birds had shown better physio-biochemical indices as compared to control group birds. Interestingly, lower mortality rate due to ascites and coccidiosis was recorded in treatment groups and therefore, higher net return was observed. Hence, present investigation demonstrated the beneficial effect of H. rhamnoides extract (@200 mg/kg) at high altitude and therefore, may be used in formulation of feed additive for poultry ration.


Assuntos
Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hippophae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Altitude , Ração Animal , Animais , Ascite/fisiopatologia , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Coccidiose/fisiopatologia , Temperatura Baixa , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Meio Ambiente , Hipóxia/fisiopatologia
8.
J Adv Res ; 8(6): 677-686, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28948048

RESUMO

Extreme climatic conditions and hypobaric hypoxia at high altitude hinders the growth and productivity of chickens. The present study was carried out to examine the effect of aqueous extract of Prunus armeniaca seeds on health, survivability, antioxidants, plasma biochemical parameters, and immune status of broiler chickens at high altitude. Phytochemical analysis of extract revealed the presence of high phenolics, flavonoids, and carotenoids contents. Before the in vivo study, in vitro efficacy evaluation indicated a significant protective effect of the extract in chicken peripheral blood lymphocytes. For in vivo study, experimental groups include control (fed the basal diet), and treatment T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, and T6 which received an aqueous extract of P. armeniaca in drinking water at concentrations of 100, 150, 200, 300, 400, and 800 mg/kg body weight of chicken respectively, along with basal diet for 42 days. Body weight was significantly increased in all treatment groups as compared to control group and the highest body weight was recorded in T3 group. Higher profit was gained in treatment groups due to lesser mortality in chickens. Moreover, chicken in the treatment groups had significantly higher total antioxidant capacity, free radical scavenging activity, interleukin-2, total protein, albumin, globulin level and lower malondialdehyde, interleukin-6, glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, ALT and AST level as compared to control group. Results suggest that, P. armeniaca extract at 200 mg/kg body weight of chicken, exhibited the beneficial effect on growth performance and survivability rate of broilers and therefore, could be useful as phytogenic feed additive for broiler chickens at high altitude cold desert.

9.
Adv Pharmacol Sci ; 2014: 532969, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24790596

RESUMO

Several experimental and clinical reports indicated the oxidative stress-mediated adverse changes in vital organs of human and animal in fluoride (F) toxicity. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic effect of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) epiphyseal (pineal) proteins (BEP) and melatonin (MEL) against F-induced oxidative stress in heart, liver, and kidney of experimental adult female rats. To accomplish this experimental objective, twenty-four adult female Wistar rats (123-143 g body weights) were divided into four groups, namely, control, F, F + BEP, and F + MEL and were administered sodium fluoride (NaF, 150 ppm elemental F in drinking water), MEL (10 mg/kg BW, i.p.), and BEP (100 µg/kg BW, i.p.) for 28 days. There were significantly (P < 0.05) high levels of lipid peroxidation and catalase and low levels of reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase in cardiac, hepatic, and renal tissues of F-treated rats. Administration of BEP and MEL in F-treated rats, however, significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated these adverse changes in all the target components of antioxidant defense system of cardiac, hepatic, and renal tissues. The present data suggest that F can induce oxidative stress in liver, heart, and kidney of female rats which may be a mechanism in F toxicity and these adverse effects can be ameliorated by buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) epiphyseal proteins and melatonin by upregulation of antioxidant defense system of heart, liver, and kidney of rats.

10.
J Adv Res ; 5(6): 695-704, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25685538

RESUMO

The Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) gene of old world camels (Camelus dromedarius and Camelus bactrianus) was cloned and sequenced. The TLR2 gene of the dromedary camel had the highest nucleotide and amino acid identity with pig, i.e., 66.8% and 59.6%, respectively. Similarly, the TLR2 gene of the Bactrian camel also had the highest nucleotide and amino acid identity with pig, i.e., 85.7% and 81.4%, respectively. Dromedary and Bactrian camels shared 77.9% nucleotide and 73.6% amino acid identity with each other. Interestingly, the amidation motif is present in camel (Dromedary and Bactrian) TLR2 only, and the TIR domain is absent in Dromedary camel TLR2. This is the first report of the TLR2 gene sequence of Dromedary and Bactrian camels.

11.
Neurotox Res ; 23(3): 267-300, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22739839

RESUMO

The pineal product melatonin has remarkable antioxidant properties. It is secreted during darkness and plays a key role in various physiological responses including regulation of circadian rhythms, sleep homeostasis, retinal neuromodulation, and vasomotor responses. It scavenges hydroxyl, carbonate, and various organic radicals as well as a number of reactive nitrogen species. Melatonin also enhances the antioxidant potential of the cell by stimulating the synthesis of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase, and by augmenting glutathione levels. Melatonin preserves mitochondrial homeostasis, reduces free radical generation and protects mitochondrial ATP synthesis by stimulating Complexes I and IV activities. The decline in melatonin production in aged individuals has been suggested as one of the primary contributing factors for the development of age-associated neurodegenerative diseases. The efficacy of melatonin in preventing oxidative damage in either cultured neuronal cells or in the brains of animals treated with various neurotoxic agents, suggests that melatonin has a potential therapeutic value as a neuroprotective drug in treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Huntington's disease (HD), stroke, and brain trauma. Therapeutic trials with melatonin indicate that it has a potential therapeutic value as a neuroprotective drug in treatment of AD, ALS, and HD. In the case of other neurological conditions, like PD, the evidence is less compelling. Melatonin's efficacy in combating free radical damage in the brain suggests that it can be a valuable therapeutic agent in the treatment of cerebral edema following traumatic brain injury or stroke. Clinical trials employing melatonin doses in the range of 50-100 mg/day are warranted before its relative merits as a neuroprotective agent is definitively established.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Melatonina/fisiologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/prevenção & controle , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Lesões Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Método Duplo-Cego , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Radicais Livres/metabolismo , Homeostase/fisiologia , Humanos , Luz , Melatonina/agonistas , Melatonina/farmacologia , Melatonina/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/biossíntese , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/fisiologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândula Pineal/metabolismo , Glândula Pineal/efeitos da radiação , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/tratamento farmacológico , Triptofano/metabolismo
12.
J. physiol. biochem ; 68(2): 237-245, jun. 2012.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-122343

RESUMO

In view of the significant health impact of oxidative stress and apoptosis dysfunction, and further, because of suggestions that administration of antioxidants might reduce apoptosis rate through up-regulation of body antioxidant defense systems, therefore the purpose of this study was to compare the effect of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) pineal proteins (PP at 100 ìg/kg BW, i.p.) with melatonin (MEL at 10 mg/kg BW, i.p.) on blood (erythrocytes) antioxidant defense system and apoptosis in isolated peripheral blood lymphocytes of female Wistar albino rats. The cell viability index (%) and apoptosis index (%), which are directly related to the apoptosis rate of the cells, were used as dependent measures for inferring PP and MEL activity. The total cell viability index did not differ between rats treated with MEL and PP from control animals. The percentage of apoptotic cell death through fluorescence microscopy also did not change in MEL and PP groups as compared with control. DNA fragmentation as an index of apoptosis was detected with propidium iodide staining and assessed by flow cytometry. Pineal proteins and MEL administration caused significant (p < 0.05) reduction in lipid peroxidation and increased level of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione in erythrocytes as compared with control. Interestingly, we did not observe increase in the non-viable cells and percentage of apoptotic cell death in PP-treated group, controls or in animals in which MEL had been administered. Therefore, the present study confirmed the up-regulation of erythrocytes (blood) antioxidant defense systems and absence of adverse effect on rate of apoptosis in PP and MEL-administered rats under absence of stress or toxicant exposure. Hence, these test agents can be tested for further therapeutic values against adverse apoptosis rate under stress or toxicants exposures (AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Melatonina/farmacocinética , Apoptose/fisiologia , Antioxidantes/fisiologia , Hormônios Neuro-Hipofisários/farmacocinética , Elementos de Resposta Antioxidante/fisiologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacocinética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , 5-Metoxitriptamina/farmacocinética
13.
J Physiol Biochem ; 68(2): 237-45, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22205582

RESUMO

In view of the significant health impact of oxidative stress and apoptosis dysfunction, and further, because of suggestions that administration of antioxidants might reduce apoptosis rate through up-regulation of body antioxidant defense systems, therefore the purpose of this study was to compare the effect of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) pineal proteins (PP at 100 µg/kg BW, i.p.) with melatonin (MEL at 10 mg/kg BW, i.p.) on blood (erythrocytes) antioxidant defense system and apoptosis in isolated peripheral blood lymphocytes of female Wistar albino rats. The cell viability index (%) and apoptosis index (%), which are directly related to the apoptosis rate of the cells, were used as dependent measures for inferring PP and MEL activity. The total cell viability index did not differ between rats treated with MEL and PP from control animals. The percentage of apoptotic cell death through fluorescence microscopy also did not change in MEL and PP groups as compared with control. DNA fragmentation as an index of apoptosis was detected with propidium iodide staining and assessed by flow cytometry. Pineal proteins and MEL administration caused significant (p < 0.05) reduction in lipid peroxidation and increased level of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione in erythrocytes as compared with control. Interestingly, we did not observe increase in the non-viable cells and percentage of apoptotic cell death in PP-treated group, controls or in animals in which MEL had been administered. Therefore, the present study confirmed the up-regulation of erythrocytes (blood) antioxidant defense systems and absence of adverse effect on rate of apoptosis in PP and MEL-administered rats under absence of stress or toxicant exposure. Hence, these test agents can be tested for further therapeutic values against adverse apoptosis rate under stress or toxicants exposures.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Melatonina/farmacologia , Neuropeptídeos/farmacologia , Glândula Pineal/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/fisiologia , Búfalos , Catalase/sangue , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/enzimologia , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Feminino , Glutationa/sangue , Glutationa Peroxidase/sangue , Glutationa Redutase/sangue , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/fisiologia , Melatonina/fisiologia , Neuropeptídeos/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Superóxido Dismutase/sangue
14.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 146(2): 224-9, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22095291

RESUMO

Arsenic (As) toxicity through induction of oxidative stress is a well-known mechanism of organ toxicity. To address this problem, buffalo epiphyseal proteins (BEP, at 100 µg/kg BW, i.p. for 28 days) were administered intraperitoneally to female Wistar rats exposed to As (100 ppm sodium arsenite via drinking water for 28 days). Arsenic exposure resulted in marked elevation in lipid peroxidation in brain, cardiac, and hepatic tissues, whereas significant (p < 0.05) adverse change in catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and reduced glutathione level were observed in cardiac, hepatic, and brain tissues of As-administered animals. BEP significantly (p < 0.05) counteracted all the adverse changes in antioxidant defense system brought about by As administration. Based on these results, we consider BEP as a potent antioxidant to be used for protection from arsenic-induced oxidative stress related damage of vital organs.


Assuntos
Arsênico/toxicidade , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Búfalos , Catalase/metabolismo , Feminino , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Glutationa Redutase/análise , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Glândula Pineal/metabolismo , Proteínas/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
15.
J Biochem Mol Toxicol ; 26(1): 10-5, 2012 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21898718

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of fluoride (F) and arsenic (As) on the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), a critically important nervous system enzyme, and to test the protective role of buffalo epiphyseal (pineal) proteins (BEP) in rats. Arsenic (20 mg/kg BW, intraperitoneally) and F (150 ppm, perorally) were exposed, and BEP was administered intraperitoneally (100 µ g/kg BW) along with F and As to rats for 7 days. As and F exposure significantly (p < 0.05) increased their levels in plasma and decreased the activity of AChE in plasma, RBCs, heart, and brain of rats. Interestingly, As- and F-induced inhibition of AChE activities increased As and F levels in plasma, and organs were significantly (p < 0.05) counteracted by BEP administration. These findings indicate the protective role of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) epiphyseal proteins on F- and As-induced adverse changes in AChE activity as a candidate biomarker for neurotoxicity in female rats.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase/sangue , Arsênico/toxicidade , Fluoretos/toxicidade , Neuropeptídeos/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Glândula Pineal/química , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Animais , Arsênico/farmacocinética , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/enzimologia , Búfalos , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/enzimologia , Feminino , Fluoretos/farmacocinética , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Miocárdio/enzimologia , Ratos
16.
Int J Nephrol ; 2011: 142896, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21660111

RESUMO

The cerebral epiphysis (pineal gland) secrets melatonin and number of other proteins and peptides. It was thus hypothesized that antioxidant properties of epiphyseal proteins and melatonin could potentially benefit from exogenous therapies. In view of the therapeutic potential of these proteins, the present experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of buffalo epiphyseal proteins (BEP, at 100 µg/kg BW, i.p.) and melatonin (MEL, at 10 mg/kg BW, i.p) on changes in hepatic and renal antioxidant enzymes of adult female Wistar rats. Buffalo epiphyseal proteins significantly (P < .05) increased hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH), and renal LPO, catalase (CAT), GR, GSH, GPx levels as compared to control animals. Similarly, MEL treatment significantly (P < .05) up-regulated hepatic SOD and GPx activity, whereas CAT, GR, GPx, and GSH levels in renal tissues were increased while SOD and LPO remained unaffected. Buffalo epiphyseal protein treatment produced greater effects on hepatic GPx and renal CAT and GSH levels than did MEL. These findings support the conclusion that buffalo epiphyseal proteins and melatonin activate a number of antioxidant mechanisms in hepatic and renal tissues.

17.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 141(1-3): 275-82, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20509005

RESUMO

Pineal glands secrets melatonin and various proteins and peptides which has many physiological functions. In keeping with this view, present experiment was conducted to know the effect of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) pineal proteins (PP) at different dose level on fluoride-induced changes in plasma biochemicals and blood antioxidants enzymes in female rats. For this, we took 30 adult female Wistar rats (133-145 g body weights, BW) and divided into five groups (control, group I; 150 ppm fluoride (F), group II; F+ 50 µg pineal proteins, group III; F+ 100 µg PP, group IV; F+ 200 µg PP, group V). We administered fluoride (150 ppm, drinking water) and F+ pineal proteins at 50, 100, and 200 µg/kg BW, i.p. daily for 21 days. Blood samples were collected at the end of the experiments to estimate plasma glucose, proteins, F, lipid peroxidation (LPO), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) activity. Red blood cells (RBCs) were separated for analysis of LPO, AChE, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) in different groups of animals. Total plasma glucose and protein level did not significantly change in F-treated rats. Plasma ALP and F level were significantly (p < 0.05) high in group II as compared with control and groups III, IV, and V. Administration of PP at different dose level significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the F concentration and ALP activity. Plasma and RBCs AChE activity was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in F-treated animals as compared with control rats and significantly (p < 0.05) elevated on exogenous administration of PP (groups III and IV). Plasma and RBCs LPO level was significantly (p < 0.05) high in F-alone-treated rats, and PP caused significant (p < 0.05) reduction of LPO in groups IV and V. However, PP treatment in group IV brought better amelioration of F-induced high LPO than in groups III and V. At no dose level, PP-ameliorated F-induced depression of RBCs GSH, CAT, GR, and GPx level. Interestingly, SOD activity was elevated in dose-dependent manner at different dose level of PP in groups III, IV, and V than control and F-administered rats. These findings clearly indicate the beneficial effects of buffalo pineal proteins on fluoride-induced adverse changes in certain plasma biochemical and blood antioxidant systems of rats. It further indicates that PP has dose-dependent ameliorative function against F-induced adverse effects in plasma and blood.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Glândula Pineal/metabolismo , Proteínas/farmacologia , Fluoreto de Sódio/toxicidade , Acetilcolinesterase/sangue , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Animais , Búfalos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Proteínas/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Superóxido Dismutase/sangue , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
18.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 130(2): 131-40, 2009 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19159082

RESUMO

Fluoride (F) becomes toxic at higher doses and induces some adverse effects on various organs, including brain. The mechanisms underlying the neurotoxicity caused by excess fluoride still remain unknown. The aims of this study were to examine F-induced oxidative stress (OS) and role of melatonin (MEL) and buffalo pineal proteins (PP) against possible F-induced OS in brain of rats. The 24 rats were taken in present study and were divided into four groups: control, F, F + PP, and F + MEL. The F group was given 150 mg/L orally for 28 days. Combined 150 ppm F and 100 microg/kg BW (i.p.) PP and F (150 ppm) + MEL (10 mg/kg BW, i.p.) were also administered. The activities of enzymatic, viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), and non-enzymatic, viz., reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration, and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the brain tissue were measured to assess the OS. Fluoride administration significantly increased brain MDA compared with control group, while GSH levels were decreased in fluoride-treated groups, accompanied by the markedly reduced SOD, GPx, GR, and SOD activity. Buffalo PP and MEL administration caused brain MDA to decrease but caused SOD, GPx, GR, GSH, and CAT activities to increase to significant levels in F-treated animals. Together, our data provide direct evidence that buffalo PP and MEL may protect fluoride-induced OS in brain of rats through mechanisms involving enhancement of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense system. Therefore, this study suggested that PP and MEL can be useful in control of neurotoxicity induced by fluoride.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoretos/toxicidade , Melatonina/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândula Pineal/metabolismo , Proteínas/farmacologia , Animais , Búfalos , Catalase/análise , Bovinos , Feminino , Fluoretos/antagonistas & inibidores , Glutationa/análise , Glutationa Peroxidase/análise , Glutationa Redutase/análise , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/fisiologia , Malondialdeído/análise , Melatonina/metabolismo , Proteínas/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Superóxido Dismutase/análise
19.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2(2): 88-92, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20357930

RESUMO

The neuroendocrine functions of the pineal affect a wide variety of glandular and nervous system processes. Beside melatonin (MEL), the pineal gland secretes and expresses certain proteins essential for various physiological functions. It has been suggested that the pineal gland may also have an antioxidant role due to secretory product other than MEL. Therefore, the present study was designed to study the effect of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) pineal proteins (PP) on the antioxidant defense system in the brain of female rats. The twenty-four rats were taken in present study and were divided into four groups: control (0 day), control (28 day), vehicle control and buffalo PP. The PP was injected 100 µg/kg BW intraperitoneal (i.p.) daily for 28 days. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR) and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration and the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the brain tissue were measured to assess the antioxidant systems. These enzymes protect from adverse effects of free radicals and help in amelioration of oxidative stress. Buffalo pineal proteins administration did not cause any effect on brain LPO, whereas GPx, GR and GSH were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased. However, SOD and CAT activities were increased to significant levels than the control in PP treated rats. Our study herein suggested that buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) pineal proteins upregulates specific antioxidant defense systems and can be useful in control of various oxidative stress-induced neuronal diseases.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Glândula Pineal/metabolismo , Proteínas/farmacologia , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Búfalos , Catalase/metabolismo , Feminino , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
20.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 126 Suppl 1: S31-43, 2008 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18781284

RESUMO

It is well known that excessive accumulation of fluorides can exert toxic effects on various tissues and organs so as to severely damage the health and production of animals. The aim of this study was to determine beneficial effect of boron on nutrient utilization in buffalo calves exposed to high fluoride (F) ration. For this purpose, we used three groups of four male Murrah buffalo calves (body weight 98-100 kg, aged 6-8 month) each. Control animal was given only basal diet and concentrate mixture. However, treatment I animals were fed basal diet, concentrate mixture, and F [as NaF, 60 ppm of dry matter (DM)]. The treatment II animals were fed basal diet, concentrate mixture, F (as NaF, 60 ppm of DM), and B (as sodium tetraborate, 140 ppm of DM). After 90 days of experimental feeding, a metabolism trial of 7 days duration was conducted to study the treatment effect on nutrient utilization of proximate nutrients, absorption, excretion, and retention of N, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, Cu, and F. Dietary F significantly (p < 0.05) depressed the dry matter intake and increased the apparent digestibility, absorption, and retention of F. However, boron supplementation significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the apparent digestibility, absorption, and retention of F and improved the dry matter intake, fecal excretion, and percent of absorbed F excreted via urine. Apparent digestibility of proximate nutrients (viz. DM, crude protein, crude fiber, ether extract, and nitrogen free extract) was unaffected on either F or F+B treatment. However, absorption and excretion of N, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, and Cu were affected significantly (p < 0.05) on F or F+B treatment. These findings suggest that fluoride-containing diet for short duration has effect on nutrient utilization, and boron at 140-ppm dose level, in general, antagonized the absorption and retention of F and also improved the feed intake in buffalo calves.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Antídotos/farmacologia , Boratos/farmacologia , Fluoreto de Sódio/efeitos adversos , Fluoreto de Sódio/análise , Animais , Antídotos/administração & dosagem , Boratos/administração & dosagem , Búfalos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Masculino , Fluoreto de Sódio/administração & dosagem
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